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BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW 



-OP"- 



D A M 







COUMTY, 



Containing Biograpljicnl 6kctcl)cs of |3ioncci5 anb ficabing vEiti^cns. 



'Biography is i. only true history." ■■Emeri'nn. 



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BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW PUBLISHING CO. 
1893. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Geiirge VVasliingtou (! 

John Adams 14 

Thmnas .Ietfei-s(ui 20 

James Madison ~9 

James Monroe -^3 

Jolin Quinc)' Adams 38 

Andrew Jackson 47 

Martin Van Buren 53 

William Henry Harrison 56 

Jobn Tyler 60 

James K. Polk 64 

Zaubary Taylor 68 



Millanl Fillmore 13 

Franklin Pierce — 76 

James I!nchanan 80 

Aliialiara Lincoln 84 

Andrew Jolmson 93 

Ulysses S. Grant 96 

U.IS Hayes 103 

J. A. Garfield 1U9 

Chester A. Arthur 113 

Grover Cleveland 117 

Lienjamin Harrison 130 







-i.v- 0^^ 



HIOGl^APHIGAL SI^ErnGHES. 



A 

AbboU, C. K ;{11 

AdaiTia, C. ' : 247 

Adams, II. C H78 

Adrnns, liewis li ;i07 

AiiiHWorlh, Mrs. .1. W 128 

Alloi-d, JjiliHs 524 

Aliiie, 11. () 512 

Anderson, Miitlliew 540 

Andei-Kiin, N 217 

Aniierson, K. H 443 

Angell, W. II 168 

Ariiuis, Charles 541 

Alkins, Tlinmas 554 

Atkinson, \V. H 175 

Alwood, |)Hvid 365 

B 

Babcock, I). I. 268 

Habcock, S. i\I 201 

Haoon, ICliza 314 

Baker, , I. V 483 

Baker, Otis 555 

Baldwin, P 384 

Bancioft, II V 343 

Barlsrh, A. W 134 

Biisbfonl. K. M 221 

'Beat tie, 'riionias 172 

Becblel, Daniel 324 

Beck. J. L 338 

Beebo, II. H 166 

Bell, Alinon 402 

Bennett, Eijbert 5.53 

Benson, W. B 470 

Bernard, ( 'barles 456 

Bird, A. A 241 

Bird, (J. W 270 

Bird, Ira W 418 

Binl, Kale |{ 41!) 

Birrenkott, A 337 

Blake, James 438 

Blanchard, (\ S 405 

Bonner, James 2'28 

Bowman, J. A 559 

Boyee, A. A 356 

Boyre, L. L 331 

Hoyce, Keulien 362 

Brereton, A. J ... 525 

Brown, A. S 180 

Brown, O. F 321 

Brown, 1>. S 535 

Brown, Timotby 317 

Bryant, I). I) 4!)8 

Bryant, <i. K 534 

Bull, .Storm 16U 

Bunker, George 236 

Bunn, U 252 

Busbv. Jolin 523 

Bushuell. A. 11 472 

Butler, J. D 387 



(' 

( 'ariMori. .1. (' W.) 

(larpenier, J. II 407 

Cassoday, J. B 2li.") 

Chandler, J. C 3';!t 

(Chandler, L. S 5:14 

Chandler, W. II 188 

Chapin, T. I' ,518 

Cholvin, S 433 

Chirke, B. B 435 

Cleveland, Benj 533 

(Meland, VV. A 330 

Comstock. (1. C 251 

(."omstock, (;. |j 561 

('onklin, James 232 

(-'onover, l'\ K 1!)1 

(lonover, (). iM 567 

Conradson, C M 56'.l 

Cooley, Charles 44 1 

Coon, II. C ,540 

Corscot, J. II 415 

(.'ory, .lohn 4;il 

(Jrabtree, J. (! ITi'J 

(Iraif;-, .1. A 4i)ll 

Crocker, Ilollis 'Ml 

Croi'ker, W. W 1!H 

Currier, G. W 54;t 

I) 

Daniells, W. VV 542 

Davidson, Thomas HI 

De Bower, Gerl .idO 

De Bower, .Simeon. . 461 

Delaney, .lohn (){'.) 

Denison, W. 11 5!I3 

De Vail, Solon 153 

Delaplaine, G. I' 283 

Dick, W. M 487 

Doan, N. K .')'.i4 

DodLje, J. \V 508 

Dod^e, 11. G 563 

Dod^e, McC 5(;i 

Dolim, John 27!( 

Dolir, .lames 562 

Dorn, Frank M ..., 230 

Doty, K. F 633 

Downey, Patrick , 572 

Doyle, Michael A 351 

Doyon, M. K 263 

Dudley, John 148 

Dufrenne. Fred VV 218 

Durkee, George 107 

Durrie, I). S .573 

Dwight, F. VV 552 

F 

Edwards, Gunder 572 

Finlimy, F 327 

Elb'slad, N. J 486 



Fllis, (Claudius 173 

Fiver, Charles 543 

Fly, Kichard T 211 

Frdall, .1. L ."jUS 

F'lser, .lacob 020 

Fsser, Mathia,s ,')(;f; 

Estes, A. G 36;j 

F.stes, J, M ;i5<) 

ICvans, N, C rAit 

Everill, T. A 500 

F 

Fajrg, i'eter 3<jy 

Fail-child, L 373 

Falk, (). N 170 

Farness, O. II 309 

Farnsworlh, VV. II 504 

Favill, II B .-,31 

Fehlandt, Carl 410 

Fehlandt, II, F, VV 425 

Fe,s,s, (i, F 467 

Feiilini;, .M 420 

Field, Samuel 632 

Find lay, A 244 

Finger, Joseph 341 

Fischer, William 383 

Fish, VV. 'I' 254 

Fisher, J. 10 270 

Filch, Denning 428 

Filzgibbon, VV, A 325 

Flower, (Calvin 395 

Ford, (;, F 449 

Forcsman, CM 232 

Foresmun, \V. M 218 

Fox, O. II 140 

Francis, G. L 392 

Fraiuds, Judson 237 

Frankenburger, D, B 636 

Frary, J, S 281 

Fredrickson, Nils 501 

Freeman, J, C 509 

French, .\I, B 150 

Froggalt, John 490 

Frost, K. D 145 

O 

Galhigher, .1 576 

Gammons, Warren 210 

Garlon, A, (; 300 

Gay, .VI. II 382 

(Jerard, E. II 208 

Giles, Hiram II 417 

Gill, VV. VV 250 

Gillelt,Kobert 579 

Gillies, James 507 

Goddard, W. K 130 

Graves, 8. W 280 

Green, J. W - 28t) 



CONTENTS 



Green, JI. M 133 

Greenmaii, J. W 459 

Gregory, C. N 406 

Gross, Frank 139 

GroTe, H 249 

Gunzolas, M. V 432 

Gurnee, J. D «2S 

Gurnee, S. O. Y 5S0 

H 

Haight, N 344 

Hall, Charles 577 

Hanson, H. D 18G 

Harnden, Henry 255 

Harrington, C. F (i04 

Harmon, G. F 422 

Haseltine, O. B 427 

Hastings, S. D 410 

Hawley, Samuel - 3'Jl 

Hayes, J. D G04 

Heath, E. H 581 

Heim, J. B 425 

Jlemsing. H. O 582 

Heuser, Justus 582 

Hibbard, J. M 202 

Hicks, J. B 583 

Hidden, W. S 132 

Higham, Samuel 260 

lliigers, VV 597 

Hoobins, Joseph 530 

Hobbs, Wni. H 513 

Hoff, Andrew 554 

Hogbin. Wm 385 

Hoven, M.J 597 

Howie, John 457 

Hoyt, L. W 292 

Hudson, Charles 355 

Hudson, J. W r.21 

Humphrey, D 290 

Ilurd, Philetus 138 

I 

Isham, Chancy 588' 

I verson, M 432 



Jackson, Kbenezer 337 

Jackson, Edson B 315 

Jeirefson, B 401 

Jenks, Arthur \V 481 

Jenks, iMrs. L. J 482 

Johnson, CD 471 v 

Johnson, c. T r^■■^^ 

Johnson. J. A 439 

Johnson, J. C 434 ^ 

Johnson, Julius 330 y 

Johnson. Nels P 475 

.lohnsi on, George 657 

Jones, Burr W 285 

•Jones, 1'. J 485 



Kenlzler, A 521 

Kerr, Alex 404 

Kerr, J. B 430 

Keyes, E. W 295 



King, P. H 346 

King, J. T 589 

Kingsley, G. P 493 

Kittilsen, Levi 482 

Klubertanz, J. T 217 

Klueter, H 584 

Knox, P. B 575 

Krehl, Fred 358 

Knigh, P. G 328 

Kuehne, A. J 506 

L 

Ladd, E. E 340 

La Follette, K. jM 575 

Lamont, T. G 197 

Lansing, A. E 585 

Lappley, John 191 

Leary, J. W 4(14 

Lee, J. I) 450 

Lewis, Henry M 394 

Lewis, L. H 586 

Libliy, S. D 591 

Lindley, J. S 592 

Linley , Henry 132 

Livesey, James 452 

Livesey, R. B 320 

Loebrer, P.J 008 

Logan, I). D 23s 

Loper. J. C 198 

Lonsifield, S. H 609 

Lovejoy, H. W 220 

Lund, T. C 540 

Luchsinger, F (;02 

Lulher, H. C 193 

Lyon, W. P 157 

M 

Main, A. H 603 

Main, E. D 538 

Main, W. S 170 

Mandt, G. G 492 

^Martin, N 514 

Mason, John 631 

Malls. P. W 15(1 

Mayer, Casper 490 

Mayers, C.G 178 

McCaughn, Alex 240 

McChesney, F. S 401 

McConnell, James 601 

McConnell, W. T 030 

McFarland, Joseph 438 

Mc.Murran, A 154 

McNeil, Charles 545 

Mears, C. S 413 

Melvin, J. U 417 

Meniiedolh, A 316 

Merrill, Allred 249 

Meyers, J. S 143 

Miller, G. P 587 

Miller, J C 390 

Mills, J. F 480 

Mills, Maria L 127 

Mills, Simoon 125 

Minch, Wm 234 

Moore, Mrs. A. W 348 



Moreth, Carl 421 

Moulton, H. N 258 

Mueller, J. G 485 

Murphy, Abraham 4^^8 

I Mutchler, Levi 588 

' Muzzy, Samuel 494 



N 



Nader, John 215 

Naset I. J 174 

Naset, J. J 231 

NetherwoodC. W 304 

Nevin. James 507 

-Newton. J. L. W 595 

Nichols, G. M 005 

Nienaber, B. H 501 

Noe, W. C 590 

Norsman, O. S 154 



O 



Oakley, G. M 416 

O'Connor, J. L 253 

O'Dwyer, .Alichael 226 

Ogden. F. A 423 

Oleson, John 584 

Oliu, J. M 259 

Olson, J. E 184 

Olson, Tortrrim 183 

Olson, W. T 429 

O'Malley, J. K 353 

O'Malley, Joseph 354 

O'Mallev, Thomas 162 

Orton, H. S 262 

Owen, E. T 001 



Papc, Ferdinand 013 

Pargeter, W. G 516 

Parish, C. E 455 

Parker, F. A 403 

Parker, Amasa 014 

Parkinson, F. E 299 

Parkinson, J. B 590 

Parkinson, .M. M 013 

Parsons, A. S 301 

Parsims, W. K 396 

Parlridge,A. M 341 

Patterson, J. 479 

Peck, George W 397 

Peck, V. E 599 

Petlenaill. A. E 129 

Pfund, Hermann 180 

Pierce, N. W 590 

PierslorlV. \V. F 209 

Pinney, S. U 477 

Platte, A. B 016 

Polleys. T. A 531 

Porter, W. H 160 

Poyniir, Charles 136 

Pritchard, P. M....3L./.:2^. 159 

Pyburn, Cornelia 283 



CONTENTS. 



R 



Risilall. W. M 488 

Keffan, Thomas 381 

Heutpr, C. K. L. F (!C4 

Httyuokls, G. W 035 

Kichimis, J 3(54 

KicliardsoD, David 617 

Kicbmoufi, E. W 377 

Kiley.E. F •-'07 

Roe, H. K ^''J"' 

Roe, O. K 450 

Rogeis, W :i 469 

Rood, J. Q. A rjOl 

Ross, J. A 181 

Rowley, A. A 544 

Rowley, M. S '-'14 

S 

Sai-htjen, Herman 302 

SiU-i^eul, C 474 

Sawii., Mrs. L. M 21:! 

Scheler, Heiirv 30.S 

t^dieler, O. C."n. & C. L 200 

Schernecher. George 615 

Schilliuger, A Oil 

SchlimgeD, J 881 

Sclioen,"Pliilip 529 

Sc'lilotllKiuer, () 318 

Schuermann, II 346 

Schweinem, .1 612 

Scoleu, .leroine 453 

SeamoDson, VV 23'.( 

Seemann, J <i2S 

Semit, Peler 204 

Severson, S. H 26!l 

Sharp, Edward 201 

Sheldon, C. S 345 

Sheldon, D. G 147 

Sheldon, R. A 385 

Sholts, E. D 338 

Simons, John 490 

Sloan, I. C 629 

Smith, W.J 196 

Soelch, J. G 312 

Solheim, O. A 175 



Sparks, E. J 505 

Spoouer, P. L "-'72 

Spreeher, E. C 309 

Starck, J. H 4S3 

Steele, Robert 394 

Stein, C. R 383 

Steenslaud, H 189 

Stephens, David 55S 

Sterling, J. W 550 

Stickney, Fred 385 

Slickney, J. B 371 

Sloner, G. AV 288 

Stone, J. B 206 

Stowe, La Fayette 388 

Siihr, .1. .1 466 

Sutherland, C 319 

T 

Taylor, David 171 

Taylor, T. G 301 

Tauuert, Paul 364 

Teisberg, O. K 334 

Tenney'C. K 520 

Thein, George 205 

Thompson, S. W 465 

Thomson, George 350 

Tipple, Mrs. Emma R 451 

Tipple, H 306 

Tipple, O. F 368 

Tipple, R. E 586 

Tolman, H. C 443 

Tompkins, D. W 233 

Tostenson, H 60S 

Townsend, J. H 460 

Travis, James 361 

Trumbull, Mrs. Marv 140 

Turk, John 607 

Turner, F. A 267 

Tuschen, Andrew 206 

Turner, P. A 267 

Turner, O. M 387 

Tusler, James 438 

U 

Updike, E. G 446 

Usher, F. W 580 



Vance, J. W 8(;9 

Van Oleef, F. L 402 

Van Ilise, C. K 389 

Van Norman, iM. F 338 

Van Slyke, N. 15 406 

Veerhusen, I? 478 

Vernon, R. C 187 

Vromau, Wm 5C8 

W 

Wagner, Adolpb 137 

Wakeley, C. T 509 

Wakeman, John 610 

Wakeman, T. B 623 

Wall, John ■ 634 

Wallace F. E 454 

Warner, VV. W 283 

Weeks, George 518 

Welton, C. B 487 

Wellleson, Ole 480 

Wheelwright, W. S 1,58 

Williams, W. C 527 

Williamson, E. M 144 

WiUsey, C. B 300 

Willson, H. C 434 

Wilson, Estes 243 

Wilson, Henry 880 

Woelfel, S. G 634 

Wood, Wm. S 485 

Woodard, W 489 

Woollou, Robert 414 

Worthing, S. T 833 

PORTRAITS- 

Atwood, David 865 - 

Bashford, R. M 221 

Brown, Timothy 817 

tjoues. Burr W 285 ■ 

Lyon, Wm. P 157' 

Mills, Simeon 125 

Mills, Mrs. Simeon 125 

O'Connor, J. L 258 

Pinney, S. U 477 

Steenslaud, Halle 189 






^n.^^4?^,^^^^ 









r.EORCE WASHINGTON. 



^^Mt""""" •.■•:■•;■••: • • •.■■■"—■m^'- 



E®ie©K WASIi™©^ 









■I- ti;5 •!- c^J 








RORCE WASHING- 
TON, the "Father of 
his Country" and its 
first President, i7''^9- 
'97, was born Febru- 
ar}' 22, 1732, in Wash- 
ington Parish, West- 
moreland C o u n t \', \'irginia. 
His father, Augustine Wash- 
ington, first married Jane But- 
ler, who bore him four chil- 
dren, and Marrh 6, 1730, he 
married Marv Ball. Of six 
children by his second mar- 
riage, George was the eldest, 
the others being Betty, SanuK'l, John, Au- 
gustine, Charles and Mildix'd, ol whom the 
youngest died in infrmcv. Fittle is known 
of the early years of Washington, beyond 
the fact that the house in which he was 
born was burned during liis early child- 
hood, and that his father thereupon moved 
to another farm, inherited frcjm hisiiatcrnal 
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on 
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where 
he acted as agent of the F^rincipi(j Iron 
Works in the immediate vicinilv, and died 
there in 1743. 

Fi'om earliest childh(jod George devel- 
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous 
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily 
Strength. His education was somewiiat de- 



fective, being ccjnfuied to the clemen.taiy 
branches taught him bv his mother and at 
a neighboring school. He developed, how- 
ever, a fonrlness for mathematics, an<_l en- 
joyed in that branch the instructions of a 
[)rivate teacher. On leaving school he re- 
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with 
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as 
his guardian, and who had married a daugh- 
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto- 
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some 
time j)resident of the executive council of 
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law, 
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis- 
tinction in 1 740 as officers of an American 
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and 
were fi"iends and correspondents of Admiral 
\'ernon, for whom the lattcr's residence on 
the Potomac has been named. George's 
inclinations were for a similar career, and a 
midshipman's warrant was procured for 
him, probabi}' through tiie influence of the 
Admiral ; but through the o[>position of his 
mother the project was abandoned. The 
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how- 
ever, opened another career fiir the young 
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap- 
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of 
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then 
on a visit at lielvoir, and who shortly after- 
ward established his baronial residence at 
Grccnway Court, in the Shenandoah Valley- 



PRES/DliNTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Three years were passed by j'oung Wash- 
inf:^ton in a rous^^h froiitit-r life, gaining ex- 
perience whicli afterward proved very es- 
sential io him. 

In 1 75 1, when the Virginia militia were 
put under training with a view to active 
service against France, Washington, though 
only nineteen years of age, was appointed 
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sej)- 
tember of that year the failing health of 
Lawrence Washingtcjn rendered it neces- 
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and 
Ge irge accompanied him in a voyage to 
Bar xidoes. They returned early in 1752, 
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav- 
ing hiS large property to an infant daughter. 
In his will George was namc-d one of the 
executors and as eventual heir to Mount 
Vernon, and by the d(^ith of the infant niece 
soon succeeded to tliat estate. 

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle as 
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752 
llic militia was reorganized, and the prov- 
ince divided into four districts. Washing- 
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddle Adju- 
tant-General of the Northern District in 
1753, and in November of that year a most 
imi)ortant as well as hazardous mission was 
assigned him. This was to proceed to the 
Canadian posts recently established on 
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand 
in the name of the King of England the 
withdrawal of the French from a territory 
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had 
been declined by more than one officer, 
since it involved a journey through an ex- 
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness 
in the occupancy of savage lndi:m tribes, 
eillu 1 liostile to the English, or of doubtful 
attachment. Major Washington, however, 
accepted the commission witii alacrity ; and, 
accompanied by Captain Gist, he reached 
Fort Le BfEuf on French Creek, delivered 
his dispatches and received reply, which, of 
course, was a polite refusal to surrender the 
posts. This reply was of such a character 



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to 
authorize the executive to raise a regiment 
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining 
the asserted rights of the British crown 
over the territory claimed. As Washing- 
ton declined to be a candidate for that post, 
the command of this regiment was given to 
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing- 
ton, at his own request, was commissioned 
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio, 
news was received that a party previously 
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the 
Monongahela with the Ohio had been 
driven back bv a considerable French force, 
which had Cf)mplctcd the work there be- 
gun, and named it Fort Duquesne, in honor 
of the Marquis Duquesne, then Governor 
of Canada. Tliis was the beginning of the 
great " French and Indian war,'' wiiich con- 
tinued seven years. On the death of Colonel 
Fry, Washington succeeded t(j the com- 
mand of the regiment, and so well did he 
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly 
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief 
of all the forces raised in the colony. 

A cessation of all Indian hostility on the 
frontier having followed the expulsion of 
the French from the Ohio, the object of 
Washington was accomplished and he re- 
signed his commission as Commander-in- 
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in 
the General Assembly, of which he had 
been elected a member. 

January 17, 1759, Washington married 
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow of great wealth, antl de- 
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years 
to the quiet ])iirsuits of agriculture, inter- 
rupted only bv his aiuiual attendance in 
winter upon the CoU)niaI Legislature at 
Williamsburg, until summoned by his 
country to enter upon that other arena in 
which his fame was to become world wide. 

It is unnecessary here to trace the details 
of the struggle upon the question ol local 



GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



self-government, which, after ten years, cul- 
minated by act of Parliament of the port of 
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia 
that a congress of all the colonies was called 
to meet at Philadeljihia September 5, 1774, 
to secure their common liberties — if possil)le 
by peaceful means. To this Congress 
Colonel WashingtcMi was sent as a dele- 
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom- 
mended the colonies to send deputies to 
another Congress the following spring. In 
the meantime several of the colonies felt 
impelled to raise local forces to repel in- 
sults and aggressions on the part of British 
troops, so that on the assembling of the next 
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara- 
tions of the mother country were unmis- 
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex- 
ington had been fought. Among the earliest 
acts, therefore, of the Congress was the 
selection of a commander-in-chief of the 
colonial forces. This ofifice was unani- 
mously conferred upon Washington, still a 
member of the Congress. He accepted it 
on June 19, but on the express condition he 
should receive no salary. 

He immediately repaired to the vicinity 
of Boston, against which point the British 
ministrj- had concentrated their forces. As 
early as April General Gage had 3,000 
troops in and around this proscribed city. 
During tiie fall and winter the British policy 
clearly indicated a purjiose to divide pub- 
lic sentiment and to build up a British party 
in the colonies. Those who sided with the 
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots 
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them- 
selves the name of " Whigs." 

As early as 1776 the leading men had 
come to the conclusion that there was no 
hope except in separation and indepen- 
dence. In May of that year Washington 
wrote from the head of the army in New 
York: "A reconciliation with Great Urit- 
am is impossible. , , , . When 1 took 
comuiv».ii Jt the army ' abhorred the ides 



of independence ; but I am now fully satis- 
fied that nothing else will save us." 

It is not tlie object of this sketch to trace 
the military acts of the patriot hero, to 
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of 
the United Stales were confided during the 
seven 3'ears' bloody struggle that ensued 
until the treat}' of 1783, in which England 
acknowledged the independence of each of 
the thirteen States, and negotiated with 
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The 
merits of Washington as a military chief- 
tain have been considerably discussed, espe- 
cially by writers in his own country. Dur- 
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed 
for incompetency, and great efforts were 
made to displace him ; but he never for a 
moment lost the confidence of either the 
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783, 
the great commander took !eave of his ofli- 
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms, 
and went to Annapolis, Mai-}land, where 
the Congress of the States was in session, 
and to that body, when peace and order 
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com- 
mission and retired to Mount Vernon. 

It was in 1788 that Washington was called 
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He 
received every electoral vote cast in all the 
colleges of the States voting for the office 
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was 
the time appointed for the Government of 
the United States to begin its operations, 
but several weeks elapsed before quorums 
of both the newly constituted houses of the 
Congress were assembled. The city of New 
York was the place where the Congrefs 
then met. April 16 Washington left his 
home to enter upon the discharge of his 
new duties. He set out with a purpose of 
traveling privately, and without attracting 
any oublic attention ; but this was impossi- 
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met 
with thronging crowds, eager to see the 
man whom they regarded as the chief de- 
lendc of their liberties, and everywhere 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



he was hailed with those public manifesta- 
tions of joy, regard and love which spring 
spontaneoiislv from the hearts of an aflec- 
tionate and grateful people. His reception 
in New York was marked by a grandeur 
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed 
in that metropolis. The inauguration took 
place April 30, in the presence of an immense 
multitude which had assembled to witness 
the new and imposing ceremony. The oath 
of office was administered by Robert R. 
Livingston, Chancellor of the State. When 
this sacred pledge was given, he retired 
with the other f)fl[icials into the Senate 
chamber, where he delivered his inaugural 
address to both houses of the nowlv con- 
stituted Congress in joint assembly. 

In the manifold details of his civil ad- 
ministration, Washington proved himself 
etjual to the requirements ol his position. 
The greater portion of the first session of 
the first Congress was occupied in passing 
the necessary statutes for putting the new 
organization int(j complete operation. In 
the discussions brought up in the course of 
this legislation the nature and character of 
the new system came under general review. 
On no one of them did any decided antago- 
nism of opinion arise. All held it lo be a 
limited government, clothed only with spe- 
cific powers conferred by delegation from 
the States. There was no change in the 
name of the legislative department; it still 
remained " the Congress of the United 
States of America." There was no ciiange 
in the original flag of the country, and none 
in the seal, which still remains with the 
Grecian escutcheon borne by the eagle, 
with other einl)lems, under the great and 
expressive motto, "/i Pluribus Umtnt." 

The first division of parties arose upon 
the manner of construing the powers dele- 
gated, and they were first styled "strict 
constructionists" and " latitudinarian con- 
structionists." The former were for con- 
fining the action of the Government strictly 



within its specific and limited sphere, while 
the others wore for enlarging its powers by 
inference and implication. Hamilton and 
Jefferson, both members of the first cabinet- 
were regarded as the chief leaders, respect 
ively, of these rising antagonistic parties 
which have existed, luider different names 
from that day to this. Washington 'vas re- 
garded as holding a neutral position between 
them, though, by mature deliberation, he 
vetoed the first apportionment bill, in 1790, 
jiassed by the party headed by Hamilton, 
which was based upon a principle construct- 
ively leading to centralization or consoli- 
dation. This was the first exercise of the 
veto ])owcr under the present Constitution. 
It created considerable excitement at the 
time. Another bill was soon passed in pur- 
suance of Mr. Jefferson's views, which has 
been adhered to in principle in every ap 
portionment act passed since. 

At the second session of the new Con. 
gress, Washington announced the gratify^ 
ing fact of " the accession of North Caro- 
lina" to the C(jnstitution of 1787, and June 
1 of the same year he announced by special 
message the like " accession of the State of 
Rhode Island," with his congratulations on 
the happ3' event which " united inider the 
general Government" all the States which 
were originally confederated. 

In 1792, at the second Presidential elec- 
tion, Washington was desirous to retire ; 
but he yielded to the general wish of the 
country, and was again chosen {'resident 
by the unanimous vote of every electoral 
college. At the third election, \7cf1, he was 
again most urgently entreated to consent to 
remain in the executive chair. This he 
positively refused. In September, belore 
the election, he gave to his countrymen his 
memorable Farewell Address, which in lan- 
guage, sentiment and patriotism was a fit 
and crowning glory of his illustrious life. 
After March 4, 1797, he again retired to 
Mount \'ernon for peace, quiet and repose. 



(iEORcn WASlUNa TON. 



n 



His administration foi" the t\v(j terms had 
been successful bevond the expectation and 
hopes of even the most sanguine of his 
friends. The finances of tlie country were 
no longer in an embarrassed condition, the 
public credit was fully restored, life was 
given to every department of industry, the 
workings of the new system in allowing 
Congress to raise revenue from duties on 
imports proved to be not only harmonious 
in its federal action, but astonishing in its 
results upon the commerce and trade of all 
the States. The exports from the Union 
increased from $19,000,000 to over $56,000,- 
000 per annum, while the imports increased 
in about the same proportion. Three new 
members had been added to the Union. The 
progress of the States in their new career 
under their new organization thus far was 
exceedinglv encouraging, not only to the 
friends of libertv within their own limits, 
but to their sympathizing allies in all climes 
and countries. 

01 the call again made on this illustrious 



chief to quit his repose at Mount Vernon 
and take command of all the United States 
forces, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, 
when war was threatened with France in 
1798, nothing need here be stated, except to 
note tiie fact as an immistakable testimo- 
nial of the high regard in which he was still 
held by his countrymen, of all sliades of po- 
litical opinion. He patriotically accepted 
this trust, but a treaty of peace put a stop 
to all action under it. He again retired to 
Mount Vernon, where, after a short and 
severe illness, he died December 14, 1799, 
in the sixty-eighth year of his age. The 
whole country was filled with gloom by this 
sad intelligence. Men of all parties in poli- 
tics and creeds in religion, in every State 
in the Union, united with Congress in " pay- 
ing honor to the man, first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his c<juntry- 
men" 

His remains were deposited in a family 
vault on the banks of the Potomac at Mount 
Vernon, where they still lie entombed. 



*^- 




-.<'^''-" 



>4 



PUBS/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 












^ .^<.^A 



^.» 




OHN ADAMS, the second 
President of the United 
States, 1797 to 1801, \v:is 
born in the present town 
of Qiiincy, then a portion 
of Braintree, Massachu- 
setts, October 30, 1735. His 
father was a farmer of mod- 
erate means, a worthy and 
industrious man. He was 
a deacon in the church, and 
was very desirous of giving 
his son a collejjia*e educa- 
tion, hoping that he wcvdd 
become a minister ot the 
gospel. But, as up to this 
time, the age of fourteen, he had been only 
a play-boy in the fields and forests, he had 
no taste for books, he chose farming. On 
being set to work, however, by his father 
out in the field, the very first day con- 
verted the boy into a lover of books. 

Accordingly, at the age of sixteen he 
entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1755, at the age of twenty, highly esteemed 
for integrit}', energy and ability. Thus, 
having no capital but his education, he 
started out into the stormy world at a time 
of great political excitement, as France and 
England were then engaged in their great 
seven-years struggle for the mastery over 
the New World. The tire of patriotism 



seized j-oung Adams, and for a time he 
studied over the question whether he 
should take to the law, to politics or the 
army. He wrote a remarkable letter to a 
friend, making prophecies concerning the 
future greatness of this country which have 
since been more than fulfilled. For two 
years he taught scliool and studied law, 
wasting no odd moments, and at the cariy 
age of twenty-two years he ()]>cned a law 
office in his native town. His inherited 
powers of mind and untiring devotion to 
his profession caused him to rise rapidly 
in public esteem. 

In October, 1764, Mr. Adams married 
Miss Abigail Smith, daughter of a clergy- 
man at Weymouth and a lady of rare per- 
sonal and intellectual endowments, who 
afterward contributed much to her hus- 
band's celebrity. 

Soon the oppression of the British in 
America reached its clima.x. The Boston 
merchants cmploved an attorney by the 
name of James Otis to argue the legality o. 
oppressive tax law before the Superior 
Court. Adams heard tne argument, and 
afterward wrote to a friend concerning the 
ability displayed, as follows : " Otis was a 
flame of fire. With a promptitude of 
classical allusion, a depth t)f research, a 
rapid summary of historical events and 
dates, a profusion of legal authorities and a 




1 




m/L jia 




JOHN AOAMS. 



'7 



prophetic glance into futurity, he hurried 
awav all before him. American independence 
zvas then and tliere born. Every man of an 
immensely crowded audience appeared to 
me to go awav, as I did, ready to take up 
arms." 

Soon Mr. Adams wrote an essay to be 
read before the literary club of his town, 
upon the state of affairs, which was so able 
as to attract public attention, it was pub- 
lished in American journals, republished 
in England, and was pronounced by the 
friends of the colonists there as " one o( the 
very best prv^ductions ever seen from North 
America." 

The memorable Stamp Act was now 
issued, and Adams entered with all the 
ardor of his soul into political life in order 
to resist it. He drew up a series of reso- 
lutions remonstrating against the act, which 
were adopted at a public meeting of the 
citizens of Braintree, and which were sub- 
sequently adopted, word for word, by more 
than forty towns in the State. Popular 
commotion prevented the landing of the 
Stamp Act papers, and the English author- 
ities then closed the courts. The town of 
Boston therefore a|>pointe<l Jeremy Grid- 
lev, James Otis and John Adams to argue a 
petition before the Governor and council 
for the re-opening of the courts; and while 
the two first mentioned attorneys based 
their argument upon the distress caused to 
the people by the measure, Adams boldly 
claimed that the Stamp Act was a violatioti 
both of the English Constitution and the 
charter of the Provinces. It is said that 
this was the first direct denial of the un- 
limited right of Parliament over the colo- 
nies. Soon after this the Stamp Act was 
repealed. 

Directly Mr. Adams was emplo3cd to 
defend Ausell Nickerson, who had killed ;in 
Englishman in the act of impressing him 
(Nickerson) into the Iving's service, and his 
client was acquitted, the court thus estab- 



lishing the principle that the infamous 
royal prerogative of impressment couhi 
have no existence in the colonial code. 
But in 1770 Messrs. Aflams and Josiah 
Quincv defended a party of British soldiers 
who had been arrested for murder when 
they had been only obeying Governmental 
orders; and when reproached for thus ajj- 
parentlv deserting the cause of popular 
liberty, Mr. Adams replied that he would a 
thousandfold rather live under the domina- 
tion of the worst of England's kings than 
under that of a lawless mob. Next, after 
serving a term as a member of the Colonial 
Legislature from Boston, Mr. Adams, find- 
ing his health affected by too great labor, 
retired to his native home at Braintree. 

The year 1774 sijon arrived, with its fa- 
mous Boston '"Tea Party," the first open 
act of rebellion. Adams was sent to the 
Congress at Philadelphia; and when the 
Attorney-General announced that (ircat 
Britain had " determined on her system, 
and that her power to execute it w;is irre- 
sistible," Adams replied : " I know that 
Great Britain has determined on her sys- 
tem, and that very determination deter- 
mines me (jii mine. You know tliat I have 
been constant in my opposition to her 
measures. The die is now cast. I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or 
die, with my country, is my unalterable 
determination." The rumor lieginning to 
prevail at Philadelphia that the Congress 
had independence in view, Adams foresaw 
that it was too soon to declare it openly. 
lie advised every one to remain quiet in 
that respect; and as soon as it became ap- 
parent that he himself was for independ- 
ence, he was advised to hide himself, which 
he did. 

The next year the great Revolutionary 
war opened in earnest, and Mrs. Adams, 
residing near Boston, kept hei husband ad- 
vised by letter of all the events traiis[)iring 
in her vicinity. The buttle of Bunker Hill 



i8 



f RESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



came on. Congress had to do something 
immediately. The first thing was to 
choose a commander-in-chief for tiic — we 
can't say " army "^the fighting men of tiie 
colonies. The New England dciegaticm 
was almost unanimous in favor of appoint- 
mg (ieueral Ward, then at the head of the 
Massachusetts forces, but Mr. Adams urged 
the appointment of George Washington, 
then almost unknown outside of his own 
State. He was appointed without oppo- 
sition. Mr. Adams offered the resolution, 
which was adopted, annulling all the royal 
authority in the colonies. Having thus 
prepared the way, a few weeks later, viz., 
June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Vir- 
ginia, who a few months before had declared 
that the British CTOvernment would aban- 
don its oppressive measures, now offered 
the memorable resolution, seconded by 
Adams, "that these United States arc, and 
of right ought to be, free and independent." 
Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman and 
Livingston were then ap[jointed a commit- 
tee to draught a declaration of independ- 
ence. Mr. Jefferson desired Mr. Adams 
to draw up (he bold document, but the 
latter persuaded Mr. Jefferson to perform 
that responsible task. The Declaration 
drawn up, Mr. Adams became its foremost 
defender on the floor of Congress. It was 
signed by all the fifty-five members present, 
and the ne.xt day Mr. Adams wrote to his 
wife how great a deed was done, and how 
proud he was of it. Mr. Adams continued 
to be the leading man of Congress, and 
the leading advocate of American inde- 
pendence. Above all other Americans, 
he was considered by every one the prin- 
cipal shining mark for British ventreance. 
Thus circumstanced, he was appointed to 
the most dangerous task of crossing the 
ocean in winter, exposed to capture bv the 
British, who knew of his mission, which 
was to visit Paris and solicit the co-opera- 
tion of the French, Besides, to take liim- 



sclf away from the country of which he 
was the most prominent defender, at that 
critical time, was an act of the greatest self- 
sacrifice. Sure enough, while crossing the 
sea, he had two very narrow escapes from 
capture ; and the transit was otherwise a 
stormy and eventful one. During the 
summer of 1779 he returned home, but was 
immediately dispatched back to France, to 
be in readiness there to negotiate terms of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain as 
scjon as the latter power was ready for such 
business. But as Dr. Franklin was more 
popular than heat the court of France, Mr. 
Adams repaired to Holland, where he was 
far more successful as a diplomatist. 

The treaty of peace between the United 
States and England was finally signed at 
Paris, January 21, 1783; and the re-action 
from so great excitement as .Mr. Adams had 
so long been experiencing threw him into 
a dangerous fever. Before he fully re- 
covered he was in London, whence he was 
dispatched again to Amsterdam to negoti- 
ate another loan. Compliance with this 
order undermined his physical constitution 
for life. 

In 1785 Mr. Adams was appointed envoy 
to the court of St. James, to meet face to 
face the very king who had regarded him 
as an arch traitor! Accordingly he re- 
paired thither, where he did actually meet 
and converse with George III.! After a 
residence there for about three years, he 
obtained permission to return to America. 
While in London he wrote and j)ublished 
an able work, in three volumes, entitled: 
" A Defense of the American Constitution." 

The Articles of Confederation proving 
inefficient, as Adams had proiihesietl, a 
carefuHv draughted Constitution was 
adopted in 17S9, when George Washington 
was elected President of the new nation, 
and Adams Vice-President. Congress met 
for a time in New York, but was removed 
to Philadelphia for ten years, until suitable 



JOHN ADAMS. 



19 



buildings should be erected at tlie new 
capital in the District of Columbia. Mr. 
Adams then moved his family to Phiia- 
deiphia. Toward the close of his term of 
office the French Revolution culminated, 
when Adams and Washington rather 
sympathized with England, and Jefferson 
with France. The Presidential election of 
1796 resulted in giving Mr. Adams tlie first 
place by a small majority, and Mr. Jeffer- 
son the second place. 

Mr. Adams's administration was consci- 
entious, patriotic and able. The period 
was a turbulent one, and even an archangel 
could not have reconciled the hostile par- 
ties. Partisanism with reference to Eng- 
land and France was bitter, and for four 
years Mr. Adams struggled tiirough almost 
a constant tempest of assaults. In fact, he 
was not trul}' a popidar man, and his ciia- 
grin at not receiving a re-election was so 
great that he did not even remain at Phihi- 
delphia to witness the inauguration of Mr. 
Jefferson, his successor. Tiie friendly 
intimacy between these two men was 
interrupted for about thirteen years of their 
life. Adams finally made the first advances 
toward a restoration of their mutual friend- 
ship, which were gratefully accepted by 
Jefferson. 

Mr. Adams was glad of his opportunity 
to retire to private lite, where he could rest 
his mind and enjoy the comforts of home. 
By a thousand bitter experiences he found 
the path of public duty a thorny one. For 
twenty-six years his service of the public 
was as arduous, self-sacrificing and devoted 
as ever fell to the lot of man. In one ini- 
[lortant sense he was as much the " Father 
oi his Country " as was Washington in 
another sense. Du'ing these long years of 
anxiety and toil, in which he was laying, 
broad and deep, the foundations of the 



greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, he 
received from his impoverished country a 
meager support. The only privilege he 
carried with him into his retirement was 
that of franking his letters. 

Although taking no active part in public 
affairs, both himself and his son, John 
Quincy, nobly supported the policy of Mr. 
Jefferson in resisting the encroachments of 
England, who persisted in searching 
American ships on the high seas and 
dragging from them any sailors that might 
be designated by any pert lieutenant as 
British subjects. Even f(3r this noble sup- 
port Mr. Adams was maligned by thou- 
sands of bitter enemies ! On this occasion, 
for the first time since his retirement, he 
broke silence and drew up a very able 
paper, exposing tiie atrocit}^ of the British 
pretensions. 

Mr. Adams outlived nearly all his family. 
Though his physical frame began to give 
way many years before his death, his mental 
powers retained tlieir strength and vigor to 
the last. In his ninetieth year he was 
gladdened by the popular elevation of his 
son to the Presidential office, the highest in 
the gift of the people. A few months more 
passed away and the 4th of July, 1826. 
arrived. The people, unaware of the near 
approach of the end of two great lives — 
that of Adams and Jefferson — were making 
unusual preparations for a national holiday. 
Mr. Adams lay upon his couch, listening to 
the ringing of bells, the waftures of martial 
music and the roar of cannon, with silent 
emotion. Only four days before, he had 
given for a public toast, " Independence 
forever." About two o'clock in the after- 
noon he said, "And Jefferson still survives." 
But he was mistaken by an hour or so: 
and in a few minutes he had breathed his 
last. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 






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[h o m a S J E F F E R- 

son, the tliird Presi- 
dent f>i tlie ''iiitcd 
Stales, i8oi~'9, was 
born April 2, 1743, 
the eldest child of 
his ])arents, Peter 
and Jane (Randolph) Jef- 
ferson, near Charlottes- 
ville, Albemarle County, 
Virginia, upon the slopes 
of the Blue Ridge. When 
he -was fourteen years of 
age, his father died, leav- 
ing a widow and eight 
children. She wasa beau- 
tiful and accomplished 
lady, a good letter-writer, with a fund of 
humor, and an admirable housekeeper. His 
parents belonged to the Churcli of England, 
and arc said to be of Welch origin. But 
little is known of them, however. 

Thomas was naturally of a serious turn 
of mind, apt to learn, and a favorite at 
school, his choice studies being mathemat- 
ics and the classics. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered William and Mary College, 
in an advanced class, and lived in rather an 
expensive style, consequently being much 
caressed by gay society. That he was not 
ruined, is proof of his stamina of character. 
But during his second year he discarded 



society, his horses and even his favorite 
violin, and devoted thenceforward fifteen 
hours a day to hard study, becoming ex- 
traordinarily proficient in Latin and Greek 
authors. 

On leaving college, before he was twenty- 
one, he commenced the stud}- of law, and 
pursued it diligently until he was well 
qualified for practice, upon which he 
entered in 1767. By this time he was also 
versed in French, Spanish, Italian and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in the criticism of the fine 
arts. Being very polite and polished in his 
manners, he won the friendship of all whom 
he met. Though able with his pen, he was 
not fluent in public speech. 

In 1769 he was chosen a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, and was the largest 
slave-holding member of that body. He 
introduced a bill empowering slave-holders 
to manumit their slaves, but it was rejected 
by an overwhelming vote. 

In 1770 Mr. Jefferson met with a great 
loss; his house at Shadwell was burned, 
and his valuable library of 2,000 volumes 
was consumed. But he was wealthy 
enough to replace the most of it, as from 
his 5,000 acres tilled by slaves and his 
practice at the bar his income amounted to 
about $5,000 a year. 

In 1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, 
a beautiful, wealthy and accomplished 





'i^/c^ey/^/r^^ 



THOMAS JEFFERSON. 



n 



young widow, who owned 40,000 acres of 
land and 130 slaves; yet he labored assidu- 
ously for the abolition of slavery. For liis 
new home he selected a majestic rise ol 
land upon his large estate at Shad well, 
called Mt)nticello, whereon he erected a 
mansion of modest yet elegant architecture. 
Here he lived in luxury, indulging his taste 
in magnificent, high-blooded horses. 

At this period the British Government 
gradually became more insolent and o|)- 
pressive toward the American colonies, 
and Mr. Jefferson was ever one of the most 
foremost to resist its encroachments. From 
time to time he drew up resolutions of re- 
monstrance, which were finally adopted, 
thus proving his ability as a statesman and 
as a leader. By the year 1774 he became 
quite busy, both with voice and pen, in de- 
fending the right of the colonies to defend 
themselves. His pami:)hlet entitled: "A 
Summary View of the flights of British 
America," attracted mucii attention in Eng- 
land. The following year he, in company 
with George Washington, served as an ex- 
ecutive committee in measures to defend 
by arms the State of Virginia. As a Mem- 
ber of the Congress, he was not a speech- 
maker, yet in conversation and upon 
committees he was so frank and decisive 
that he always made a favorable impression. 
But as late as the autumn of 1775 he re- 
mained in hcjpes of reconciliation with the 
parent country. 

At length, however, the hour arrived for 
draughting the " Declaration of Indepen- 
dence," and this responsible task was de- 
volved upon Jefferson. Franklin, and 
Adams suggested a few verbal corrections 
bef(3re it was submitted to Congress, which 
was June 28, 1776, only si.x days before it 
was adopted. During the three days of 
the fiery ordeal of criticism through which 
it passed in Congress, Mr. Jefferson opened 
not his lips. John Adams was the main 
chamiMDn of the Declaration on the floor 



of Congress. The signing of this document 
was one of the most solemn and momentous 
occasions ever attended to by man. Prayer 
and silence reigned throughout the hall, 
and each signer realized that if American 
independence was not finally sustained by 
arms he was doomed to the scaffold. 

After the colonies became independent 
States, Jefferson resigned for a time his seat 
in Congress in order to aid in organizing 
the government of Virginia, of which State 
he was chosen Governor in 1779, when he 
was thirty-six years of age. At this time 
the Britisli had possession of Georgia and 
were invading South Carolina, and at one 
time a British officer, Farleton, sent a 
secret expedition to Monticello to capture 
the Governor. Five minutes after Mr. 
Jefferson escaped with his family, his man- 
sion was in possession of the enemy ! The 
British troops also destroyed his valuable 
plantation on the James River. " Had they 
curried off the slaves," said Jefferson, with 
characteristic magnanimity, " to give them 
freedom, they woulil have done right." 

Tiie year 1781 was a gloomy one for the 
Viiginia Governor. While confined to his 
secluded home in the forest by a sick and 
dying wife, a party arose against iiim 
throughout the State, severely criticising 
his course as Governor. Being very sensi- 
tive to reproach, this touched him to the 
(juick, and the heap of troubles then sur- 
rounding him nearly crushed him. He re- 
solved, in despair, to retire from public life 
for the rest of liis days. For weeks Mr. 
Jefferson sat lovingly, but with a crushed 
heart, at the bedside of his sick wife, during 
which time unfeeling letters were sent to 
him, accusing him of weakness and unfaith- 
fulness to duty. All this, after he had lost 
so much propcrt\ and at the same time 
(.lone so much for his country ! After iier 
death he actually fainted away, and re- 
mained so Ujutr insensible that it was feared 



h 



c never wouK 



1 recover! Several we;;ks 



P/iESfDE.VTS OF THE U.VITED STATES. 



passed before he could fully recover his 
equilibrium. He was never married a 
second time. 

In the spring of 1782 the people of Eng- 
land compelled their king to make to the 
Americans overtures of peace, and in No- 
vember following, Mr. Jefferson was reap- 
pointed by Congress, unanimously and 
without a single adverse remark, minister 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty. 

In March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson was ap- 
pointed on a committee to draught a plan 
for the government of the Northwestern 
Territory. His slavery-prohibition clause 
in that plan was stricken out by the pro 
slavery majority of the committee; but amid 
all the controversies and wrangles of poli- 
ticians, he made it a rule never to contra- 
dict anybody or engage in any discussion 
as a debater. 

In company with Mr. Adams and Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jefferson was appointed in 
May, 1784, to act as minister jjlenipotentiary 
in the negotiation of treaties of commerce 
with foreign nations. Accordingly, he went 
to Paris and satisfactoril)- accomplished his 
mission. The suavity and high bearing of 
his manner made all the French his friends; 
and even Mrs. Adams at one time wrote 
to her sister that he was " the chosen 
of the earth." But all the honors that 
he received, both at home and abroad, 
seemed to make no change in the simplicity 
of his republican tastes. On his return to 
America, he found two parties respecting 
the foreign commercial policy, Mr. Adams 
sym])athizing with that in favor of England 
and himself favoring France. 

On the inauguration of General Wash- 
ington as President, Mr. Jefferson was 
chosen by him for the office of Secretary of 
State. At this time the rising storm of the 
French Revolution became visible, and 
Washington watched it with great anxiety. 
His cabinet was divided in their views of 
cunslitutional government as well as re- 



garding the issues in France. General 
Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, was 
the leader of the so-called Federal party, 
while Mr. Jefferson was the leader of the 
Republican party. At the same time there 
was a strong monarchical party in this 
country, with which Mr. Adams sympa- 
thized. Some important financial measures, 
which were proposed by Hamilton and 
finallv adopted by the cabinet and ajiproved 
by Washington, were opposed by Mr. 
Jefferson ; and his enemies then began to 
reproach him with holding office under an 
administration whose views he opposed. 
The President poured oil on the troubled 
waters. On his re-election to the Presi- 
dency he desired Mr. Jefferson to remain 
in the cabinet, but the latter sent in his 
resignation at two different times, probably 
because he was dissatisfied with some of 
the measures of the Government. His 
final one was not received until January i, 
1794, when General Washingtcjn parted 
from him with great regret. 

Jefferson then retired to his quiet home 
at Monticello, to enjoy a good rest, not even 
reading the newspapers lest the political 
gossip should disepiiet him. On the Presi- 
dent's again calling him back to the office 
of Secretary of State, he replied that no 
circumstances would ever again tempt him 
to engage in an^'thing public ! But, while 
all Europe was ablaze with war, and France 
in the throes of a bloody revolution and the 
principal theater of the conflict, a new 
Presidential election in this country came 
on. John Adams was the Federal candi- 
date and Mr. Jefferson became the Republi- 
can candidate. The result of the election 
was the promotion of the latter to the Vice- 
Presidency, while the former was chosen 
President. In this contest Mr. Jefferson 
really did not desire to hav^ either office, 
he was "so weary" of party strife. He 
loved the retirement of home more than 
any other place on the earth. 



THOhfAS 'JEFFERSON. 



25 



But f(ir four long years his Vice-Presi- 
dency passed joylessly away, while the 
partisan strife between Federalist and Re- 
publican was ever ^^rowing hotter. The 
former party split and the result of the 
fourth general election was the elevation of 
Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency ! with 
Aaron Burr as Vice-President. These men 
being at the head of a growing party, their 
election was hailed everywhere with jo}-. 
On the other hand, many of the Federalists 
turned pale, as they believed what a portion 
of the pulpit and the press had been preach- 
ing — that Jefferson was a " scoffing atheist," 
a "Jacobin," the " incarnation of all evil," 
" breathing threatening and slaughter ! " 

Mr. Jefferson's inaugural address con- 
tained nothing but the noblest sentiments, 
expressed in fine language, and his personal 
behavior afterward exhibited the extreme 
of American, democratic simplicit}'. His 
disgust of European court etiquette grew 
up(5n him with age. He believed that 
General Washington was somewhat dis- 
trustful of the ultimate success of a popular 
Government, and that, imbued with a little 
admiration of the forms of a monarchical 
Government, he had instituted levees, birth- 
da3's, pompous meetings with Congress, 
etc. Jefferson was always polite, even to 
slaves everywhere he met them, and carried 
in his countenance the indications of an ac- 
commodating disp(3sition. 

The political principles of the Jeffersoni- 
an party now swept the country, and Mr. 
Jefferson himself swayed an influence which 
was never exceeded even by Washington. 
Under his administration, in 1803, the Lou- 
isiana purchase was made, for $15,000,000, 
the " Louisiana Territory " purchased com- 
prising all the land west of the Mississippi 
to the Pacific Ocean. 

The year 1804 witnessed another severe 
loss in his family. His highly accomplished 
and most beloved daughter Maria sickened 
and died, causing as great grief in the 



stricken parent as it was possible for him to 
survive with any degree of sanity. 

The same year lie was re-elected to tl;e 
Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- 
President. During his second term our 
relations with England became more com- 
plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- 
ton Roads, the United States frigate 
Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- 
ish man-of-war Le(jpard, and was made 
to surrender. Three men were killed and 
ten wounded. Jefferson demanded repara- 
tion. England grew insolent. It became 
cvitlcnt that war was determined upon by 
the latter power. More than 1,200 Ameri- 
cans were forced into the British service 
upon the high seas. Before any satisfactory 
solution was reached, Mr. Jeffers<jn's 
Presidential term closed. Amid all these 
public excitements he thought constantly 
of the welfare of his family, and longed 
for the time when he could return home 
to remain. There, at Monticello, his sub- 
sequent life was very similar to that of 
Washingt<in at Mt. Vernon. His hospi- 
tality toward his numerous friends, indul- 
gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his 
property, etc., finally involved him in debt. 
For years his home resembled a fashion- 
able watering-place. During the summer, 
thirty-seven house servants were required ! 
It was presided over by his daughter, Mrs. 
Randolph. 

Mr. Jefferson did much for the establish- 
ment of the University at Charlottesville, 
making it unsectarian, in keeping with the 
spirit of American institutions, but poverty 
and the feebleness of old age prevented 
him from doing what he woidd. He even 
went so far as to petition the Legislature 
for permission to dispose of some of his 
possessions by lottery, in order to raise the 
necessary funds for home expenses. It was 
granted ; but before the plan was carried 
out, Mr. Jefferson died, July 4, 1826, at 

12:50 1'. M. 



26 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 







Mxris? ivf^i)rs-()x., ''"' 



®^?^|> 6J3 •■- t^ '> t*5 ■'• <sj= •"• (&SC;>3.'Sfpiiiiy •'• ^ "T- <*^ -T-' •^!» -■■ <«> "'^i^.^ 




<n^^ r -'^MES MADISON, the 
, *il,^££':h fourth President of the 
■ *^/fl\^'^** United States, iSoq-'i;, 
i iVifAri was born at Port Con- 

i^V- \vav, Prince George 
''^''"''^^Bir'^-' County, Virginia, March 
i6, 1 75 1. His father 



m-' 



1751 
Colonel James Madison, was 
a wealthy planter, residing 
upon a very fine estate 
called " Montpelier," only 
twenty-five miles from the 
home of Thomas Jefferson 
at Monticello. The closest 
personal and political at- 
taciunent existed between 
these illustrious men from their early )'outh 
until death. 

James was the eldest ot a lamily of seven 
children, four sons and three daughters, all 
of wlujm attained maturity. His early edu- 
cation was conducted mostly at iiome, 
under a private tutor. Being naturally in- 
tellectual in his tastes, he consecrated him- 
self with unusual vigor to study. At a very 
early age he made considerable proficiency 
in the Greek, Latin, French and Spanish 
languages. In 1769 he entered Princeton 
College, New Jersey, of which the illus- 
trious Dr. Weatherspoon was then Presi- 
dent. He graduated in 1771, with a char- 



acter of the utmost purity, and a mind 
highly disciplined and stored with all the 
learning which embellished and gave effi- 
ciency to his subsequent career. After 
graduating he pursued a course of reading 
for several months, under the guidance of 
President Weatherspoon, and in 1772 re- 
turned to Virginia, where he continued in 
incessant study for two years, nominally 
directed to the law, but really including 
extended researches in theology, philoso- 
phy and general literature. 

The Ciuirch of England was the estab- 
lished ciiurch in \'irginia, invested with all 
the prerogatives and immunities which it 
enjoyed in the fatherland, and other de- 
nominations labored under serious disabili- 
ties, the enforcement of which was rightly 
or wrongly characterized by them as per- 
secution. Madison took a prominent stand 
in behalf of the removal of all disabilities, 
repeatedly appeared in the court of liis own 
county to defend the Baptist nonconform- 
ists, and was elected from Orange County to 
the Virginia Convention in the sjjring of 
1766, when he signalized the beginning of 
his public career by procuring tiie passage 
of an amendment to the Declaration of 
Rigiits as prepared by George Mason, sub- 
stituting for " toleration" a more emphatic 
assertion of religious libertv. 




/ 



/ 



tZ-c^^"-^ /yC^ lic^^tr r'^ 



yAMES Af AD IS ON. 



19 



fn 1776 he was elected a member of the 
Virgmia Convention to frame the Constitu- 
tion of the State. Like Jefferson, he took 
but little part in the public debates. His 
main strengtii lay in his conversational in- 
fluence and in his pen. In November, 1777, 
he was chosen a member of tiie Council of 
State, and in March, 1780, took his seat in 
the Continental Congress, where he first 
gained prominence through his energetic 
opposition to the issue of paper money by 
the States. He continued in Congress three 
years, one of its most active and influential 
members. 

In 17S4 Mr. Madison was elected a mem- 
ber of the Virginia Legislature. He ren- 
dered important service by promoting and 
participating in that revision of the statutes 
which effectually abolished the remnants of 
the feudal system subsistent up to that 
time in the form of entails, primogeniture, 
and State support given the Anglican 
Church ; and his " Memorial and Remon- 
strance" against a general assessment for 
the support of religion is one of the ablest 
papers which emanated from his pen. It 
settled the question of the entire separation 
of church antl State in \'irginia. 

Mr. Jefferson says of him, in allusion to 
the study and experience through which he 
had already passed : 

" Trained in these successive schools, he 
acquired a habit of self-possession which 
placed at ready command the rich resources 
of his lummous and discriminating mind and 
of his extensive information, and rendered 
him the first of every assembly of which he 
afterward became a member. Never wan- 
dering from his subject into vain declama- 
tion, but pursuing it closelv in language 
pure, classical and copious, soothing al- 
ways the feelings of his adversaries by civili- 
ties and softness of expression, he rose to the 
eminent station which he held in the great 
National Convention of 17S7 ; and in that of 
Virginia, which followed, he sustained the 



new Constitution in all its parts, bearing off 
the palm against the logic of George Mason 
and the fervid declamation of Patrick 
Henry. With these consummate powers 
were united a pure and spotless virtue 
which no calumny has ever attempted to 
sully. Of the power and polish of his pen, 
and of the wisdom of his administration in 
the highest office of the nation, I need say 
nothing. They have spoken, and will for- 
ever speak, for themselves." 

In January, 1786, Mr. Madison took the 
initiative in proposing a meeting of State 
Commissioners to devise measures for more 
satisfactory commercial relations between 
the States. A meeting was held at An- 
napolis to discuss this subject, and but five 
States were represented. The convention 
issued another call, drawn up by Mr. Madi- 
son, urging all the States to send their dele- 
gates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to 
draught a Constitution for the United 
States. The delegates met at the time ap- 
pointed, every State except Rhode Island 
being represented. George Washington 
was chosen president of the convention, 
and the present Constitution of the United 
States was then aiul there formed. There 
was no mind and no pen more active in 
framing this immortal tlocument than the 
mind and pen of James Madison. He was, 
perhaps, its ablest advocate in the pages of 
the Federalist- 

Mr. Madison was a member of the first 
four Congresses, 1789-97, in which he main- 
tained a moderate oppositi(jn to HaniiUon's 
financial policy. He declined the mission 
to France and the Secretaryshii) of State, 
and, gradually identifying himself with the 
Republican partv, became from 1792 its 
avowed leader. In 1796 he was its choice 
for the Presidency as successor to Wash- 
ington. Mr. Jefferson wrote: "There is 
iKjt another person in the United States 
with whom, being placed at the helm of our 
affairs, my mind would be so completely at 



30 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



rest for the fortune of our political bark." 
But Mr. Madison declined to be a candi- 
date. His term in Congress had expired, 
and he returned from New York to his 
beautiful retreat at Montpelier. 

In 1794 Mr. Madison married a young 
widow of remarkable powers of fascination 
— Mrs. Todd. Her maiden name was Doro- 
thy Paine. She was born in 1767, in Vir- 
ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been 
educated in the strictest rules of that sect. 
When but eighteen years of age she married 
a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, 
where she was introduced to brilliant scenes 
of fashionable life. She speedily laid aside 
the dress and address of the Quakeress, and 
became one of the most fascinating ladies 
of the republican court. In New York, 
after the death of her husband, she was the 
belle of the season and was surrounded with 
admirers. Mr. Madison won the prize. 
She proved an invaluable helpmate. In 
Washington she was the life of society. 
If there was any diffident, timid young 
girl just making her appearance, she 
found in Mrs. Madison an encouraging 
friend. 

During the stormy administration of John 
Adams Madison remained in private life, 
but was the auth(jr of the celebrated " Reso- 
lutions of 1798," adopted by the V^irginia 
Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien 
and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" 
in which he defended those resolutions, 
which is, by many, considered his ablest 
State paper. 

The storm passed awa\' ; the Alien and 
Sedition laws were repealed, Jolin Adams 
lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- 
ferson was chosen President. The great re- 
action in public sentiment which seated 
Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- 
ly owing to the writings of Madison, who 
was consequently well entitled to the post 
of Secretary of State. With great ability 
be discharged the duties of this responsible 



office during the eight years of Mr. Jeffer 
son's administration. 

As Mr. Jefferson was a widower, and 
neither of his daughters could be often with 
him, Mrs. Madison usually presided over 
the festivities of the White House; and as 
her husband succeeded Mr. Jefferson, hold- 
ing his office for two terms, this remarkable 
woman was the mistress of the presidential 
mansion for sixteen years. 

Mr. Madison being entirely engrossed by 
the cares of his office, all the duties of so- 
cial life devolved upon his accomplished 
wife. Never were such responsibilities 
more ably discharged. The most bitter 
foes of her husband and of the administra- 
tion were received with the frankly prof- 
fered hand and the cordial smile of wel- 
come; and the influence of this gentle 
woman in allaving the bitterness of party 
rancor became a great and salutary power 
in the nation. 

As the term of Mr. Jefferson's Presidency 
drew near its close, party strife was roused 
to the utmost to elect his successor. It was 
a death-grapple between the two great 
parties, the Federal and Republican. Mr. 
Madison was chosen President by an elec 
total vote of 122 to 53, and was inaugurated 
March 4, 1S09, at a critical period, when 
the relations of the United States with Great 
Britain were becoming embittered, and his 
first term was passed in diplomaticquarrels, 
aggravated b)- the act of non-intercourse of 
May, 1 8 10, and finally resulting in a decla- 
ration of war. 

On the i8th of June, 1812, President 
Madison gave his approval to an act of 
Congress declaring war against Great Brit- 
ain. Notwithstanding the bitter hostility 
of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and in the autumn 
Madison was re-elected to the Presidency 
by 128 electoral votes to 89 in favor of 
George Clinton. 

March 4, 18 17, Madison vieldcd the Presi- 



yAMES MAD/SON. 



dency to his Secretary of State and inti- 
mate friend, James Monroe, and retired to 
his ancestral estate at Montpelier, where he 
passed the evening of his days surrounded 
by attached friends and enjoying- the 
merited respect of the whole nation. He 
took pleasure in promoting agriculture, as 
president of the county society, and in 
watching the development of the University 
of Virginia, of which he was long rector and 
visitor. In extreme old age he sat in 1829 
as a member of the convention called to re- 
form the Virginia Constitution, where his 
appearance was hailed with the most gen- 
uine interest and satisfaction, though he 
was too infirm lo participate in the active 
work of revision. Small in stature, slender 
and delicate in form, with a countenance 
full of intelligence, and expressive alike of 
mildness and dignity, he attracted the atten- 
tion of all who attended the convention, 
and was treated with the utmost deference. 
He seldom addressed the assembly, though 
he always appeared self-possessed, and 
watched witli unflagging interest the prog- 
ress of every measure. Though the con- 
vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only 
twice ; but when he did speak, the whole 
house paused to listen. His voice was 
feeble though his enunciation was very dis- 
tinct. One of the reporters, Mr. Stansbury, 
relates the following anecdote of Mr. Madi- 
son's last speech: 

" The next day, as there was a great call 
for it, and the report had not been returned 
for publication, I sent my son with a re- 
spectful note, requesting the manuscript. 
My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had 
taken with me to act as amanuensis. On 
delivering my note, he was received with 
the utmost politeness, and requested to 
come up into Mr. Madison's room and wait 
while his eye ran over the paper, as com- 
pany had prevented his attending to it. He 
did so, and Mr. Madison sat down to correct 
the report. The lad stood near him so that 



his eye fell on the paper. Coming to a 
certain sentence in the speech, Mr. Madison 
erased a word and substituted another ; but 
hesitated, and not feeling satisfied with the 
second word, drew his pen through it also. 
My son was young, ignorant of the world, 
and unc(jnsciousof the solecism of which he 
was about to be guilty, when, in all simplic- 
ity, he suggested a word. Probably no 
other person then living would have taken 
such a liberty. But the sage, instead ol 
reoarding such an intrusion with a frown, 
raised his eyes to the boy's face with a 
pleased surprise, and said, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it is the very word,' and immediately in- 
serted it. I saw him the next day, and he 
mentioned the circumstance, with a compli- 
ment on the young critic." 

Mr. Madison died at Montpelier, June 28, 
1836, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 
While not possessing the highest order of 
talent, and deficient in oratorical powers, 
he was pre-eminently a statesman, of a well- 
balanced mind. His attainments were solid, 
his knowledge copious, his judgment gener- 
ally sound, his powers of analysis and logi- 
cal statement rarely surpassed, his language 
and literary style correct and polished, his 
conversation witty, his temperament san- 
guine and trusfful, his integrity unques- 
tioned, his manners simple, courteous and 
winning. By these rare qualities he con- 
ciliated the esteem not only of friends, but 
of political opponents, in a greater degree 
than any American statesman in the present 
century. 

Mrs. Madison survived her husband thir- 
teen years, and died Jul}' 12, 1849, in the 
eighty-second year of her age. She was one 
of the most remarkable women our coun- 
try has produced. Even now she is ad- 
miringly remembered in Washington as 
" Dolly Madison," and it is fitting that her 
memory should descend to posterity in 
company with thatof the companion of 
her life. 



V 



PRES/DEXTS OF THE UNJTED STATES. 



i:s 



•JkSd^- . 



'■ "* f I' 






€; 



^-^j Q ^ 3.^j.:M:g?^ Mxij^f HI? ji;^ 







-iS^iaJlS^lS.'lSPlSfia.'^:. 



'-^ 



t 




AMES MONROE, the fifth 
President of the United 
States, i8i7-'25, wasborn 
in Westmoreland County 
Virginia, April 28, 1758. 
I Ic was a son of Spence 
Monroe, and a descendant 
of a Scottish cavalier fam- 
il)-. Like all his predeces- 
sors thus far in the Presi- 
dential chair, he enjoyed all 
the advantages of educa- 
tion which the country 
could then afford. He was 
earl}' sent to a fine classical 
school, and at the age of six- 
teen entered William and Mary College.. 
In 1776, when he had been in college but 
two years, the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted, and our feeble militia, with- 
out arms, amunition or clothing, were strug- 
gling against the trained armies o( England. 
James Monroe left college, hastened to 
General Washington's headquarters at New 
York and enrolled himself as a cadet in the 
army. 

At Trenton Lieutenant Monroe so dis- 
tinguished himsell, receiving a wound in his 
shoulder, that he was promoted to a Cap- 
taincy. Upon recovering from his wound, 
he was invited to act as aide to Lord Ster- 
ling, and in that capacity he took an active 
part in the battles of Brandy wine, Ger- 
mantown and Mcjnmoulh. At Germantown 



he stood by the side of Lafayette when the 
French >Lirquis received his wound. Gen- 
eral Washington, who had formed a high 
idea of young Monroe's ability, sent him to 
Virginia to raise a new regiment, of which 
he was to be Colonel; but so exhausted was 
Virginia at that time that the effort proved 
unsuccessful. He, however, received his 
commission. 

Finding no opportunity to enter the army 
as a commissioned officer, he returned to his 
original plan of studying law, and entered 
the office of Thomas Jefferson, who was 
then Governorof Virginia. He developed 
a very noble character, frank, manly and 
sincere. Mr. Jefferson said of him: 

"James Monroe is so perfectly honest 
that if his soul were turned inside out there 
would not be found a spot on it." 

In 1782 he was elected to the Assembly 
of Virginia, and was also appointed a mem- 
ber of the Executive Council. The next 
year he was chosen delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress for a term of three years. 
He was present at Annapolis when Wash- 
ington surrendered his commission of Com- 
mander-in-chief. 

With Washington, Jefferson and Madison 
he felt deeply the inefficiency of the old 
Articles of Confederation, and urged the 
formation of a new Constitution, which 
should invest the Central Government with 
something like national power. Influenced 
bv these views, he introduced a resolution 




^-v- 



/ A'f'^Z^^y-r^,^ ^ 



yAMES MONROE. 



35 



that Congress should be empowered to 
regulate trade, and to lay an impost duty 
of five per cent. The resolution was refer- 
red to a committee of which he was chair- 
man. The report and the discussion wliich 
rose upon it led to the convention of five 
States at Annapolis, and the consequent 
general convention at I-*hiladelphia, which, 
in 1787, drafted the Constitution of the 
United States. 

At this tune there was a controversy be- 
tween New York and Massachusetts in 
reference to their boundaries. The high 
esteem in which Colonel Monroe was held 
is indicated by the fact that he was ap- 
pointed one of the jutiges to decide the 
controversy. While in New York attend- 
ing Congress, lie married Miss Kortright, 
a young lady distinguished alike for her 
beauty and accomplishments. For nearl}' 
fifty years this happy uni<in remained un- 
broken. In London and in Paris, as in her 
own country, Mrs. Monroe won admiration 
and affecticjii by the loveliness of her per- 
son, the brilliancy of her intellect, and the 
amiability of her character. 

Returning to Virginia, Colonel Monroe 
commenced the practice of law at Freder- 
icksburg. He was very soon elected to a 
seat in the State Legislature, and the next 
year he was chosen a member ol the Vir- 
ginia convention which was assembled to 
decide u})on the acceptance or rejection of 
the Constitution which had been drawn up 
at Philadelphia, and was now submitted 
to the several States. Deepl}' as he felt 
the imperfections of tiie old Confederacy, 
he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republi- 
can party, that it gave too much power to 
the Central Government, and not enough 
to the individual States. 

In 1789 he became a member of the 
United States Senate, which office he held 
acceptably to his constituents, and with 
honor to himself for four years. 



Having opposed the Constitution as not 
leaving enough power with the States, he, 
of course, became more and more identi- 
fied with the Republican party. Thus he 
found himself in cordial co-operation with 
Jeffers(jn and Madison. The great Repub- 
lican party became the dominant power 
which ruled the land. 

George Washington was then President. 
England had espoused the cause of the 
Bourbons against the principles of the 
French Revolution. President Washing- 
ton issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France 
had helped us in the struggle for our lib- 
erties. All tlie despotisms of Eurojie were 
now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from tyranny a thousandfold 
worse than that which we had endured. 
Colonel Monroe, more magnanimous than 
prudent, was anxious that we should help 
our old allies in their extremity. He vio- 
lently opposed the President's procla- 
mation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. 

Washington, who could appreciate such 
a character, developed his calm, serene, 
almost divine greatness by appointing that 
very James Monroe, who was denouncing 
the policy of the Government, as the Minis- 
ter of that Government to the republic of 
France. He was directed by Washington 
to express to the French people our warm- 
est sympathy, comnumicating to them cor- 
responding resolves approved by the Pres- 
ident, and adopted by both houses of 
Congress. 

Mr. Monroe was welcomed by the Na- 
tional Convention in France with the most 
enthusiastic demonstrations of respect and 
affection. He was publicly introduced to 
that body, and received the embrace of the 
President, Merlin de Douay, after having 
been addressed in a speech glowing with 
congratulations, and with expressions of 
desire that harmony might ever exist be 



36 



P/iES/DENTS OF THE UN/TED STATES. 



tweeii tlic two naticjiis. Tlic flags of the 
two republics wt-rc intertwined in the hall 
of the convention. Mr. Monroe presented 
the American colors, and received those of 
France in return. The course which he 
pursued in Paris was so annoying to Eng- 
land and to the friends of England in 
this country that, near the close of Wash- 
ington's administration, Mr. Monroe, was 
recalled. 

After his return Colonel Monroe wrote a 
book of 400 pages, entitled " A View of the 
Conduct of the Executive in Foreign Af- 
fairs." In this work he very ably advo- 
cated his side of the question; but, with 
the magnanimity of the man, he recorded a 
warm tribute to the patriotism, ability and 
spotless integrity of John Jay, between 
whom and himself there was intense antag- 
onism ; and in subsequent 3'ears he ex- 
pressed in warmest terms his perfect 
veneration for the character of George 
Washington. 

Shortly after his return to this country 
Colonel Monroe was elected Governor of 
Virginia, and held that office for three 
years, the period limited by the Constitu- 
tion. In 1802 he was an Envoy to France, 
and to Spain in 1805, and was Minister to 
England in 1803. In i8o6 he returned to 
his quiet home in Virginia, and with his 
wife and children and an ample competence 
from liis paternal estate, enjoyed a few years 
of (hjmestic repose. 

In 1809 Mr. JefTerson's second term of 
office expired, and many of the Rei)ul)lican 
party were anxious to nominate James 
Monroe as his successor. The majoritv 
were in favor of Mr. Madison. Mr. Mon- 
roe withdrew his name and was soon after 
chosen a second time Governor of Virginia. 
He soon resigned that office to accept the 
position of Secretary of State, offered him 
by President Madison. The correspond- 
ence which he then carried on with the 
British Government demonstrated that 



there was no hope of any peaceful adjust- 
ment of our difficulties with the cabinet of 
St. James. War was consequently declared 
in June, 1812. Immediately after the sack 
of Washington the Secretary of War re- 
signed, and Mr. Monroe, at the earnest 
request of Mr. Madison, assumed the ad- 
ditional duties of the War Department, 
without resigning his position as Secretary 
of State. It has been confidently stated, 
that, had Mr. Monroe's energies been in the 
War Department a few months earlier, the 
disaster at Washington would not have 
occurred. 

The duties now devolving upon Mr. Mon- 
roe were extremely arduous. Ten thou- 
sand men, picked from the veteran armies 
of Englanil, were sent with a powerful fleet 
to New Orleans to acquire possession of 
the mouths of the Mississippi. Our finan- 
ces were in the most deplorable condition. 
The treasury was exhausted and our credit 
gone. And yet it was necessary to make 
the most rigorous preparations to meet the 
foe. In this crisis James Monroe, the Sec- 
retary of W^ar, with virtue unsurpassed in 
Greek or Roman story, stepped forward 
and pledged his own individual credit as 
subsidiary to that of the nation, and thus 
succeeded in placing the city of New Or- 
leans in such a posture of defense, that it 
was enabled snccessfuUv to repel the in- 
vader. 

Mr. Monroe was truly the armor-bearer 
of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. His energy 
in the double capacity of Secretary, bt^th 
of State and War, pervaded all the depart- 
ments of the country. He proposed to 
increase the army to 100,000 men, a meas- 
ure which he deemed absolute!}' necessary 
to save us from ignominious defeat, but 
which, at the same time, he knew would 
render his name so unpopular as to preclude 
the possibility of his being a successful can- 
didate for the Presidency. 



fAMES MONROE. 



yj 



The happy result of the conference at 
Ghent in securing peace rendered the in- 
crease of the army unnecessary; but it is not 
too much to say that James Monroe placed 
in the hands of Andrew Jackson the 
weapon with which to beat off the foe at 
New Orleans. Upon the return of peace 
Mr. Monroe resigned the department of 
war, devoting himself entirely to the duties 
of Secretary of State. These he continued 
to discharge until the close of President 
Madison's administration, with zeal which 
was never abated, and with an ardor of 
self-devotion which made him almost for- 
getful of the claims of fortune, health or 
life. 

Mr. Madison's second term expired in 
March, 1817, and Mr. Monroe succeeded 
to the Presidency. He was a candidate of 
the Republican party, now taking the name 
of the Democratic Republican. In 1821 he 
was re-elected, with scarcely any opposition. 
Out cf 232 electoral votes, he received 231. 
The slavery question, which subsequently 
assumed such ft)rmidable dimensions, now 
began to make its appearance. The State 
of Missouri, which had been carved out of 
that immense territory which we had pur- 
chased of France, applied for admission to 
the Union, with a slavery Constitution. 
There were not a few who foresaw the 
evils impending. After the debate of a 
week it was decided that Missouri could 
not be admitted into the Union with slav- 
ery. This important question was at length 
settled by a compromise proposed by 
Henry Clay. 

The famous " Monroe Doctrine," of which 
so much has been said, originated in this 
way: In 1823 it was rumored that the 
Holy Alliance was about to interfere to 
prevent the establishment of Republican 
liberty in the European colonies of South 
America. President Monroe wrote to his 
old friend Thomas Jefferson for advice in 
the emergency. In his reply under date of 



October 24, Mr. Jefferson writes upon the 
supposition that our attempt to resist this 
European movement might lead to war: 

" Its object is to introduce and establish 
the American system of keeping out of our 
land all foreign powers; of never permitting 
those of Europe to intermeddle with the 
affairs of our nation. It is to maintain our 
own principle, not to depart from it." 

December 2, 1823, President Monroe 
sent a message to Congress, declaring it to 
be the policy of this Government not to 
entangle ourselves with the broils of Eu- 
rope, and not to allow Europe to interfere 
with the affairs (jf nations on the American 
continent; and the doctrine was announced, 
that any attempt on the part of the Euro- 
pean powers " to extend their system to 
any portion of this hemisphere would be 
regai^ded by the United States as danger- 
ous to our peace and safety." 

March 4, 1825, Mr. Monroe surrendered 
the presidential chair to his Secretary of 
State, John Quincy Adams, and retired, 
with the universal respect of the nation, 
to his private residence at Oak Hill, Lou- 
doun County, Virginia. His time had been 
so entirely consecrated to his country, that 
he had neglected his pecuniary interests, 
and was deeply involved in debt. The 
welfare of his coimtry had ever been up- 
permost in his mind. 

For many years Mrs. Monroe was in such 
feeble health that she rarely appeared in 
public. In 1830 Mr. Monroe took up his 
residence with his son-in-law in New York, 
where he died on the 4th of July, 1831. 
The citizens of New York conducted his 
obsequies with pageants more imposing 
than had ever been witnessed there before. 
Our country will ever cherish his mem- 
ory with pride, gratefully enrolling his 
name in the list of its benefactors, pronounc- 
ing him the worthy successor of the illus- 
trious men who had preceded him in the 
presidential chair. 



38 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UN /TED STATES. 












OHN QUINCY ADAMS, 
the sixth President of the 
United States, 1825-9, 
was born in tlic lural 
home of his honored 
father, John Adams, in 
Q u i n c y , Massachusetts, 
Jidy II, 1767. His mother, 
a woman of exalted worth, 
watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant 
absence of his father. He 
commcnctfl his education 
at the village school, giving 
at an early period indica- 
tions of superior mental en- 
dowments. 

When eleven years of age he sailed with 
his father for Europe, where the latter was 
associated with Franklin and Lee as Minister 
Plenipotentiary. The intelligence of John 
Quincy attracted the attention of these men 
and received from them flattering marks of 
attention. Mr. Atlams had scarcely returned 
to this country in 1779 ere he was again 
sent abroad, and John Quincy again accom- 
panied him. On this voyage he commenced 
a diary, which practice he continued, with 
but few interruptions, until his death- He 
journeyed with his father from Ferrol, in 
Spain, to Paris. Here he applied himself 
for six months to study; then accompanied 



his father to Holland, where he entered, 
first a school in Amsterdam, and then the 
Universit}' of Leyden. In 1781, when only 
fourteen years of age, he was selected by 
Mr. Dana, our Minister to the Russian 
court, as his private secretary. In this 
school of incessant labor he spent fourteen 
months, and then returned alone to Holland 
through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. Again he resumed his studies 
under a private tutor, at The Hague. 

In the spring of 1782 he accompanied his 
father to Paris, forming acquaintance with 
the most distinguished men on the Conti- 
nent. After a short visit to England, he re- 
turned to Paris and studied until May, 
1785, wiicn he returned to America, leav- 
ing his father an embassador at the court 
of St. Jaincs. In 17S6 he entered ttie jun- 
ior class in Harvard University, and grad- 
uated with the second honor of his class. 
The oration he delivered on this occasion,_ 
the " Importance of Public Faith to the 
Well-being of a Community," was pub- 
lished — an event very rare in this or any 
other land. 

Upon leaving college at the age of twenty 
he studied law three years with the Hon. 
Thcophilus Parsons in Newburyport. In 
1790 he opened a law office in Boston. The 
profession was crowded with able men, and 
the fees were small. The first year he had 




J, 2 . J^lcinry^ 



JOHN ^CriNCi- ADAMS. 



no clients, but not a moment was lost. The 
second year passed away, still no clients, 
and still he was dependent upon his parents 
for support. Anxiously he awaited the 
third year. The reward now came. Cli- 
ents began to enter his office, and before 
the end of the year he was so crowded 
with business that all solicitude respecting 
a support was at an end. 

When Great Britain commenced war 
against France, in 1793, Mr. Adams wrote 
some articles, urging entire neutrality on 
the part of the United .States. The view 
was not a popular one. Many felt that as 
France had helped us, we were bound to 
ht'p France. But President Washington 
coincided with Mr. Adams, and issued his 
proclamation of neutrality. His writings 
at this time in the Boston journals gave 
him so higli a reputation, that in June, 
1794, he was appointed b)' Washington 
resident Minister at the Netherlands. In 
July. 1797. he left The Hague to go to Port- 
ugal as Minister Plenipotentiary. Wash- 
in<rtonat this time wrote to his father, John 
Adams: 

" Without intending to compliment the 
father or the mother, or to censure any 
others, I give it as my decided opinion, 
that Mr. Adams is the most valuable char- 
acter we have abroad; and there remains 
no doubt in my mind that he will yirove the 
ablest of our diplomatic corps." 

On his way to Portugal, upon his arrival 
in London, he met witii dispatches direct- 
ing him to the court of Berlin, but request- 
ing him to remain in London until he should 
receive instructions. Wliile waiting he 
was marricil to Miss Louisa Catherine John- 
son, to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged. Miss Johnson was a daughter of 
Mr. Joshua Johnson, American Consul 
in London, and was a lady endowed with 
that beauty and those accomplishments 
which fitted her to move in the elevated 
sphere for which she was destined. 



In July, 1799, having fulfilled all the pur- 
poses of his mission, Mr. Adams returned. 
In 1802 he was chosen to the Senate of 
Massachusetts from Boston, and then was 
elected Senator of the United States for six 
years from March 4, 1804. His reputation, 
his ability and his experience, placed him 
immediately among the most prominent 
and influential members of that body. He 
sustained the Government in its measures 
of resistance to the encroachments of Eng- 
land, destroying our commerce and insult- 
ing our flag. There was no man in America 
more familiar with the arrogance of the 
British court upon these points, and no 
one more resolved to present a firm resist- 
ance. This course, so truly patriotic, and 
which scarcely a voice will now be found 
to condemn, alienated him from the Fed- 
eral party dominant in Boston, and sub- 
jected him to censure. 

In 18015 Mr. Adams was chosen professor 
of rhetoric in Harvard College. His lect- 
ures at this place were subsequently pub- 
lished. In 1809 he was sent as Minister to 
Russia. He was one of the commissioneis 
that negotiated the treaty of peace with 
Great Britain, signed December 24, 1814, 
and he was appointed Minister to the court 
of St. James in 1815. In 1817 he became 
Secretary of State in Mr. Monroe's cabinet 
in which position he remained eight years. 
Few will now contradict the assertion that 
the duties of that office were never more 
ably discharged. Probably the most im- 
portant measure which Mr. Adams con- 
ducted was the purchase of Florida from 
Spain for $5,000,000. 

The campaign of 1824 was an exciting 
one. Four candidates were in the field. 
Of the 260 electoral votes that were cast, 
Andrew Jackson received ninetv-nine; John 
Ouincy Adams, eighty-four; William H. 
Crawford, forty-one, and Henry Cla)% 
thirty-seven. As there was no choice b}' 
the people, the question went to the House 



4' 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



of Representatives. Mr. Clay gave the 
vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and he 
was elected. 

The friends of all disappointed candidates 
now combined in a venomous assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more dis- 
graceful in the past history of our country 
than the abuse which was poured in one 
uninterrupted stream upon this high- 
minded, upright, patriotic man. There was 
never an administration more pure in prin- 
ciples, more conscientiously devoted to tiic 
best interests of the country, than that of 
John Ouincv Adams; and never, perhaps, 
was there an administration more unscru- 
pulousl)' assailed. Mr. Adams took his seat 
in the presidential chair resolved not to 
know any partisanship, but only to con- 
sult for the interests of the whole Republic, 

He refused to dismiss any man from f)f- 
fice for his political views. If he was a faitli- 
ful ofTicer that was enougii. Bitter nuist 
have been his disappointment to find that the 
Nation could not appreciate such conduct. 

Mr. Adams, in liis public maimers, was 
cold and repulsive; tiu)ugli with his per- 
sonal friends he was at times very genial. 
This chilling address very seriously de- 
tracted from his popularity. No one can 
read an impartial lecord of his administra- 
tion without admitting tliat a more noble 
example of uncompromising dignity can 
scarcely be found. It was stated publicly 
that Mr. Adams' administration was to be 
put down, " though it be as pure as the an- 
gels which stand at the right hand of the 
throne of God." Many of the active par- 
ticipants in these scenes lived to regret the 
course they pursued. Some 3'ears after, 
Warren R. Davis, of South Carolina, turn- 
ing to Mr. Adams, then a member of the 
House of l^epresentatives, said: 

" Well do I remember the enthusiastic 
zeal with which we reproached tiie admin- 
istration of that gentleman, and the ardor 
and vehemence with which wc labored to 



bring in another. For the share I had in 
these transactions, and it was not a small 
one, I hope God will forgive me, for I shall 
never forgive myself!' 

March 4, 1829, Mr. Adams retired from 
the Presidency and was succeeded by An- 
drew Jackson, the latter receiving 168 out 
of 261 electoral votes. John C. Calhoun 
was elected Vice-President. The slavery 
question now began to assume pretentious 
magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Ouinc}', and pursued his studies with ima- 
bated zeal. But he was not long permitted 
to remain in retirement. In November, 
1830, he was elected to Congress. In this 
he recognized the principle that it is honor- 
able for the General of yesterdav to act as 
Corporal to-day, if by so doing he can ren- 
der service to his country. Deep as are 
our obligations to John Qnincy Adams for 
his services as embassador, as Secretary of 
State and as President; in his capacity as 
legislator in the House of Representa- 
tives, he conferred benefits upon our land 
which eclipsed all the rest, and wiiicii can 
never be over-estimated. 

For seventeen )-ears, until his death, he 
occupied the post of Representative, tow- 
ering above all his peers, ever ready to do 
brave battle for freedom, and winning the 
title of " the old man eloquent." Upon 
taking his seat in the House he announced 
that he sliould hold himself bound to no 
party. Me was usually the first in his 
place in tin- morning, and the last to leave 
his seat in the evening. Not a measure 
could escape his scrutiny. The battle 
which he fought, almost singly, against the 
pro-slavery party in the Government, was 
sublime in its moral daring and heroism. 
For persisting in presenting j)ctitions for 
the abolition of slavery, he was threatened 
with indictment by the Grand Jury, witii 
expulsion from the House, with a.ssassina- 
tion; but no threats could intimidate hina, 
and his final triumpii was complete. 



JOHN ^UINCr ADAMS. 



43 



On one occasion Mr. Adams presented a 
petition, signed by several women, against 
the annexation of Texas for the purpose of 
cutting it up into slave States. Mr. How- 
ard, of Maryland, said that these women 
discredited not only themselves, but their 
section of the country, by turning from 
their domestic duties to the conflicts of po- 
litical life. 

"Are women," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" to have no opinions or actions on subjects 
relating to the general welfare ? Where 
did the gentleman get his principle? Did 
he find it in sacred history. — in the language 
of Miriam, the prophetess, in one of the 
noblest and sublime songs of triumph that 
ever met the human eve or ear? Did the 
gentleman never hear of Deborah, to whom 
the children of Israel came up for judg- 
ment ? Has he forgotten the deed of Jael, 
who slew the dreaded enemy of her coun- 
try ? Has he forgotten Esther, who, by her 
petition saved her people and her coun- 
try ? 

" To go from sacred history to profane, 
does the gentleman there find it ' discredita- 
ble ' for women to take an interest in politi- 
cal affairs? Has he forgotten the Spartan 
mother, who said to her son when going 
out to battle, ' My son, come back to me 
witli thy shield, or upon thy shield ?' Does 
he remember Cloelia and her hundred com- 
panions, who swam across the river unir^er 
a shower of darts, escaping from Porsena ? 
Has he forgotten Cornelia, the mother of 
the Gracchi? Does he not remember Por- 
tia, the wife of Brutus and the daughter of 
Cato? 

" To come to later periods, what says the 
history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors ? 
To say nothing of Boadicea, the British 
heroine in the time of the Cajsars, what 
name is more illustrious than that of Eliza- 
beth ? Or, if he will go to the continent, 
will he not find the names of Maria Theresa 
ot Hungary, of the two Catherines of 



Prussia, and of Isabella of Castile, the pa- 
troness of Columbus ? Did she bring ' dis- 
credit ' on her sex by mingling in politics ? " 

In this glowing strain Mr. Adams si- 
lenced and overwhelmed his antagonists. 

In January, 1842, Mr. Adams presented 
a petition from forty-five citizens of Haver- 
hill, Massachusetts, praying for a peaceable 
dissolution of the Union. The pro-slavery 
party in Congress, who were then plotting 
the destruction of the Government, were 
aroused to a pretense of commotion such as 
even our stormy hall of legislation has 
rarely witnessed. They met in caucus, and, 
finding that they probably would not be 
able to expel Mr. Adams from the House 
drew up a series of resolutions, which, if 
adopted, would inflict upon him disgrace, 
equivalent to expulsion. Mr. Adams had 
presented the petition, which was most re- 
spectfully worded, and had moved that it be 
referred to a committee instructed to re- 
port an answer, showing the reason wh> 
the prayer ouglit not to be granted. 

It was the 25th of Januar3^ The whole 
body of the pro-slavery party came crowd- 
ing together in the House, prepared to 
crush Mr. Adams forever. One of the num- 
ber, Thomas F. Marshall, of Kentucky, was 
appointed to read the resolutions, which 
accused Mr. Adams of high treason, of 
having insulted the Government, and 01 
meriting expulsion; but for which deserved 
punishment, the House, in its great mercy, 
would substitute its severest censure. With 
the assumption of a very solemn and mag- 
isterial air, there being breathless silence in 
the audience, Mr. Marshall liurled the care- 
fully prepared anathemas at his victim. 
Mr. Adams stood alone, the whole pro-slav- 
ery party against him. 

As soon as the resolutions were read, 
every eye being fixed upon him, that bold 
old man, whose scattered locks were whit- 
ened by seventy-five years, casting a wither- 
ing glance in the direction of his assailants> 



44 



PFESfDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



in a clear, shrill tone, tremulous with sup- 
pressed emotion, said: 

"In reply to this audacious, atrocious 
chargfe of higrh treason, I call for the read- 
ing of the first paragraph of the Declaration 
of Independence. Read it ! Read it ! and 
see what that says of the rights of a people 
to reform, to change, and to dissolve their 
Government.' 

The attitude, the manner, the tone, the 
words; the venerable old man, with flash- 
ing eye and flushed cheek, and whose very 
form seemed to expand under the inspiration 
of the occasion — all presented a scene over- 
flowing in its sublimity. There was breath- 
less silence as that paragraph was read, in 
defense of whose principles our fathers had 
pledged their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. It was a proud hour to Mr. 
Adams as they were all compelled to listen 
to the words: 

" That, to secure these rights, govern- 
ments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the 
governed; and that whenever any form of 
government becomes destructive of those 
ends, it is the right of the people to alter or 
abolish it, and to institute new government, 
laying its foundations on such principles 
and organizing its powers in such form 
as shall seem most likely to effect their 
safety and happiness." 

That one sentence routed and baffled the 



foe. The heroic old man looked around 
upon the audience, and thundered out, 
" Read that again ! " It was again read. 
Then in a few fiery, logical words he stated 
his defense in terms which even prejudiced 
minds could not resist. His discomfited 
assailants made several attempts to rally. 
After a conflict of eleven days they gave 
up vanquished and their resolution was ig- 
nominiously laid upon the table. 

In January, 1846, when seventy-eight 
years of age, he took part in the great de- 
bate on the Oregon question, displaying 
intellectual vigor, and an extent and accu- 
racy of acquaintance with the subject that 
excited great admiration. 

On the 2ist of Februarv, 1848, he rose on 
the floor of Congress with a paper in his 
hand to address the Speaker. Suddenly 
he fell, stricken bv paral3'sis, and was caught 
in the arms of those around him. For a 
time he was senseless and was conveyed 
to a sofa in the rotunda. With reviving 
consciousness he opened his eyes, looked 
calmly around and said, " This is the end of 
earth." Then after a moment's pause, he 
added, " / am content." These were his last 
words, and he soon breathed his last, in the 
apartment beneath the dome of the capitol 
— -the theater of his labors and his triumphs. 
In the language of hymnology, he " died at 
his post;" he " ceased at once to work and 
live." 




^z<^.£^^ , ._ <z:^Cc ^^^^J-€^ 



ANDREW yACKSON. 



47 



?Si- '^^' "" ' fv^^f^":™" """•"•""""" ' " "'^"^I^g 

y !..;;:.=::.■..... ^.^^-^ J> 

1^ 




"^"^NDREW JACKSON, 
the seventh President 
t^ of the United States, 
i829-'37, was born at 
the Waxhaw Settle. 
-,-.-.-,T- '■ j'^ ment, Union Coun- 
"* t}-. North Carolina, 
March i6, 1767. His parents 
were Scotch-Irish, natives of 
Carrickfergus, who came to 
America in 1765, and settled 
on Twelve-Mile Creek, a trib- 
utary of the Catawba. His 
father, who was a poor farm 
laborer, died shortly before An- 
drew's birth, when his mother removed to 
Waxhaw, where some relatives resided. 

Few particulars of the childhood of Jack- 
son have been preserved. His education 
was of the most limited kind, and he showed 
no fondness for books. He grew up to be a 
tall, lank boy, with coarse hair and freck- 
led cheeks, with bare feet dangling from 
trousers too short for him, very fond of ath- 
letic sports, running, boxing and wrestling. 
He was generous to the younger and 
weaker boys, but very irascible and over- 
bearing with his equals and superiors. He 
was profane — a vice in which he surpassed 
all other men. The character of his mother 



he revered; and it was not until after her 
death that his predominant vices gained 
full strength. 

In 1780, at the age of thirteen, Andrew, 
or Andy, as he was called, with his brother 
Robert, volunteered to serve in the Revo- 
lutionary forces under General Sumter, and 
was a witness of the latter's defeat at Hang- 
ing Rock. In the following year the 
brothers were made prisoners, and confined 
in Camden, experiencing brutal treatment 
from their captors, and being spectators of 
General Green's defeat at Hobkirk Hill. 
Through their mother's exertions the boys 
were exchanged" while suffering from small- 
pox. In two days Robert was dead, and 
Andy apparently dying. The strength of 
his constitution triumphed, and he regained 
health and vigor. 

As he was getting better, his mother 
heard the cry of anguish from the prison- 
ers whom the British held in Charleston, 
among whom were the sons of her sisters. 
She hastened to their relief, was attacked 
by fever, died and was buried where her 
grave could never be found. Thus Andrew 
Jackson, when fourteen years of age, was 
left alone in the world, without father, 
mother, sister or brother, and without one 
dollar which he could call his own. He 



48 



PRES/DEXTS OF Tfi£ UN/TED STATES. 



soon entered a saddler's shop, and labored 
diligently for six months. But graduall}-, 
as health returned, he became more and 
more a wild, reckless, lawless boy- He 
gambled, drank and was regarded as about 
the worst character that could be found. 

He now turned schoolmaster. He could 
teach the alphabet, perhaps the multiplica- 
tion table; and as he was a very bold bo)'. 
it is possible he might have ventured to 
teach a little writing. But he soon began to 
think of a profession and decided to study 
law. With a very slender purse, and on 
the back of a very fine horse, he set out 
for Salisbury, North Carolina, where he 
entered the law office of Mr. McCaj'. 
Here he remained two years, professedly 
studying law. He is still remembered in 
traditions of Salisbury, which say: 

" Andrew Jackson was the most roaring, 
rollicking, horse-racing, card-playing, mis- 
chievous fellow thatever lived in Salisbury. 
He did not trouble the law-books much." 

Andrew was now, at the age of twenty, 
a tall young man, being over six feet in 
height. He was slender, remarkably grace- 
ful and dignified in his manners, an exquis- 
ite horseman, and developed, amidst his 
loathesome profanity and multiform vices, a 
vein of rare magnanimity. His temper was 
fiery in the extreme; but it' was said of him 
that no man knew better than Andrew 
Jackson when to get angry and when not. 

In 1786 he was admitted to the bar, and 
two years later removed to Nashville, 
in what was then the western district of 
North Carolina, with the appointment of so- 
licitor, or public prosecutor. It was an of- 
fice of little honor, small emolument and 
great peril. Few men could be found to 
accept it. 

And now Andrew Jackson commenced 
vigorously to practice law. It was an im- 
portant part of his business to collect debts. 
It required nerve. During the first seven 
years of his residence in those wilds he 



traversed the almost pathless forest between 
Nashville and Jonesborough, a distance of 
200 miles, twenty-two times. Hostile In- 
dians were constantl}- on the watch, and a 
man was liable at any moment to be shot 
down in his own field. Andrew Jackson 
was just the man for this service — a wild, 
daring, rough backwoodsman. Daily he 
made hair-breadth escapes. He seemed to 
bear a charmed life. Boldlv, alone or with 
few companions, he traversed the forests, 
encountering all perils and triumphing 
over all. 

In 1790 Tennessee became a Territory, 
and Jackson was appointed, by President 
Washington, United States Attorney for 
the new district. In 1791 he married Mrs. 
Rachel Robards (daughter of Colonel John 
Donelson), whom he supposed to have been 
divorced in that year by an act of the Leg- 
islature of Virginia. Two years after this 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson learned, to their 
great surprise, that Mr. Robards had just 
obtained a divorce in one of the courts of 
Kentucky, and that the act of the Virginia 
Legislature was not final, but conditional. 
To remedy the irrcgularitv as much as pos- 
sible, a new license was obtained and the 
marriage ceremony was again performed. 

It proved to be a marriage of rare felic- 
ity. Probably there never was a more 
affectionate union. However rough Mr. 
Jackson might have been abroad, he was 
always gentle and tender at home; and 
through all the vicissitudes of their lives, he 
treated Mrs. Jackson with the most chival- 
ric attention. 

Under the circumstances it was not un- 
natural that the facts in the case of this 
marriage were so misrepresented by oppo- 
nents in the political campaigns a quarter 
or a century later as to become the basis 
of serious charges against Jackson's moral- 
ity which, however, have been satisfactorily 
attested by abundant evidence. 

Jackson was untiring in his duties as 



A. V DREW yACk'SOM. 



49 



United States Attorney, which (lemaiided 
frequent journeys through the wilderness 
and exposed him to Indian hostilities. He 
acquired considerable property in- land, and 
obtained such intluence as to be chosen 
a member of the convention which framed 
the Constitution for the new State of Ten- 
nessee, in 1796, and in that year was elected 
its first Representative in Congress. Albert 
Gallatin thus describes the first appearance 
of the Hon. Andrew Jackson in the House: 
" A tall, lank, uncouth-looking personage, 
with locks of hair hanging over his face and 
a cue down his back, tied with an eel skin; 
his dress singular, his manners and deport- 
ment those of a rough backwoodsman." 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the 
Democratic party. Jefferson was his idol. 
He admired Bonaparte, loved France and 
hated England. As Mr. Jackson took his 
seat. General Washington, whose second 
term of office was just expiring, delivered 
his last speech to Congress. A committee 
drew up a complimentary address in reply. 
Andrew Jackson did not approve the ad- 
dress and was one of twelve who voted 
against it. 

Tennessee had fitted out an expedition 
against the Indians, contrary to the policy 
of the Government. A resolution was intro- 
duced that the National Government 
should pay the expenses. Jackson advo- 
cated it and it was carried. This rendered 
him very popular in Tennessee. A va- 
cancy chanced soon after to occur in the 
Senate, and Andrew Jackson was chosen 
United States Senator by the State of Ten- 
nessee. John Adams was then President 
and Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President. 

In 1798 Mr. Jackson returned to Tennes- 
see, and resigned his seat in the Senate. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of that State, with a salary of 
$600. This oflice he held six years. It is 
said that his decisions, though sometimes 
ungrammatical, were generally right. He 



did not enjov his seat upon the bench, and 
renounced the dignity in 1804. About 
this time he was chosen Major-General of 
militia, and lost the title of judge in that of 
General. 

When he retired from the Senate Cham- 
ber, he decided to try his fortune through 
trade. He purchased a stock of goods in 
Philadelphia and sent them to Nashville, 
where he opened a store. He lived about 
thirteen miles from Nashville, on a tract of 
land of several thousand acres, mostly un- 
cultivated. He used a small block-house 
for a store, from a narrow window of 
which he sold goods to the Indians. As he 
had an assistant his office as judge did not 
materially interfere with his business. 

As to slavery, born in the midst of it, the 
idea never seemed to enter his mind that it 
could be wrong. He eventually became 
an extensive slave owner, but he was one of 
the most humane and gentle of masters. 

In 1804 Mr. Jackson withdrew from pol- 
itics and settled on a plantation which he 
called the Hermitage, near Nashville. He 
set up a cotton-gin, formed a partnership 
and traded in New Orleans, making the 
voyage on flatboats. Through his hot tem- 
per he became involved in several quarrels 
and " affairs of honor," during this period, 
in one of which he was severely wounded, 
but had the misfortune to kill his opponent, 
Charles Dickinson. For a time this affair 
greatly injured General Jackson's popular- 
ity. The verdict then was, and continues 
to be, that General Jackson was outra- 
geously wrong. If he subsequently felt any 
remorse he never revealed it to anyone. 

In 1805 Aaron Burr had visited Nash- 
ville and been a guest of Jackson, with 
whom he corresponded on the subject of a 
war with Spain, which was anticipated and 
desired by them, as well as by the people 
of the Southwest generally. 

Burr repeated his visit in September, 
1806, when he engaged in the celeorated 



SP 



PREJIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



combinations which led to his trial for trea- 
son. He was warmly received by Jackson, 
at whose instance a public ball was given 
in his honor at Nashville, and contracted 
with the latter for boats and provisions. 
Early in 1807, when Burr had been pro- 
claimed a traitor by President Jefferson, 
volunteer forces for the Federal service 
were organized at Nashville under Jack- 
son's command; but his energy and activ- 
ity did not shield him from suspicions of 
connivance in the supposed treason. He 
was summoned to Richmond as a witness 
in Burr's trial, but was not called to the 
stand, probably because he was out-spoken 
in his partisanship. 

On the outbreak of the war with Great 
Britain in 1812, Jackson tendered his serv- 
ices, and in January, 181 3, embarked for 
New Orleans at the head of the Tennessee 
contingent. In March he received an or- 
der to disband his forces; but in Septem- 
ber he again took tlie field, in the Creek 
war, and in ctiujunction with his former 
partner. Colonel Coffee, inflicted upon the 
Indians the memorable defeat at Talladega, 
Emuckfaw and Tallapoosa. 

In May, 1814, Jackson, who had now ac- 
quired a national reputation, was appointed 
a Major-General of the United States army, 
and commenced a campaign against the 
British in Florida. He conducted the de- 
fense at Mobile, September 15, seized upon 
Fensacola, November 6, and innnediately 
transported the bulk of his troops to New 
Orleans, then threatened by a powerful 
naval force. Martial law was declared in 
Louisiana, the State militia was called to 
arms, engagements with the British were 
fought December 23 and 28, and after re-en- 
forcements had been received on both sides 
tie famous victory of January 8, 1815, 
crowned Jackson's fame as a soldier, and 
made him the typical American hero of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. 

In i8i7-'i8 Jackson conducted the war 



against the Seminoles of Florida, during 
which he seized upon Fensacola and exe- 
cuted by courtmartial two British subjects, 

Arbuthnot and Ambrister acts which 

might easily have involved the United 
States in war both with Spain and Great 
Britain. Fortunately the peril was averted 
by the cession of Florida to the United 
States; and Jackson, who had escaped a 
trial for the irregularity of his conduct 
only through a division of opinion in Mon- 
roe's cabinet, was appointed in 1821 Gov- 
ernor of the new Territory. Soon after he 
declined the appointment of minister to 
Mexico. 

In 1823 Jackson was elected to the United 
States Senate, and nominated by the Ten- 
nessee Legislature for the Presidency. This 
candidacy, though a matter of surprise, and 
even merryment, speedily became popular, 
and in 1824, when the stormy electoral can- 
vas resulted in the choice of John Quincy 
Adams by the House of Representatives, 
General Jackson received the largt^st popu- 
lar vote among the four candidates. 

In 1828 Jackson was triumphantly elected 
President over Adams after a campaign of 
unparalleled bitterness. He was inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1829, and at once removed 
from office all the incumbents belonging to 
the opposite party — a procedure new to 
American politics, but which naturally be- 
came a precedent. 

His first term was characterized by quar- 
rels between the Vice-President, Calhoun, 
and the Secretary of State, Van Buren, at- 
tended by a cabinet crisis originating in 
scandals connected with the name of Mrs. 
General Eaton, wife of the Secretary of 
War; by the beginning of his war upon the 
United States Bank, and by his vigorous 
action against the partisans of Calhoun, 
who, in South Carolina, threatened to 
nullify the acts of Congress, establishing a 
protective tariff. 

in the Presidential campaign of 1S32 



ANDREW yACh'SON. 



5' 



Jackson received 219 out of 288 electoral 
votes, his competitor being Mr. Clay, while 
Mr. Wirt, on an Anti-Masonic platform, 
received the vote of Vermont alone. In 
1833 President Jackson removed the Gov- 
ernment deposits from the United States 
bank, thereby incurring a vote of censure 
from the Senate, whicli was, however, ex- 
punged four years later. During this second 
term of office the Cherokees, Choctaws and 
Creeks were removed, not without diffi- 
culty, from Georgia, Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, to the Indian Territory; the National 
debt was extinguished; Arkansas and 
Michigan were admitted as States to the 
Union; the Seminole war was renewed; the 
anti-slavery agitation first acquired impor- 
tance; the Mormon delusion, which had 
organized in 1829, attained considerable 
proportions in Ohio and Missouri, and the 
country experienced its greatest pecuniary 
panic. 

Railroads with locomotive propulsion 
were irtrodured into America during Jack- 
son's first term, and had become an impor- 
tant element of national life before the 
close of his second term. For many rea- 
sons, therefore, the administration of Presi- 
dent Jackson formed an era in American 
history, political, social and industrial. 
He succeeded in effecting the election of 



his friend Van Buren as his successor, re- 
tired from the Presidency March 4, 183/: 
and led a tranquil life at the Hermitage 
until his death, which occurred June 8, 
1845. 

During his closing years he was a pro- 
fessed Christian and a member of the Pres- 
byterian church. No American of this 
century has been the subject of such oppo- 
site judgments. He was loved and hated 
with equal vehemence during his life, but 
at the present distance of time from his 
career, while opinions still vary as to the 
merits of his public acts, few of his country- 
men will question tiiat he was a warm- 
hearteri, brave, patriotic, honest and sincere 
man. If his distinguishing qualities were 
not such as constitute statesmanship, in the 
highest sense, he at least never pretended 
to other merits than such as were written 
to his credit on the page of American his- 
tory — not attempting to disguise the de- 
merits which were equally legible. The 
majority of his countrymen accepted and 
honored iiim, in spite of all tiiat calumny 
as well as truth could allege against him. 
His faults may therefore be truly said to 
have been those of his time; his magnifi- 
cent virtues may also, witii the same jus- 
tice, be considered as typical of a state (J 
society which has nearly passed away. 



52 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




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ARTIN VAN BU- 
REN, the eighth 
: "tJO; President of the 
United States, 1837- 
'41, was born at Kin- 
/f^ derhook, New York, 
December 5, 1782. 
His ancestors were of Dutch 
origin, and were among the 
earliest emigrants from Hol- 
land to the banks of the 
Hudson. His father was a 
<^ . • tavern-keeper, as well as a 
^jQ; v farmer, and a very decided 
ll Democrat. 

'^ Martin commenced the study 
of law at the age of fourteen, and took an 
active part in politics before he had reached 
the age of twenty. In 1803 he commenced 
the practice of law in his native village. 
In 1809 he removed to Hudson, the shire 
town of his county, where he spent seven 
years, gaining strength by contending in 
the courts with some of the ablest men 
who have adorned the bar of his State. 
The heroic example of John Quincy Adams 
in retaining in office every faithful man, 
without regard to his political preferences, 
had been thoroughly repudiated by Gen- 
eral Jackson. The unfortunate principle 
was now fully established, that " to the 
victor belong the spoils." Still, this prin- 
ciple, to which Mr. Van Buren gave his ad- 



herence, was not devoid of inconveniences. 
When, subsequently, he attained power 
which placed vast patronage in his hands, 
he was heard to say : " I prefer an office 
that has no patronage. When I give a man 
an office I offend his disappointed competi- 
tors and their friends. Nor am 1 certain oi 
gaining a friend in the man I appoint, for, 
in all probabilitv, he expected something 
better." 

In 1812 Mr. Van Buren was elected to 
the State Senate. In 181 5 he was appointed 
Attorney-General, and in 1816 to the Senate 
a second time. In 18 18 there was a great 
split in the Democratic party in New York, 
and Mr. Van Buren tool*the lead in or- 
ganizing that portion of the party called 
the Albany Regency, which is said to have 
swayed the destinies of the State for a 
quarter of a century. 

In 1821 he was chosen a member of the 
convention for revising the State Constitu- 
tion, in which he advocated an extension of 
the franchise, but opposed universal suf- 
frage, and also favored the proposal that 
colored persons, in order to vote, should 
have freehold property to the amount of 
$250. In this year he was also elected to 
the United States Senate, and at the con- 
clusion of his term, in 1827, was re-elected, 
but resigned the following year, having 
been chosen Governor of the State. In 
March, 1829, he was appointed Secretary o) 




^ /^ 7 2' 2- ^^ i-L^'-f^ ^^^.^^^t^ 



MARTIN VAN BUREN. 



55 



State by President Jackson, but lesis^ned 
in April, 183 1, and during tlie recess of 
Congress was appointed minister to Eng- 
land, whither he proceeded in September, 
but the Senate, when convened in Decem- 
ber, refused to ratify the appointment. 

In May, 1S32, Mr. Van Buren was nomi- 
nated as the Democratic candidate for Vice- 
President, and elected in the following 
November. May 26, 1836, he received the 
nomination to succeed General Jackson as 
President, and received 170 electoral votes, 
out of 283. 

Scarcely had he taken iiis seat m the 
Presidential chair when a financial panic 
swept over the land. Many attributed 
this to the war which General Jackson had 
waged on the banks, and to his endeavor to 
secure an almost exclusive specie currency. 
Nearl}' every bank in the country was com- 
pelled to suspend specie payment, and ruin 
pervaded ail our great cities. Not less than 
254 houses failed in New York in one week. 
All public works were brought to a stand, 
and there was a general state of dismay. 
President Van Buren urged the adoption of 
the independent treasury system, which 
was twice passed in the Senate and defeated 
in the House, but fir.ally became a law near 
the close of his administration. 

Another important measure was the pass- 
age of a pre-emption law, giving actual set- 
tlers the preference in tlie purchase of 
public lands. The question of slavery, also, 
now began to assume great prominence in 
national politics, and after an elaborate 
anti-slavery speech by Mr. Slade, of Ver- 
mont, in the House ot Representatives, the 
Southern members withdrew for a separate 
consultation, at which Mr. Rhett, of South 
Carolina, proposed to declare it e.vpedient 
that the Union should be dissolved ; but 
the matter was tided over by the passage 
of a resolution that no petitions or papers 
relating to slavery should be in any way 
considered or acted upon. 



In the Presidential election of 1840 Mr. 
Van Buren was nominated, without opposi- 
tion, as the Democratic candidate, William 
H. Harrison being the candidate of the 
Whig party. The Democrats carried only 
seven States, and out of 294 electoral votes 
only sixty were for Mr. Van Buren, the re- 
maining 234 being for his opponent. The 
Whig popular majority, however, was not 
large, the elections in many of the States 
being very close. 

March 4, 1841, Mr. Van Buren retired 
from the Presidency. From his fine estate 
at Lindenwald he still exerted a powerful 
influence upon tiie politics of the country. 
In 1844 he was again proposed as the 
Democratic candidate for the Presidency, 
and a majority of the delegates of the 
nominating convention were in his favor ; 
but, owing to his opposition to the pro- 
posed annexation of Texas, he could not 
secure the requisite two-thirds vote. His 
name was at length withdrawn by his 
friends, and Mr. Polk received the nomina- 
tion, and was elected. 

In 1848 Mr. Cass was the regular Demo- 
cratic candidate. A schism, however, 
sprang up in the party, upon the question 
of the permission of slavery in the newly- 
acquired territory, and a portion of the 
party, taking the name of " Free-Soilers," 
nominated Mr. Van Buren. They drew 
away sufficient votes to secure the election 
of General Taylor, the Whig candidate. 
After this Mr. Van Buren retired to his es- 
tate at Kinderhook, where the remainder 
of his life was passed, with the exception of 
a European tour in 1853. He died at 
Kinderhook, July 24, 1862, at the age of 
eighty years. 

Martin Van Buren was a great and good 
man, and no one will question his right to 
a high position among those who have 
been the successors of Washington in the 
faithful occupancy of the Presidential 
chair. 



te 



PRESfDENTS OF THE V XI TED STATES. 








WILLIAM HENRY HflRHISDN. i 











L 1 A M HENRY 
HARRISON, the 
ninth President of 
the United States, 
I 84 I, was born 
February 9, 1773, 
ni Charles County, 
Virginia, at Berkeley, the resi- 
dence of his father, Governor 
Benjamin Harrison. He studied 
at Hampden, Sidney College, 
with a view of entering the med- 
ical profession. After graduation 
he went to Philadelphia to study 
medicine under the instruction of 
Dr. Rush. 
George Washington was then President 
jf the United States. The Indians were 
committing fearful ravages on our Nortii- 
western frontier. Young Harrison, either 
lured by the love of adventure, or mo.ved 
by the sufferings of families exposed to the 
most horrible outrages, abandoned his med- 
ical studies and entered the army, having 
obtained a commission of ensign from Pres- 
ident Washington. The first duty assigned 
him was to take a train of pack-horses 
bound to Fort Hamilton, on the Miami 
River, about forty miles from Fort Wash- 
ington. He was soon promoted to the 



rank of Lieutenant, and joined the army 
which Wasliington had placed under the 
coinuKuul of General Wayne to prosecute 
more vigorously the war with the In- 
dians. Lieutenant Harrison received great 
commendation from his commanding offi- 
cer, and was promoted to the rank of 
Captain, and placed in command at Fort 
Washington, now Cincmnati, Ohio. 

About this time he married a daughter 
of John Cleves Symmes, one of the fron- 
tiersmen who had established a thriving 
settlement on the bank of the Maumee. 

In 1797 Captain Harrison resigned his 
commission in the army and was appointed 
Secretary of the Northwest Territory, and 
ex-officio Lieutenant-Governor, General St. 
Clair being then Governor of the Territory. 
At that time the law in reference to the 
disposal of the public lands was such that 
no one could purchase in tracts less than 
4,000 acres. Captain Harrison, in the 
face of violent opposition, succeeded in 
obtaining so much of a modification of 
this unjust law that the land was sold in 
alternate tracts of 640 and 320 acres. The 
Northwest Territory vas then entitled 
to one delegate in C(»ngress, and Cap- 
tain Harrison was chosen to fill that of- 
fice. In 1800 he was appointed Governor 




I 



^////a-z.^^^. 



WILLIAM HENRI HARRISON. 



S9 



of Indiana Territory and soon after of 
Upper Louisiana. He was also Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, and so well did he 
fulfill these duties that he was four times 
appointed to this office. During his admin- 
istration he effected thirteen treaties with 
the Indians, by which the United States 
acquired 60,000,000 acres of land. In 1804 
he obtained a cession from the Indians of 
all the land between the Illinois River and 
the Mississijipi. 

In 1S12 he was made Major-General of 
Kentucky militia and Brigadier-Genera! 
HI the army, with the command of the 
Northwest frontier. In 181 3 he was made 
Major-General, and as such won much re- 
nown by the defense of Fort Meigs, and the 
battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813. In 
1814 he left the army and was employed in 
Indian affairs by the Government. 

In 1816 General Harrison was chosen a 
member of the National House of Repre- 
sentatives to represent the district of Ohio. 
In the contest which preceded his election 
he was accused of corruption in respect to 
the commissariat of the army. Immedi- 
ately upon taking his seat, he called for an 
investigation of the charge. A committee 
was appointed, and his vindication was 
triumphant. A high compliment was paid 
to his patriotism, disinterestedness and 
devotion to the public service. For these 
services a gold medal was presented to him 
with the thanks of Congress. 

In 1 8 19 he was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio, and in 1824, as one of the Presiden- 
tial electors of that State, he gave his vote 
to Henry Clay. In the same year he was 
elected to the Senate of the United States. 
In 1828 he was appointed by President 
Adams minister plenipotentiary to Colom- 
bia, but was recalled by General Jackson 
immediately after the inauguration of the 
latter. 

Upon his return to the United States, 
General Harrison retired to his farm at 



North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, six- 
teen miles below Cincinnati, where for 
twelve years he was clerk of the County 
Court. He once owned a distillery, but 
perceiving the sad effects of whisky upon 
the surrounding population, he promptly 
abandoned his business at great pecuniary 
sacrihce. 

In 1836 General Harrison was brought 
forward as a candidate for tiie Presidency. 
Van Buren was the administration candi- 
date; the opposite party could not unite, 
and four candidates were brought forward. 
General Harrison received seventy-three 
electoral votes without anv general concert 
among his friends. The Democratic party 
triumphed and Mr. Van Buren was chosen 
President. In 1839 General Harrison was 
again nominated for the Presidency by the 
Whigs, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Van Buren being the Democratic candi- 
date. General Harrison received 234 elec- 
toral votes against sixty for his opponent. 
This election is memorable chiefly for the 
then extraordinary means employed during 
the canvass for popular votes- Mass meet- 
ings and processions were introduced, and 
the watchwords " log cabin " and " hard 
cider" were effectuall\- used by the Whigs, 
and aroused a pO|)ular enthusiasm. 

A vast concourse of people attended his 
inauguration. His address on that occasion 
was in accordance with his antecedents, and 
gave great satisfaction. A short time after he 
took his seat, he was seized b\' a pleurisy- 
fever, and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died April 4, just one short month after 
his inauguration. His death was universally 
regarded as one of the greatest of National 
calamities. Never, since the death of 
Washington, were there, throughout one 
land, such demonstrations of sorrow. Not 
one single spot can be found to sully his 
fame; and through all ages Americans will 
pronounce with love and reverence the 
name of William Henry Harrison. 



6o 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 










i^'\^^ J^' J^' J^ 




mmi 




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OHN TYLER, the tentli 
President of the United 
States, was born in 
Cliarles City County, 
N'irginia, March 29, 1790. 
:■■ His father, Judge John 
'r\ler, possessed large 
landed estates in Virginia, 
and was one of the most 
(listinguislied men of his 
(lav, tilling the offices of 
Speaker of the House of 
Delegates, Judge of the Su- 
preme Court and Governor 
of the State. 
At the early age of twelve 
young John entered William and Mary 
College, and graduated with honor when 
but seventeen years old. He then closely 
applied himself to the study of law, and at 
nineteen years of age commenced the prac- 
tice of .his profession. When only twenty- 
one he was elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He acted with the Demo- 
cratic party and advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For hve years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving 
nearly the unanimous vote of his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age he was 
elected a member of Congress. He advo- 
cated a strict construction of the Constitu- 
tion and the most careful vigilance over 



State rights. He was soon compelled to 
resign his seat in Congress, owing to ill 
health, but afterward took his seat in the 
State Legislature, where he exerted a 
powerful influence in promoting public 
works of great utility. 

In 1825 Mr. Tvler was chosen Governor 
of his State — a high honor, for Virginia 
had many able men as competitors for 
the prize. His administration was signally 
a successful one. He urged forward inter- 
nal improvements and strove to remove 
sectional jealousies. His popularity secured 
his re-election. In 1827 he was elected 
United States Senator, and upon taking his 
seat jomcd the ranks of the opposition. He 
opposed the tariff, voted against the bank 
as unconstitutional, opposed all restrictions 
upon slavery, resisted all projects ot inter- 
nal improvements by the General Govern- 
ment, avowed his sympathy with Mr. Cal- 
houn's views of nullification, and declared 
that General Jackson, by his opposition to 
the nuUifiers, had abandoned the principles 
of the Democratic party. Such was Mr. 
Tyler's record in Congress. 

This hostility to Jackson caused Mr. 
Tyler's retirement frojn the .Senate, after 
his election to a second term. He soon 
after removed to Williamsburg for the 
better education of his children, and again 
took hris seat in the Legislature. 




JO 





'r-'"' 



JOHN TYLER. 



63 



In 1839 he was sent to the National Con- 
vention at Harrisburg to nominate a Presi- 
dent. General Harrison received a majority 
of votes, much to the disappointment of the 
South, who had wished for Henry Clay. 
In order to conciliate the Southern Whigs, 
John Tyler was nominated for Vice-Presi- 
dent. Harrison and Tyler were inaugu- 
rated March 4, 1841. In one short month 
from that time President Harrison died, 
and Mr. Tyler, to his own surprise as well 
as that of the nation, found himself an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His 
position was an exceedingly difficult one, 
as he was opposed to the main principles of 
the party which had brought him into 
power. General Harrison had selected a 
Whig cabinet Should he retain them, and 
thus surround himself with councilors 
whose views were antagonistic to his own? 
or should he turn against the party that 
had elected him, and select a cabinet in 
harmony with himself? This was his fear- 
ful dilemma. 

President Tyler deserves more charity 
than he has received. He issued an address 
to the people, which gave general satisfac- 
tion. He retained the cabinet General 
Harrison had selected. His veto of a bill 
chartering a new national bank led to an 
open quarrel with the party which elected 
him, and to a resignation of the entire 
cabinet, except Daniel Webster, Secretary 
of State. 

President Tyler attempted to conciliate. 
He appointed a new cabinet, leaving out all 
strong party men, but the Whig members 
of Congress were not satisfied, and they 
published a manifesto September 13, break- 
ing off all political relations. The Demo- 
crats had a majority in the House ; the 
Whigs in the Senate. Mr. Webster soon 
found it necessary to resign, being forced 
out by the pressure of his Whig friends. 

April 13, 1844, President Tyler concluded, 
ihrough Mr, Calhoun, a treaty for the an- 



nexation of Texas, which was rejected by 
the Senate ; but he effected his object in the 
closing days of his administration by the 
passage of the joint resolution of March i 

1845. 

He was nominated for the Presidency by 
an informal Democratic Convention, held 
at Baltimore in May, 1844, but soon with- 
drew from the canvass, perceiving that he 
had not gained the confidence of the Demo- 
crats at large. 

Mr. Tyler's administration was particu- 
larly unfortunate. No one was satisfied. 
Whigs and Democrats alike assailed him. 
Situated as he was, it is more than can 
be expected of hiuuan nature that he 
should, in all cases, have acted in tiie wisest 
manner ; but it will probably be the verdict 
of all candid men, in a careful review of his 
career, that John Tyler was placed in a 
position of such difficulty that he could not 
pursue any course which would not expose 
him to severe censure and denimciation. 

In 18 1 3 Mr. Tyler married Letitia Chris- 
tian, who bore him three sons and three 
daughters, and died in Washington in 1842. 
June 36, 1844, he contracted a second mar- 
riage with Miss Julia Gardner, of New 
York. He lived in almost complete retire- 
ment from politics until February, 1861, 
when he was a member of the abortive 
" peace convention," held at Washington, 
and was chosen its President. Soon after 
he renounced his allegiance to the United 
States and was elected to the Confederate 
Congress. He died at Richmond, January 
17, 1862, after a short illness. 

Unfortunately for his memory the name 
of John Tyler must forever be associated 
with all the misery of that terrible Re- 
bellion, whose cause he openly espoused. 
It is with sorrow that history records that 
a President of the United States died while 
defending the flag of rebellion, which was 
arrayed against the national banner in 
deadly warfare. 



6+ 



PHES/DEXIS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



M. 






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MES KNOX POLK, 

the eleventh President of 
t^ the United States, 1845- 
a ,1^^- '49, was born in Meck- 

j'.'.tV lenburg^ County, North 
^tC -^j^^. Carolina, November 2, 
1795. He was the eldest 
son of a family of six sons 
and four daughters, and was 
- a grand-nephew of Colonel 
Thomas Polk, celebrated in 
connection with the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence. 

In I S06 his father, Samuel 
Polk, emigrated with his fam- 
ily two or three hundred miles west to the 
valley of the Duck River. He was a sur- 
veyor as well as farmer, and gradually in- 
creased in wealth until he became one of 
the leading men of the region. 

In the common schools James rapidly be- 
came proficient in ail the common branches 
of an English education. In 181 3 he was 
sent to Murlreesboro Academy, and in the 
autumn of 181 5 entered the sophomore class 
in the University of North Carolina, at 
Chapel Hill, graduating in 1818. After a 
short season of recreation he went to Nash- 
ville and entered the law office of Felix 
Grundy. As soon as he had his finished 



legal studies and been admitted to the bar, 
he returned to Columbia, the shire town of 
Maur\- County, and opcneu an office. 

James K. Polk ever adhered to the polit- 
ical faith of iiis father, which was that of 
a Jeffersonian Republican. In 1823 he was 
elected to the Legislature of Tennessee. As 
a " strict constructionist," he did not think 
that the Constitution empowered the Gen- 
eral Government to carry on a system of 
internal improvements in the States, but 
deemed it imptjrtant that it should have 
that power, and wished the Constitution 
amended that it might be conferred. Sub- 
sequentlv, however, he became alarmed lest 
the General Government become so strong 
as to undertake to interfere with slaver)'. 
He therefore gave all his influence to 
strengthen tlie State governments, and to 
check the growth of the central power. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss 
Mar}' Childress, of Rutherford County, Ten- 
nessee. Had some one then whispered to 
him that he was destined to become Presi- 
dent of tiic United States, and that he must 
select for his companion one who would 
adorn that distinguished station, he could 
not have made a more fitting choice. She 
was truly a lady of rare beauty and culture. 

In the fall of 1825 Mr. Polk was chosen 
a member of Congress, and was continu- 




&'' 



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DC- 



yA\fES K. POLK. 



67 



ously re-elected until 1839. He then with- 
drew, only that he might accept the 
gubernatorial chair of his native State. 
He was a warm friend of General Jackson, 
who had been defeated in the electoral 
contest by John Ouiiicy Adams. This 
latter gentleman liad just taken his seat in 
the Presidential (hair when Mr. Polk took 
his seat in the House of Representatives. 
He immediately united himself with the 
opponents of Mr. Adams, and was soon 
regarded as the leader of tlu- Jackson jjarty 
in the House. 

The four years of Mr. Adams' adminis- 
tration passed away, and General Jackson 
took tne Presidential chair. Mr. Polk had 
now become a man of great influence in 
Congress, and was chairman of its most 
important committee — that of VV^ays and 
Means. Eloquently he sustained General 
Jackson in all his measures — in his hostility 
to internal improvements, to the banks, and 
to the tariff. Eight years of General Jack- 
son's administratif)n passed away, and the 
powers he had wielded passed into the 
hands of Martin Van Buren ; and still Mr. 
Polk remained in the House, the advocate 
of that type of Democracy which tiiose 
distinguished men upheld. 

During five sessions of Congress Mr. 
Polk was speaker of the House. He per- 
formed his arduous duties to general satis- 
faction, and a unanimous vote of thanks to 
hmi was passed f)y the House as he with- 
drew, March 4, 1839. He was elected 
Governor by a large majority, and took 
the oath of office at Nashville, October 14, 
1839. He was a candidate for re-election 
in 1841, but was defeated. In the mean- 
time a wonderful revolution had swept 
over the country. W. H. Harrison, the Whig 
candidate, had been called to the Presiden- 
tial chair, and in Tennessee the Whig ticket 
had been carried by over 12,000 majority. 
Under these circumstances Mr. Polk's suc- 
cess was hopeless, iStill he canvassed the 



State with his Whig competitor, Mr. Jones, 
traveling in the most friendly manner to- 
gether, often in the same carriage, and at 
one time sleeping in the same bed. Mr. 
Jones was elected by 3,000 majority. 

And now the question of the annexation 
of Texas to our country agitated the whole 
land. When this question became national 
Mr. Polk, as the avowed champion of an- 
nexation, became the Presidential candidate 
of the pro-slavery wing of the Democratic 
party, and George M. Dallas their candi- 
date for the Vice-Presidency. They were 
elected by a large majority, and were in- 
augurated March 4, 1845. 

President Polk formed an able cabinet, 
consisting of James Buchanan, Robert J. 
Walker, William E. Marcy, George Ban 
croft. Cave J(jhnsun and Jf)hn V. Mason. 
The Oregon boundary question was settled, 
the Department of the Interior was created, 
the low tariff ol 1846 was carried, the 
financial system of the Government was 
reorganized, the Mexican war was con- 
ducted, which resulted in the acquisition of 
California and New Mexico, and had far- 
reaching consequences upon the later fort- 
unes of the republic. Peace was made. 
We had wrested from Mexico territory 
cc|ual to four times the empire oi France, 
and five times that of Spain. In the prose- 
cution of this war we expended 20,000 
lives and more than $100,000,000. Of this 
money $15,000,000 were paid to Mexico. 

Declining to seek a renomination, Mr. 
Polk retired from the Presidency March 4, 
1849, when he was succeeded l)\- General 
Zachary Taylor. He retired to Nashville, 
and died there June 19, 1849, in the fifty- 
fourth year of his age. His funeial was at- 
tended the following dav, in Nashville, with 
every demonstration of respect. He left 
no children. Without being possessed of 
extraordinary' talent, Mr. Polk was a capable 
administrator of public affairs, and irre- 
proachable in private life. 



38 



PRESfDEXTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 




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ACHARY TAY- 
LOR, the twelfth 
President of the 
United States, 
i849-'50, was born 
in Orange County, 
Virijinia, Septem- 
ber 24, 17S4. His father, 
Richard Taylor, was Colo- 
nel of a Virginia regiment 
in the Revolutionar}' war, 
and removed to Kentucky 
in 17S5 ; purchased a large 
plantation near Louisville 
and became an influential cit- 
izen ; was a member of the convention that 
framed the Constitution of Kentucky; served 
in both branches of the Legislature ; was 
Collector of the port of Louisville under 
President Washington ; as a Presidential 
elector, voted for Jefferson, Madison, Mon- 
roe and Clay; died January 19,1829. 

Zachary remained on his father's planta- 
tion until 1808, in which year (May 3) he 
was appointed First Lieutenant in the 
Seventh Infantry, to fill a vacancy oc- 
casioned by the death of his elder brother, 
Hancock. Up to this point he had received 
but a limited education. 

Joining his regiment, at New Orleans, he 



was attacked with, veilow fever, with nearly 
fatal termination. In November, 1810, he 
was promoted to Captain, and in the sum- 
mer of 1 81 2 he was in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the left bank of the Wabash 
River, near the present site of Terre Haute, 
his successful defense of which with but a 
handful of men against a large force of 
Indians which had attacked him was one of 
the first marked military achievements of 
the war. He was then brcvctted Major, 
and in 1814 promoted to the full rank. 

During the remainder of the war Tavlor 
was activclv employed on the Western 
frontier. In the peace organization of 181 5 
he was retained as Captain, but soon after 
resigned and settled near Louisville. In 
May, t8i6, however, he re-entered the army 
as Major of the Third Infantry ; became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Infantry 
in 1819, and in 1832 attained the Colonelcy 
of the First Infantry, of which he had been 
Lieutenant-Colonel since 1821. Ondifferent 
occasions he had been called to Washington 
as member of a military' board for organiz- 
ing the militia of the Union, and to aid the 
Government with his knowledge in the 
organization of the Indian Bureau, having 
for many years discharged the duties of 
Indian agent over large tracts of Western 




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ZA CHA R r TA YL OR. 



country. He served through the Black 
Hawk war in 1832. and in 1837 was ordered 
to take command in Florida, then the scene 
of war with the Indians. 

In 1846 he was transferi^ed to the com- 
niaiid of tlie Army of the Southwest, from 
which he was relieved the same year at his 
own request. Subsequently he was sta- 
tioned on the Arkansas frontier at Forts 
Gibbon, Smith and Jesup, which latter work 
nad been built under his direction in 1822. 

May 28, 1845, he received a dispatch from 
the Secretary of War informing him of the 
receipt of information by the President 
"that Texas would shortly accede to the 
terms of annexation," in which event he 
was instructed to defend anil protect her 
from "foreign invasion and Indian incur- 
sions." He proceeded, upon the annexation 
of Texas, with about 1,500 men to Corpus 
Chnsti, where his force was increased to 
some 4,000. 

Taylor was brevetted Major-General May 
28, and a month later, June 29, 1846, his full 
commission to that grade was issued. After 
needed rest and reinfcjrcement, he advanced 
in September on Monterey, which city ca- 
pitulated after three-days stubborn resist- 
ance. Here he took up his winter quarters. 
The plan for the invasion of Mexico, by 
way of Vera Cruz, with General Scott in 
command, was now determined upon by 
the Govenrment, and at the moment Taylor 
was about to resume active operations, he 
received orders to send the larger part of 
his force to reinforce the army of General 
Scott at Vera Cruz. Though subsequently 
reinforced by raw recruits, yet after pro- 
viding a garrison for Monterey and Saltillo 
he had but about 5,300 effective troops, of 
which but 500 or 600 were regulars. In 
this weakened condition, however, he was 
destined to achieve his greatest victory. 
Confidently relying upon his strength at 
Vera Cruz to resist the enemy f(jr a long 
tuue, .Santa Anna directed his entire army 



against Taylor to overwhelm him, and then 
to return to oppose the advance of Scott's 
more formidable invasion. The battle of 
Biiena Vista was (ought February 22 and 
23, 1847. Taylor received the thanks ol 
Congress and a gold medal, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," the sobriquet given 
him in the army, became a household word. 
He remained in quiet possession of the 
Rio Grande Valley until November, when 
he returned to the United States. 

In the Whig convention which met at 
Philadelphia, June 7, 1S48, Taylor was nomi- 
nated on the fourth ballot as candidate A 
the Whig party for Presideiu, over Henry 
Clay, General Scott and Daniel Webster. 
In November Taylor received a majority 
of electoral votes, antl a p(3pidar vote of 
1,360,752, against 1,219,962 ftjr Cass and 
Butler, and 291,342 for Van Buren and 
Adams. General Taylor was inaugurated 
March 4, 1849. 

The free and slave States being then equal 
m number, the struggle for supremacy on 
the part of the leaders in Congress was 
violent and bitter. In the sununer of 1849 
California adopted m convention a Consti- 
tution prohibiting slavery within its borders. 
Taylor advocated the immediate admission 
of California with her Constitution, and the 
postponement of the question as to the other 
Territories until they could hold conven- 
tions and decide for themselves whether 
slavery should exist within their borders. 
This policy ultimately prevailed through 
the celebrated " Compromise Measures" of 
Henry Clay; but not during the life of the 
brave soldier and patriot statesman. July 
5 he was taken suddenly ill with a bilious 
fever, which proved fatal, his death occur- 
ring July 9, 1850. One of his daughters 
married C(jlonel W. W. S. Bliss, his Adju- 
tant-General and Chief of Staff in Florida 
and Mexico, and Private Secretary duruig 
his Presidency. Another daughter was 
married to Jefferson Davis. 



PUES/DEiVTS OF THE UXITED STATES. 




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I LLARD FILL- 
MORE, the thir- 
^^^ teenth President 
of the United 
States, i850-'3, was 
born in Summer 
Hill, Cayuga 
County, New York, Janu- 
ary 7, i8cx). He was of 
New England ancestry, and 
ills educational advantages 
were limited. He ear!}- 
learned the clothiers' trade, 
but spent ail his leisure time 
ill study. At nineteen years 
of age he was induced by 
Judge Walter Wood to abandon his trade 
and commence tiie study of law. Upon 
learning that the young man was entirely 
destitute of means, he look him into his 
own office and loaned him such money as 
he needed. That he might not be heavily 
burdened with debt, young Fillmore taught 
school during the winter months, and in 
various other ways helped himself along. 
At the age of t\yenty-three he was ad- 
mitted to the Court of Common Pleas, and 
commenced the practice of his profession 
in the village i;f Aurora, situated on the 



eastern bank of the Cayuga Lake. In 1825 
he married Miss Abigail Powers, daughter 
of Rev. Lemuel Powers, a lady of great 
moral worth. In 1825 he took his seat in 
the House of Assembly of his native State, 
as Representative from Erie County, 
whither he had recently moved. 

Though he had never taken a very 
active part in politics his vote and his sym- 
pathies were with the Whig party. The 
State was then Democratic, but his cour- 
tesy, ability and integrity won the respect 
of his associates. In 1832 he was elected 
to a seat in the United States Congress. 
At the close of his term he returned to his 
law practice, and in two years more he was 
again elected to Congress. 

He now began to have a national reputa- 
tion. His labors were very arduous. To 
draft resolutions in the committee room, 
and then to defend them against the most 
skillful opponents on the floor of the House 
requires readiness of mind, mental resources 
and skill in debate such as few possess. 
Wear\' with these exhausting labors, and 
pressed by the claims of his private afTairs, 
Mr. Fillmore wrote a letter to his constitu- 
ents and declined to be a candidate for re- 
election. Notwithstanding this communi- 



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t^.t t-c-o-u) 



MILLARD F/LLMORE. 



75 



cation his friends met in convention and 
renominated him by acclamation. Thougli 
g^ratified by this proof of their appreciation 
of his labors he adhered to his resolve and 
returned to his home. 

In 1847 Mr. Fillmore was elected to the 
important office of comptroller of the State. 
In entering upon the very responsible duties 
which this situation demanded, it was nec- 
essary for him to abandon his profession, 
and he removed to the city of Albany. In 
this year, also, the Whigs were looking 
around to find suitable candidates for the 
President and Vice-President at the ap- 
proaching election, and the names of Zach- 
ary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying cry of the Whigs. On the 4th 
of March, 1S49, General Taylor was inaug- 
urated President and Millard Fillmore 
Vice-President of the United States. 

The great question of slavery had as- 
sumed enormous proportions, and perme- 
ated every subject that was brought before 
Congress. It was evident that the strength 
of our institutions was to be severely tried. 
July 9, 1850, President Taylor died, and, by 
the Constitution, Vice-President Fillmore 
became President of the United States. 
The agitated condition of the country 
brought questions of great delicacy before 
him. He was bound by his oath of office 
to execute the laws of the United States. 
One of these laws was understood to be, : 
that if a slave, escaping from bondage, 
should reach a free State, the United States ' 
was bound to do its utmost to capture hnn 
and return him to his master. Most Chris- 
tian men loathed this law. President Fill- 
more felt bound by his oath rigidly to see 
it enforced. Slavery was organizing armies 
to invade Cuba as it had invaded Texas, 
and annex it to the United States. Presi- 
dent Fillmore gave all the influence of his 
exalted station against the atrocious enter- 
prise. 

Mr. Fillmore had serious difficulties to 



contend with, since the opposition had a 
majority in both Houses. He did every- 
thing in his power to conciliate the South, 
but the pro-slavery party in that section 
felt the inadequency of all measures of tran. 
sient conciliation. The population of the 
free States was so rapidly increasing over 
that of the slave States, that it was inevita- 
ble that the power of the Government 
should soon pass into the hands of the free 
States. The famous compromise measures 
were adopted under Mr. Fillmore's admin- 
istration, and the Japan expedition was 
sent out. 

March 4, 1853, having served one term, 
President Fillmore retired from office. He 
then took a long tour through the South, 
where he met with quite an enthusiastic 
reception. In a speech at Vicksburg, al- 
luding to the rapid growth of the country, 
he said: 

" Canada is knocking for admission, and 
Mexico would be glad to come in, and 
without saying whether it would be right 
or wrong, we stand with open arms to re- 
ceive them; for it is the manifest destiny of 
this Government to embrace the whole 
North American Continent." 

In 1855 Mr. Fillmore went to Europe 
where he was received with those marked 
attentions which his position and character 
merited. Returning to this country in 
1856 he was nominated for the Presidency 
by the "Know-Nothing" party. Mr. Bu- 
chanan, the Democratic candidate was 
the successful competitor. Mr. Fillmore 
ever afterward lived in retirement. Dur- 
ing the conflict of civil war he was mostly 
silent. It was generally supposed, how- 
ever, that hissympath}' was with the South- 
ern Confederacy. He kept aloof from the 
conflict without any words of cheer to the 
one party or the other. For this reason 
he was forgotten by both. He died of 
paralysis, in Buffalo, New York, March 8, 
1874.' 



76 



PRESIDEXTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 







Fpi]I^LII] PIERGE. 




EHH^HSEfe 











RANKLIN PIERCE, 

. „ . , the fourteenth Presi- 

3 v.|te^l^^ ^.v-o dent of the United 
-^(imm^/"^' '-''-- ■'^'^ites, was born in 
Hillsborough, New 
Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 23, 1804. His 
father, Governor 
Benjamin Pierce, was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, a man of 
rigid integrity ; was for sev- 
eral years in the State Legis- 
lature, a member of the Gov- 
ernor's council and a General 
of the militia. 
Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 
As a boy he listened eagerly to the argu- 
ments of his lather, enforced by strong and 
ready utterance and earnest gesture. It 
was in the days of intense political excite- 
ment, when, all over the New England 
States, Federalists and Democrats were ar- 
rayed so fiercely against each other. 

In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College, at 
Brunswick, Maine, and graduated in 1824, 
and commenced the study of law in the 
office of Judge Woodbury, a very distin- 
guished lawyer, and in 1827 was admitted 
to the bar. He practiced with great success 
in Hillsborough and Concord. He served 



in the State Legislature four years, the last 
two of which he was chosen Speaker of the 
House bj' a very large vote. 

In 1833 he was elected a member of Con- 
gress. In 1837 he was elected to the United 
States Senate, just as Mr. Van Buren com- 
menced his administration. 

In 1834 he married Miss Jane Means 
Appleton, a lady admirably fitted to adorn 
every station with which her husband was 
honored. Three sons born to them all 
found an early grave. 

Upon his accession to office, President 
Polk appointed Mr. Pierce Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the United States, but the offer was 
declined in consequence of numerous pro- 
fessional engagements at home and the 
precarious state of Mrs. Pierce's health. 
About the same time he also declined the 
nomination for Governor by the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The war with Mexico called Mr. Pierce 
into the arm}'. Receiving the appointment 
of Brigadier-General, he embarked with a 
portion of his troops at Newport, Rhode 
Island, May 27, 1847. He served during 
this war, and distinguished himself by his 
bravery, skill and excellent judgment. 
When he reached his home in his native 
State he was enthusiastically received by 





A ( 




hIiANKI.IN J'lEliCK. 



the advoc.'itcs of llic war, and coldly \>s it'; 
opponents. I Ic resumed llie practice ol his 
profession, lic(|uenlly taking; an a< live |iarl. 
in political qucstifjns, and {^ivin^ his siip- 
pcjrt to the ])ro-slavery vvin;^ of the Demo- 
cratic; party. 

\\\\\r I.;, 185.!, the {democratic; con vent ion 
incl in U.illimore lo nominrite a candidate 
lor the Presidency. f'"or four d;i3's they 
coMtinned in session, and in thirty-live bal 
lotirif^rs no one had received the rerjuisile 
Iwo-tliirds vote. Not a vole li.id In-' n 
tlirown thus far loi (General I'ieii < . I hen 
the V'ir^ini.i dele;^alion ljroii;^iil lorw.aid 
his nami-. There were fonrlcen more \y.\\ 
lotiiigs, during which (n-ncial I'ii-m e 
gained slrenj^lh, inilil, al ihe loilymnlli 
ballot, he re(;eived .'."^2 voles, and .all other 
candidates eleven, (jeneral Winlii Id Scoil 
was the Whig' cantJidate. (ieneial I'len c 
was eleeled wilfi jrrcat nijammity. Only 
four .Slates Veimont, .M.iss.aehnsel Is, Ken. 
lucky aiifl 'Tennessee — cast their eleeloi.il 
votes af^ainsl him. March 4, 1H53, he was 
inauf^nraled President of the United .Slates, 
and William \i. Kiiij^, V'n c I'resident. 

President Pierce's cabinet consisted ol 
Willi.im S. Marcy, fames Gnl In ie, |c||crson 
Davis, James C. Dobbin, l<obeil iVIcClcl 
land, James Campbell and C'aleb ('ushing^. 

At the dem.ind ol ,l;ivery Ihe Misscjiiri 
Com[jrcHnise was rejjealed, and all the 'l"er- 
rit(;ries of the Union were thrown open to 
slavery. The Territory ol K.insas, west 'if 
MisscjLiri, was settled by emij.(r;uils mainly 
from the North. Aec-ordinj^ lo law, they 
were afjoni lo meet ;ind decide whelhei 
slavery or IreecJcjm should be the law of 
that realm. Slavery m Missouri and 
other Scjulheru .States rallied her armed 
legions, marched them iiitr> Kansas, took 
possession of the f>olls, drrjve away the 
citizens, deposited their own votc-s by 
handluls, went thrcjugh the farce of count- 
ing them, and then declared that, by an 
overwhelming majority, slavery was cstalj- 



lished in Kansas. 'These f;iels iioborly 
denied, and \il President Pk 11 e', adrnini'- 
Iraliori (ell bound lo 1 i- ,pei I llii- decision 
oblamed by such vol''.. The cilizens ol 
Kansas, the in.ajorily of whom weic free- 
Slate nil n, met in (iinvenliori and ai|o|ite(| 
I lie lollowiii'', I esol v : 

" Rcsoh'ii/, 'Th.il tin: body ol lui.-u who, 
jur I he jiasl two iiioiil lis, ha ve been passing 
laws foi Ihe people of oiii 'Territory, 
moved, I oilir.eled .lud dul.ilerl In by the 
i|einat;ogiies ol olliei Slales, ;ire to us a 
loreign body, represeni ing on!)' Ihe lawless 
invaders who elected them, .ind iiol the 
pe()pl(: ol I his 'Ten itoiy ; ih.il we repudiate 
I lieii ,11 I K 111 a , ihe moil' 1 1 on, ( on Minii/iat ion 
mI an act ol violem e, 11 11 1 p.il 1011 ,ind fi and 
iin|i,u alleli-d ill ill'- history ol Ih'- IIiii'Mi." 
Ill'- li '■'• Sl.il'- p'')pl'-iil Kansas als'j sent 
a p'lili'iii to ill'- (>'ii( lal ( iovrnment, im- 
iiloiing its prol'-'l ion. Ii. leply ihe Presi- 
il'-iil issued :i pro' l.'iinal ion, ili'l.iiiir' that 
L'gislal iw thus cr(;at''l iiiir I b'- M'.og- 
nized as th'- legitimate IvCgisLil in '• ol Kan- 
sas, anil lh.it lis laws wen- binding U|)')n 
th'- pe')|)li-, .ind th.il.if necessary, I he wii'de 
for''- 1 1\ III'- ( civ'i ninental arm woiil'l be 
put loi I h lo inl'd ' '- I li'jse la ws. 

James liiii lianan succeeded fiim in the 
Prcsirlcnc-y, and, M;irf;h 4, iHi;/, Prc-sirlent 
Pierce I'-Iiwl to Ins li'iiin- in f 'ni'.'ir'l, 
New Ilampshire. Wfien th'- R'bellioii 
burst forth Mr. I'ierce remainc'l steadfast 
to 111'- piim iples hi; li:i'l alw;iys cherishe'l, 
and gave his syni|)alhi(;s t'j tlu; pro-slavery 
party, with whii h h<- li;i'l ever fjeen allied. 
II': d'-clined I') 'I') ;inylhiiig, either by 
voic; or ])Cn, I'j strenglhen the haii'ls ol 
the Nati'inal f j'jv';rnmeiil. II'; resid'-'l m 
C'Mieor'l until his flealli, whi' :li occnrr';d in 
October, i'6Ciij. II'; w;is '>ii'- 'if the most 
genial au'l so';i;il of nnai, g';nerous to 
a fault, ;iii'l ' onl 1 ibiil'-'l liberally of his 
UKjderatc mean , Im tin: alleviation of suf- 
fering and wrint. lie was an honored 
communicant 'jf the Episcopal church. 



So 



PRESIDENTS OF THE US'ITED STATES. 




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AMES BUCHANAN, the 
tifteenth President of the 
St4'*e United States. 1.S57 '61, 
was born in Fianklin 
Count y, Pennsylvania, 
A p r i 1 23, 1791. The 
place where his lather's 
cabin stood was called 
Stony Batter, and it was 
situated in a wild, romantic 
spot, in a gorge of mount- 
ains, with towering sum- 
mits rising all around. He 
was of Irish ancestry, his 
father having emigrated in- 
1783, with ver)' little prop- 
erty, save his own strong arms. 

James remained in his secluded home for 
eight years enjoying very few social or 
intellectual advantages. His parents were 
industrious, frugal, prosperous and intelli- 
gent. In 1799 his father removed to Mcr- 
cersburg, where James was placed in 
school and commenced a course in English, 
Greek and Latin. His progress was rapid 
and in 1801 he entered Dickinson College 
at Carlisle. Here he took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution, and was 
able to master the most abstruse subjects 
with facility. In 1809 he graduated with 
the highest honors in his class. 

He was then eighteen years of age, tall, 



graceful and in vigorous health, fond ol 
athletic sports, an unerring shot and en- 
livened with an exuberant flow of animal 
spirits. He immediatel}" commenced the 
study of law in the city of Lancaster, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1812. He rose 
very rapidly in his profession and at once 
took undisputed stand with the ablest law- 
yers of the State. When but twent)'-six 
years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate 
one of the Judges of the State, who was 
tried upon articles of impeachment. At 
the age of thirty it was generalU' admitted 
that he stood at the head of the bar, and 
there was no lawver in the State who havl 
a more extensive or lucrative practice. 

In 1812, just after Mr. Buchanan hatl 
entered upon the practice of the law, our 
second war with England occurred. With 
all his powers he sustained the Govern- 
ment, eloqucntlv urging the rigorous pros- 
ecution of the war; and even enlisfing as a 
private soldier to assist in repelling the 
British, who had sacked Washington and 
were threatening Baltimore. He was at 
that time a Federalist, but when the Con- 
stitution was adopted by both parties, 
Jefferson truly said, " We are all Federal- 
ists: we are all Republicans." 

The opposition of the Federalists to the 
war with England, and the alien and sedi- 




-^me^ Gy^y^c y€^ yi..^ ,,7^ 



y.lA/ES BUCHANAN. 



°?, 



tion laws of John Adams, brought the party 
into dispute, and the name of Federalist 
became a reproach. Mr. Buchanan almost 
immediately upon entering Congress began 
to incline more and more to the Repub- 
licans. In the stormy Presidential election 
of 1824, in which Jackson, Clay, Crawford 
and John Ouincy Adams were candidates, 
Mr. Buchanan espoused the cause of Gen- 
eral Jackson and unrelentingly opposed the 
administration of Mr. Adams. 

Upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
General Jackson appointed Mr. Buchanan, 
minister to Russia. Upon his return in i S33 
he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met as his associates, 
Webster, Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He 
advocated the measures proposed by Presi- 
dent Jackson of making reprisals against 
France, and defended the course of the Pres- 
ident in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removals from office of those who were not 
thesupporters of his administration. Upon 
this question he was brought into direct col- 
lision with Henry Clay. In the discussion 
of the question inspecting the admission of 
Michjo-an and Arkansas into the Union, Mr. 
Buchanan defined his position by saying: 

" The older I grow, the more I am in- 
clined to be what is called a State-rights 
man." 

M. de Tocqueville, in his renowned work 
upon " Democracy in iVmerica," foresaw 
the trouble which was inevitable from the 
doctrine of State sovereignty as held by 
Calhoun and Buchanan. He was con- 
vinced that the National Government was 
losing that strength which was essential 
to its own existence, and that the States 
were assuming powers which threatened 
the perpetuity of the Union. Mr. Buchanan 
received the book in the Senate and de- 
clared the fears of De Tocqueville to be 
groundless, and yet he lived to sit in the 
Presidential chair and see State after State, 
in accordance with his own views of State 



rights, breaking from the Union, thus 
crumbling our Republic into ruins; while 
the unhappy old man folded his arms in 
despair, declaring that the National Consti - 
tution invested him with no power to arrest 
the destruction. 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presi- 
dencv, Mr. Buchanan became Secretary of 
State, and as such took his share of the 
responsibility in the conduct of the Mexi- 
can war. At the close of Mr. Polk's ad- 
ministration, Mr. Buchanan retired to pri- 
vate life; but his intelligence, and his great 
ability as a statesman, enabled him to exert 
a powerful influence in National affairs. 

Mr. Pierce, upon his election to the 
Presidency, honored Mr. Buchanan with 
the mission to England. In the year 1856 
the National Democratic convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. 
The political conflict was one of the most 
severe in which our country has ever en- 
gaged. On the 4th of March, 1857, Mr. 
Buchanan was inaugurated President. His 
cabinet were Lewis Cass, Howell Cobb, 
J. B. Floyd, Isaac Toucey, Jacob Thomp- 
son, A. V. Brown and J. S. Black. 

The disruption of the Democratic party, 
in consequence of the manner in which the 
issue of the nationality of slavery was 
pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at 
the National convention, held at Charleston 
in April, 1S60, for the nomination of Mr. 
Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of Southern delegates withdrew upon the 
passage of a resolution declaring that the 
constitutional status of slavery should be 
determined by the Supreme Court. 

In the next Presidential canvass Abra- 
ham Lincoln was nominated by the oppo- 
nents of Mr. Buchanan's administration. 
Mr. Buchanan remained in Washington 
long enough to see his successor installed 
and then retired to iiis home in Wheatland. 
He died June 1, 1868, aged seventy-seven 
years. 



S4 



PHES/DENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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BR AH AM LIN- 
COLN, the sixteenth 
President of the 
United States, i86i-'5, 
V^ „ was born February 
"F"'^^^ 12, 1809, in Larue 
^y^ (then Hardin) County, 
Kentuci<v, in a cabin on Nolan 
Creek, three miles west of 
1 1 udgensville. H i s parents 
w c I' e Thomas and Nancy 
(Hanks) Lincoln. Of his an- 
cestry and early years the little 
that is known may best be 
given in his own language : " M)' 
parents were both born in \'irgini;t, of un- 
distinguished fanulies — second families, per- 
haps 1 should say. My mother, who died 
in my tenth year, was of a family of the 
name of Hanks, some of whom now remain 
in Adams, and others in Macon County, 
Illinois. My paterna' grandfather, Abra- 
ham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockbridge 
County, Virginia, to Kentucky in 1781 or 
1782, where, a year or two later, he was 
killed by Indians — not in battle, but by 
stealth, when he was laboring to open a 
farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were 
Quakers, went to V^irginia from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania. An effort to iden- 



tify them with the New England family of 
the same name ended in nothing more defi- 
nite than a similarity of Christian names in 
both families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mor- 
decai, Solomon, Abraham and the like. 
My father, at the death of liis father, was 
but six years of age, and he grew up, liter- 
ally, without education. He removed from 
Kentucky to what is now Spencer County, 
Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached 
our new home about the time the State came 
into the Union. It was a wild region, with 
bears and other wild animals still in the 
woods. There I grew to manhood. 

" There were some schools, so called, but 
no qualification was ever required of a 
teacher bevonn ' readin', writin', and cipher- 
in' to the rule of three.' If a straggler, sup- 
posed to understand Latin, happened to 
sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked 
upon as a wizard. There was absolutely 
nothing to excite ambition for education. 
Of course, when I came of age I did not 
know much. Still, somehow, I could read, 
write and cipher to the rule of three, and 
that was all. 1 have not been to school 
since. The little advance I now have upon 
this store of education I have picked up 
from time to time under the pressure of 
nccessilv. I was raised to farm-work, which 




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ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



87 



I cdntiiuied till I was t\venty-t\v(j. At 
twenty-one I came to Illinois and passed 
the first year in Macon County. Then I got 
to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, 
now in Menard County, where I remained 
a year as a sort of clerk in a store. 

•■ Then came the Black Hawk war, and I 
was elected a Captain of volunteers — a suc- 
cess which gave me more pleasure than anv 
I have had since. I went the campaign, 
was elated ; ran for the Legislature the 
same year (1832) and was beaten, the only 
time I have ever been beaten by the people. 
The next and three succeeding biennial 
elections I was elected to the Legislature, 
and was never a candidate afterward. 

" During this legislative period I had 
studied law, and removed to Springfield to 
practice it. In 1S46 I was elected to the 
Lower House of Congress ; was noX. a can- 
didate for re-election. From 1849 t<' 1854, 
inclusive, I practiced the law more assid- 
uously than ever before. Always a Whig 
in politics, and generally on the Whig elec- 
toral tickets, making active canvasses, I was 
losing interest in politics, when the repeal 
of the Missouri Compromise roused me 
again. What I have done since is pretty 
well known." 

The early residence of Lincoln in Indi- 
ana was sixteen miles north of the Ohio 
River, on Little Pigeon Creek, one and a 
half miles east of Gentryville, within the 
present township of Carter. Here his 
mother died October 5, 1818, and the next 
year his father married Mrs. Sally (Bush) 
Johnston, of Elizabethtown, Kentucky. She 
was an affectionate foster-parent, to whom 
Abraham was indebted for his first encour- 
agement to study. He became an eager 
reader, and the few books owned in the 
vicinity were many times perused. He 
worked frequently for the neighbors as a 
farm laborer ; was for some time clerk in a 
store at Gentryville; and became famous 
throughout that region for his athletic 



powers, his fondness for argument, his in- 
exhaustible fund of humerous anecdote, as 
well as for mock oratory and the composi- 
tion of rude satirical verses. In 1828 he 
made a trading voyage to New Orleans as 
"bow-hand" on a flatboat; removed to 
Illinois in 1830; helped his father build a 
log house and clear a farm on the north 
fork of Sangamon River, ten miles west of 
Decatur, and was for some time employed 
in splitting rails for the fences — a fact which 
was prominently brought forward for 3 
political purpose thirty years later. 

In the spring of 185 i he, with two of his 
relatives, was hired to build a Hatboat on 
the Sangamon River and navigate it to 
New Orleans. The boat " stuck " on a 
mill-dam, and was got off with great labor 
through an ingenious mechanical device 
which some years later led to Lincoln's 
taking out a patent for "an improved 
method for lifting vessels over shoals." 
This voyage was memorable for another 
reason — the sight of slaves chained, mal- 
treated and flogged at New Orleans was 
the origin of his deep convictions upon the 
slavery question. 

Returning from this voyage he became a 
resident for several years at New Salem, a 
recently settled village on the Sangamon, 
where he was successively a clerk, grocer, 
surveyor and postmaster, and acted as pilot 
to the first steamboat that ascended the 
Sangamon. Here he studied law, inter- 
ested himself in local politics after his 
return from the Black Hawk war, and 
became known as an effective "stump 
speaker." The subject of his first political 
speech was the improvement of the channel 
of the Sangamon, and the chief ground on 
which he announced himself (1832) a candi- 
date for the Legislature was his advocacy 
of this popular measure, on which subject 
his practical experience made him the high- 
est authority. 

Elected to the Legislature in 1834 as a 



88 



PJiESWEKTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



" Henry Clay Whig," he rapidly acquired 
that command of language and that homely 
but forcible rhetoric which, added to his 
intimate knowledge of the people from 
which he sprang, made him more than a 
match in debate for his few well-educated 
opponents. 

Admitted to the bar in 1837 he soon 
established himself at Springfield, where 
the State capital was located in 1839, 
largely through his influence; became a 
successful pleader in the State, Circuit and 
District Courts; married in 1842 a lady be- 
longing to a prominent family in Lexington, 
Kentucky; took an active part in the Pres- 
idential campaigns of 1840 and 1844 as 
candidate for elector on the Harrison and 
Clav tickets, and in 1846 was elected to the 
United States House of Representatives 
over the celebrated Peter Cartwright. 
During his single term in Congress he did 
not attain any prominence. 

He voted for the reception of anti-slavery 
petitions for the abolition of the slave trade 
in tiie I3istrict of Columbia and for the 
Wilmot proviso ; but was chiefly remem- 
bered for the stand he took against the 
Mexican war. For several years there- 
after he took comparatively little interest 
in politics, but gained a leading position at 
the Springfield bar. Two or three non- 
political lectures and an eulogy on Henry 
Clay (1852) added nothing to his reputation. 

In 1854 the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska act 
aroused Lincoln from his indifference, and 
in attacking that measure he had the im- 
mense advantage of knowing perfectly well 
the motives and the record of its author, 
Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, then poj)u- 
larl}- designated as the " Little Giant." The 
latter came to Springhcld in October, 1854, 
on the occasion of the State Fair, to vindi- 
cate his policy in the Senate, and the " Anti- 
Nebraska" Whigs, remembering that Lin- 
coln had often measured his strength with 



Douglas in the Illinois Legislature and be- 
fore the Springfield Courts, engaged him 
to improvise a reply. This speech, in the 
opinion of those who heard it, was one of 
the greatest efforts of Lincoln's life ; cer- 
tainly the most effective in his whole career. 
It took the audience by storm, and from 
that moment it was felt that Douglas had 
met his match. Lincoln was accordingly 
selected as the Anti-Nebraska candidate for 
the United States Senate in place of General 
Shields, whose term expired March 4, 1855, 
and led to several ballots; but Trumbull 
was ultimalel}- chosen. 

The second conflict on the soil of Kan- 
sas, which Lincoln had predicted, soon be- 
gan. The result was the disruption of the 
Whig and the formation of the Republican 
party. At the Bloomington State Conven- 
tion in 1856, where the new party first 
assumed form in Illinois, Lincoln made an 
impressive address, in which for the first 
time he took distinctive ground against 
slavery in itself. 

At the National Republican Convention 
at Philadelphia, June i", after the nomi- 
nation of Fremont, Lincoln was put for- 
ward by the Illinois delegation for the 
Vice-Presidency, and received on the first 
ballot no votes against 259 for William L 
Dayton. He took a prominent part in the 
canvass, being on the electoral ticket. 

In 1858 Lincoln was unanimously nomi- 
nated by the Republican State Convention 
as its candidate for the United States Senate 
in place of Douglas, and in his speech of 
acceptance used the celebrated illustration 
of a "house divided against itself " on the 
slavery question, which was, perhaps, the 
cause of his defeat. The great debate car- 
ried on at all the princij^al towns of Illinois 
between Lincoln and Douglas as rival Sena- 
torial candidates resulted at the time in the 
election of the latter; but f)cing widely cir- 
culated as a cam[)aign document, it fixed 
the attention of the country upon the 



ABRAHAM IJMCOLN. 



89 



former, as the clearest and most convinc- 
ing exponent of Republican doctrine. 

Early in 1859 he began to be named in 
Illinois as a suitable Republican candidate 
for the Presidential campaign of the ensu- 
ing year, and a political address delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York, Febru- 
ary 27, i860, followed by similar speeches 
at New Haven, Hartford and elsewhere in 
New England, first made him known to the 
Eastern States in the light by which he had 
long been regarded at home. By the Re- 
publican State Convention, which met at 
Decatur, Illinois, May 9 and 10, Lincoln 
was unanimously endorsed for the Presi- 
dency. It was on this occasion that two 
rails, said to have been split by his hands 
thirty years before, were brought into the 
convention, and the incident contributed 
much to his popularity. The National 
Republican Convention at Chicago, after 
spirited efforts made in favor of Seward, 
Chase and Bates, nominated Lincoln for 
the Presidency, with Hannibal Hamlin 
for Vice-President, at the same time adopt- 
ing a vigorous anti-slavery platform. 

The Democratic party having been dis- 
organized and presenting two candidates, 
Douglas and Breckenridge, and the rem- 
nant of the " American" party having put 
forward John Bell, of Tennessee, the Re- 
publican victory was an easy one, Lincoln 
being elected November 6 by a large plu- 
ralit\', comprehending nearly all the North- 
ern States, but none of the Southern. The 
secession of South Carolina and the Gulf 
States was the immediate icsult, fcjUowcd 
a few months later by that of the border 
slave States and the outbreak of the great 
civil war. 

The life of Abraham Lincoln became 
thenceforth merged in the history of his 
country. None of the details of the vast 
conflict which filled the remainder of Lin- 
coln's life can here be given. Narrowly- 
escaping assassination by avoiding Balti- 



more on his way to the capital, he reached 
Washington February 23, and was inaugu- 
rated President of the United States March 
4, 1 86 1. 

In his inaugural address he said: " I hold, 
that in contemplation of universal law and 
the Constitution the Union of these States is 
perpetual. Perpetuity is implied if not e.x- 
pressed in the fundamental laws of all na- 
tional governments. It is safe to assert 
that no government proper ever had a pro- 
vision in its organic law for its own termi- 
nation. I therefore consider that in view 
of the Constitution and the laws, the Union 
is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability 
I shall take care, as the Constitution en- 
joins upon me, that the laws of the United 
States be extended in all the States. In 
doing this there need be no bloodshed or vio- 
lence, and there shall be none unless it be 
forced upon the national authority. The 
power conferred to me will be used to hold, 
occupy and possess the property and places 
belonging to the Government, and to col- 
lect the duties and imports, but beyond 
what may be necessary for these objects 
there will be no invasion, no using of force 
against or among the people anywhere. In 
your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-country- 
men, is the momentous issue of civil war. 
The Government will not assail you. Ycju 
can have no conflict without being your- 
selves the aggressors. You have no oath 
registered in heaven to destroy the Gov- 
ernment, while I shall have the most sol- 
emn one to preserve, protect and defend 
it." 

He called to his cabinet his principal 
rivals for the Presidential nomination — 
Seward, Chase, Cameron and Bates; se- 
cured the co-operation of the Union Demo- 
crats, headed by Douglas; called out 75,000 
militia from the several States upon the first 
tidings of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, 
April 15; proclaimed a blockade of the 
Southern posts April 19; called an extra 



90 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



session of Congress for July 4, from which 
he asked and obtained 400,000 men and 
$400,000,000 for the war; placed McClellan 
at the head of the Federal army on General 
Scott's resignation, October 31; appointed 
Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War, Jan- 
uary 14, 1862, and September 22, 1862, 
issued a proclamation declaring the free- 
dom of all slaves in the States and parts of 
States then in rebellion from and after 
January 1, 1863. This was the crowning 
act of Lincoln's career — the act by which 
he will be chiefly known through all future- 
time — and it decided the war. 

October 16, 1863, President Lincoln called 
for 300,000 volunteers to replace those 
whose term of enlistment had expired ; 
made a celebrated and touching, though 
brief, address at the dedication of the 
Gettysburg military cemetery, November 
19, 1863; commissioned Ulysses S. Grant 
Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the armies of the United States, 
March 9, 1864; was re-elected President in 
November of the same year, by a large 
majority over General McClellan, with 
Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as V^ice- 
President; delivered a very remarkable ad- 
dress at his second inauguration, March 4, 
1865; visited the army before Richmond the 
same month; entered the capital of the Con- 
federacy the day after its fall, and upon the 
surrender of General Robert E. Lec'c army, 
April 9, was actively engaged in devising 
generous plans for the reconstruction of the 
Union, when, on the evening of Good Fri- 
day, April 14, he was shot in his box at 
Ford's Theatre, Washington, byJohnWilkes 
Booth, a fanatical actor, and expired earlv 
on the following morning, April 15. Al- 
most simultaneously a murderous attack 
was made upon William H. Seward, Secre- 
tary of State. 

At noon on the 15th of April Andrew 



Johnson assumed the Presidency, and active 
measures were taken which resulted in the 
death of Booth and the execution of his 
principal accomplices. 

The funeral of President Lincoln was 
conducted with unexampled solemnit\' and 
magnificence. Impressive services were 
field in Washington, after which the sad 
procession proceeded over the same route 
he had traveled four years before, from 
Springhcld to Washington. In Philadel- 
phia his body lay in state in Independence 
Hall, in which he had declared before his 
first inauguration " that I would sooner be 
assassinated than to give up the principles 
of the Declaration of Independence." He 
was buried at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near 
Springfield, Illinois, on May 4, where a 
monument emblematic of the emancipation 
of the slaves and the restoration of the 
Union mark his resting place. 

The leaders and citizens of the expiring 
Confederac\' expressed genuine indignation 
at the murder of a generous political adver- 
sary. Foreign nations took part in mourn- 
ing tlie death of a statesman who had proved 
himself a true representative of American 
nationality. The freedmen of the South 
almost worshiped the memory of their de- 
liverer; and the general sentiment of the 
great Nation he had saved awarded him a 
place in its affections, second only to that 
held by Washington. 

The characteristics of Abraham Linc(jlii 
have been familiarly known throughout the 
civilized world. His tall, gaunt, ungainly 
figure, homely countenance, and his shrewd 
mother-wit, shown in his celebrated con- 
versations overflowing in humorous and 
pointed anecdote, combined with an accu- 
rate, intuitive appreciation of the questions 
of the time, are recognized as forming the 
best type of a period of American history 
now rapidly passing away. 




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ANDREW JOHNSON. 



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^^^»7fv^ NDREW JOHNSON, 
the seventeenth Presi- 
dent (if the I' II i t c d 
%' States, 1865-9, was 
b () r 11 at R a 1 c i f^^ li , 
^"-.^ North Carolina, De- 
'■'i'i^ cembcr 29, 1808. 
Hisfatherriied when 
he was four years old, and in 
his eleventh year he was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor. I le nev- 
er attended scho(jl, and did 
not learn to read until late in 
his ap|)renticeship, when he 
suddenly acquired a passion for 
obtaininj^ knowledge, and devoted 
all his spare time to reading. 

Aft(--r working two years as a journey- 
man tailor at Lauren's Court-House, South 
Carolina, he removed, in 1826, to Green- 
ville, Tetmessee, where he worked at his 
trade and married. Under his wife's in- 
structions he made rapid progress in his 
education, and manifested such an intelli- 
gent interest in local politics as t(j be 
elected as " workingmen's candidate " al- 
derman, in 1828, and mayor in 1830, being 
twice re-elected to each office. 

During this period he cultivated his tal- 
ents as a public speaker by taking part in a 



debating society, consisting largely of stu- 
dents of Greenville College. In 1835, and 
again in 1839, he was chosen to the lower 
house of the Legislature, as a r)emf)crat. 
Ill 1841 he was elected vState Senator, and 
in 1843, Representative in Congress, being 
re-elected four successive periods, until 
1853, when he was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee. In Congress he supported the 
administrations of Tyler and Polk in their 
chief measures, especially tin: annexation 
of Texas, the adjustment of the (Oregon 
boundary, the Mexican war, and the tariff 
of 1846. 

In 1855 Mr. Johnson was re-elected Gov- 
ernor, and in 1857 entered the United 
States .Senate, where he was consjjicuous 
as an advocate of retrenchment and of the 
FIcjmestead bill, and as an opjionent of the 
Pacific Railroad. He was suiiported by the 
Tennessee delegation to the Diinocratic 
convention in i860 for the Presidential 
nomination, and lent his influence to the 
Breckenridge wing of that party. 

When the election of Lincoln had 
brought about the first attempt at secession 
in December, i860, Johnson took in the 
Senate a firm attitude for the Union, and 
in May, 1S61, on returning to Tennessee, 
he was in imminent peril of suffering from 



9+ 



PRESIDEiy^TS OF THE VSIIED STATES. 



popular violence for his loyalty to the " old 
flae." He was the leader of the Loyalists' 
convention of East Tennessee, and during 
the following winter was very active in or- 
ganizing relief for the destitute loyal refu- 
gees from that region, his own family being 
among those compelled to leave. 

By his course in this crisis Johnson came 
prominently before the Northern public, 
and when in March, 1862, he was appointed 
by President Lincoln military Governor of 
Tennessee, with the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, he increased in popularit\- by the vig- 
orous and successful manner in which he 
labored to restore order, protect Union 
men and punish marauders. On the ap- 
proach of the Presidential campaign of 1864, 
the termination of the war being plainly 
foreseen, and several Southern States being 
partially reconstructed, it was felt that the 
Vice-Presidency should be given to a South- 
ern man of conspicuous loyalty, and Gov- 
ernor Johnson was elected on the same 
platfonn and ticket as President Lincoln; 
and on the assassination of the latter suc- 
ceeded to the Presidency, April 15, 1865. 
In a public speech two days later he said: 
"The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a 
crime and must be punished; that the Gov- 
ernment will not always bear with its ene- 
mies; that it is strong, not only to protect, 
but to punish. In our peaceful history 
treason has been almost unknown. The 
people must understand that it is the black- 
est of crimes, and will be punished." He 
then added the ominous sentence: " In re- 
gard to my future course, I make no prom- 
ises, no pledges." President Johnson re- 
tained the cabinet of Lincoln, and exhibited 
considerable severity- toward traitors in his 
earlier acts and speeches, but he soon inaug- 
urated a policy of reconstruction, proclaim- 
ing a general amnesty to the late Confeder- 
ates, and successively establishing provis- 
ional Governments in the Southern States. 



These States accordingly claimed represen- 
tation in Congress in the following Decem- 
ber, and the momentous question of what 
should be the policy of the victorious Union 
toward its late armed opponents was forced 
upon that bod\-. 

Two considerations impelled the Repub- 
lican majority to reject the policy of Presi, 
dent Johnson: First, an apprehension that 
the chief magistrate intended to undo the re- 
suits of the war in i-egard to slavery; and, sec- 
ond, the sullen altitude of the South, which 
seemed to be plotting to regain the polic}- 
which arms had lost. The credentials of the 
Southern members elect were laid on the 
table, a civil rights bill and a bill extending 
the sphere of the Freedmen's Bureau were 
passed over the executive veto, and the two 
highest branches of the Government were 
soon in open antagonism. The action of 
Congress was characterized by the Presi- 
dent as a " new rebellion." In July the 
cabinet was reconstructed, Messrs. Randall, 
Stanbury and Browning taking the places 
of Messrs. Denison, Speed and Harlan, and 
an unsuccessful attempt was made by 
means of a general convention in Philadel- 
phia to form a new [)arty on the basisof the 
administration policy. 

In an excursion to Chicago for the pur- 
pose of laying a corner-stone of the monu- 
ment to Stephen A. Douglas, President 
Johnson, accompanied by several members 
of the cabinet, passed through Philadelphia. 
New York and Albany, in each of which 
cities, and in other places along the route, 
he made speeches justifying and explaining 
his own policy, and violently denouncing 
the action of Congress. 

August 12, 1867, President Johnson re- 
moved the Secretary of War, replacing 
him by General Grant. Secretary Stanton 
retired under protest, based upon the ten- 
ure-of-office act which had been passed the 
preceding March. The President then is- 
sued a proclamation declaring the insurrec- 



A NDRB W JOHNSON. 



tion at an end, and that " peace, order, tran- 
quility and civil authority existed in and 
throughout the United States." Another 
proclamation enjoined obedience to the 
Constitution and the laws, and an amnesty 
was published September 7, relieving nearly 
all the participants in the late Rebellion 
from the disabilities thereby incurred, on 
condition of taking the oath to support the 
Constitution and the laws. 

In December Congress refused to confirm 
the removal of Secretary Stanton, who 
thereupon resumed the exercise of his of- 
fice; but February 21, 1868, President 
Johnson again attempted to remove him, 
appointing General Lorenzo Thomas in his 
place. Stanton refused to vacate his post, 
and was sustained by the Senate. 

February 24 the House of Representa- 
tives voted to impeach the President for 
" high crime and misdemeanors," and March 
5 presented eleven articles of impeachment 
on the ground of his resistance to the exe- 
cution of the acts of Congress, alleging, in 
addition to the offense lately committed, 
his public expressions of contempt for Con- 
gress, in " certain intemperate, inflamma- 
tory and scandalous harangues" pronounced 
in August and September, 1866, and there- 
after declaring that the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress of the United States was not a 
competent legislative body, and denying 
its power to propose Constitutional amend- 
ments. March 23 the impeachment trial 
began, the President appearing by counsel, 
and resulted in acquittal, the vote lacking 



one of the two-thirds vote required for 
conviction. 

The remainder of President Johnson's 
term of office was passed without any such 
conflicts as might have been anticipated. 
He failed to obtain a nomination for re- 
election by the Democratic party, though 
receiving sixty-five votes on the first ballot. 
July 4 and December 25 new proclamations 
of pardon to the participants in the late 
Rebellion were issued, but were of little 
effect. On the accession of General Grant 
to the Presidency, March 4, 1869, Johnson 
returned to Greenville, Tennessee. Unsuc- 
cessful in 1870 and 1872 as a candidate re- 
spectively for United States Senator and 
Representative, he was finally elected to the 
Senate in 1875, and took his seat in the extra 
session of March, in which his speeches 
were comparatively temperate. He died 
July 31, 1875, and was buried at Green- 
ville. 

President Johnson's admmistiation was a 
peculiarly unfortunate one. That he should 
so soon become involved in bitter feud with 
the Republican majority in Congress was 
certainly a surprising and deplorable inci- 
dent; yet, in reviewing the circumstances 
after a lapse of so many years, it is easy to 
find ample room for a charitable judgment 
of both the parties in the heated contro- 
versy, since it cannot be doubted that any 
President, even Lincoln himself, had he 
lived, must have sacrificed a large portion 
of his popularity in carrying out any pos- 
sible scheme of reconstruction. 



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PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



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SSES SIMPSON 
GRANT, the eight- 
eenth President of the 
United States, i869-'77, 
was born April 27, 1822, 
at Po i n t Pleasant, 
'i'Ti^ Clermont Countv, 
Oiiio. His father was of Scotch 
descent, and a dealer in leather. 
At the age of seventeen he en- 
tered the Military Academ}' at 
West Point, and four jears later 
graduated twenty-first in a class 
of thirty-nine, receiving the 
commission of Brevet Second 
ieutenant. He was assigned 
to the Fourth Infantrv and re- 
mained in the army eleven years. He was 
engaged in every battle of the Mexican war 
except that of Buena \'ista, and received 
two brevets for gallantry. 

In 1848 Mr. Grant married Julia, daughter 
of Frederick Dent, a jirominent merchant of 
St. Louis, and in 1S54, having reached the 
grade of Captain, he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army. For several years he fol- 
lowed farming near St. Louis, but unsuc- 
cessfully ; and in i860 he entered the leather 
trade with his father at Galena, Illinois. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, 
Grant was thirty-nine years of age, but en- 
tirely unknown to public men and without 




any personal acquaintance with great affairs. 
President Lincoln's first call for troops was 
made on the 15th of April, and on the 19th 
Grant was drilling a company of volimteers 
at Galena. He also offered his services to 
the Adjutant-General of the army, but re- 
ceived no replv. The Governor of Illinois, 
however, employed him in the organization 
of volunteer troops, and at the end of five 
weeks he was appointed Colonel of the 
Twenty-first Infantry. He took command 
of his regiment in June, and reported first 
to General Pope in Missouri. His superior 
knowledge of military life rather surprised 
his superior officers, who had never before 
even heard of him, and they were thus led 
to place him on the road to rapid advance- 
ment. August 7 he was commissioned a 
Brigadier-General of volunteers, the ap- 
pointment having been made without his 
knowledge. He had been unanimously 
recommended bv the Congressmen from 
Illinois, not one of wluini had been his 
personal acquaintance. For a few weeks 
he was occupied in watching the move- 
ments of partisan forces in Missouri. 

September i he was placed in command 
of the District of Southeast Missouri, with 
headquarters at Cairo, and on the 6th, with- 
out orders, he seized Paducah, at the mouth 
of the Tennessee River, and commanding 
tiic navigation both of that stream and oi 



[/LISSES S. GRANT. 



99 



the Ohio. This stroke secured Kentucky 
to the Union ; for the State Legislature, 
which had until then affected to be neutral, 
at once declared in favor of the Govern- 
ment. In November following, according 
to orders, he made a demonstration about 
eighteen miles below Cairo, preventing tiie 
crossing of hostile troops into Missouri ; 
but in order to accomplish this purpose he 
had to do some fighting, and that, too, with 
only 3,000 raw recruits, against 7,000 Con- 
federates. Grant carried off two pieces of 
artillery and 200 prisoners. 

After repeated applications to General 
Halleck, his immediate superior, he was 
allowed, in February, 1862, to move up the 
Tennessee River against Fort Henry, in 
conjunction with a naval force. The gun- 
boats silenced the fort, and Grant immedi- 
ately made preparations to attack Fort 
Donelson, about twelve miles distant, on 
the Cumberland River. Without waiting 
for orders he moved his troops there, and 
with 15,000 men began the siege. The 
fort, garrisoned with 21,000 men, was a 
strong one, but after hard fighting on three 
successive days Grant forced an " Uncon- 
ditional Surrender " (an alliteration upon 
the initials of his name). The prize he capt- 
ured consisted of sixty-five cannon, 17,600 
small arms and 14,623 soldiers. About 4,- 
000 of the garrison had escaped in the night, 
and 2,500 were killed or wounded. Grant's 
entire loss was less than 2,000. This was the 
first important success won by the national 
troops during the war, and its strategic re- 
sults were marked, as the entire States of 
Kentucky and Tennessee at once fell into the 
National hands. Our hero was made a 
Major-General of Volunteers and placed in 
command of the District of West Ten- 
nessee. 

In March, 1862, he was ordered to move 
up the Tennessee River toward Corinth, 
where the Confederates were concentrat- 
ing a large army ; but he was directed not 



to attack. His forces, now numbering 38.- 
000, were accordingly encamped near Shi- 
loh, or Pittsburg Landing, to await the 
arrival of General Buell with 40,000 more; 
but April 6 the Confederates came out from 
Corinth 50,000 strong and attacked Grant 
violently, hoping to overwhelm him before 
Buell could arrive ; 5,000 of his troops were 
beyond supporting distance, so that he was 
largely outnumbered and forced back to the 
river, where, however, he held out until 
dark, when the head of Buell's column 
came upon the field. The next day the 
Confederates were driven back to Corinth, 
nineteen miles. The loss was heavy on 
both sides; Grant, being senior in rank to 
Buell, commanded on both days. Two 
days afterward Halleck arrived at the front 
and assumed command of the army. Grant 
remaining at the head of the right wing and 
the reserve. On May 30 Corinth was 
evacuated by the Confederates. In July 
Halleck was made General-in-Chief, and 
Grant succeeded him in command of the 
Department of the Tennessee. September 
19 the battle of luka was fought, where, 
owing to Rosecrans's fault, only an incom- 
plete victory was obtained. 

Next, Grant, with 30,000 men, moved 
down into Mississippi and threatened Vicks- 
burg, while Sherman, with 40,000 men, was 
sent by way of the river to attack that place 
in front; but, owing to Colonel Murphy's 
surrendering Holly Springs to the Con- 
federates, Grant was so weakened that he 
had to retire to Corinth, and then Sherman 
failed to sustain his intended attack. 

In January, 1863, General Grant took 
command in person of all the troops in the 
Mississippi Valley, and spent several months 
in fruitless attempts to compel the surrender 
or evacuation of Vicksburg; but July 4, 
following, the place surrendered, with 31,- 
600 men and 172 cannon, and the Mississippi 
River thus fell permanently into the hands 
of the Government. Grant was made a 



tOf C. 



PltESIDE.V'JS OF J HE UMTED STAThS. 



Major-General in the regular army, and in 
October following he was placed in com- 
mand of the Division of the Mississippi. 
The same month he went to Chattanooga 
and saved the Army of the Cumberland 
from starvation, and drove Bragg from that 
part of the countr}-. This victory over- 
threw the last important hostile force west 
of the Alleghanies and opened the way for 
the National armies into Georgia and Sher- 
man's march to the sea. 

The remarkable series of successes which 
Grant had now achieved pointed him out 
as the appropriate leader of the National 
armies, and accordingly, in February, 1864, 
the rank of Lieutenant-General was created 
for him by Congress, and on March 17 he 
assumed command of the armies of the 
United States. Planning the grand final 
campaign, he sent Sherman into Georgia, 
Sigel into the valley of Virginia, and Butler 
to capture Richmond, while he fought his 
own way from the Rapidan to the James. 
The costly but victorious battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna and 
Cold Harbor were fought, more for the 
purpose of annihilating Lee than to capture 
any particular point. In June, 1864, the 
siege of Richmond was begun. Sherman, 
meanwhile, was marching and fighting daily 
in Georgia and steadily advancing toward 
Atlanta ; but Sigel had been defeated in the 
valley of Virginia, and was superseded by 
Hunter. Lee sent Early to threaten the Na- 
tional capital ; whereupon Grant gathered 
up a force which lie placed under Sheridan, 
and that commander rapidly drove Early, 
in a succession of battles, througli tiic valley 
of Virginia and destroyed his army as an 
organized force. The siege of Richmond 
went on, and Grant made numerous attacks, 
but was only partially successful. The 
people of the North grew impatient, and 
even the Government advised him to 
abandon the attempt to take Richmond or 
crush the Confederacy in that way ; but he 



never wavered. He resolved to " fight it 
out on that line, if it took all summer." 

By September Sherman had made his 
way to Atlanta, and Grant then sent him 
on his famous " march to the sea," a route 
which the chief had designed six months 
before. He made Sherman's success possi- 
ble, not only by holding Lee in front of 
Richmond, but also by sending reinforce- 
ments to Thomas, who then drew off and 
defeated the only army which could have 
confronted Sherman. Thus the latter was 
left unopposed, and, with Thomas and Sheri- 
dan, was used in the furtherance of Grant's 
plans. Each executed his part in the great 
design and contributed his share to the re- 
sult at which Grant was aiming. Sherman 
finally reached Savannah, Schofield beat 
the cncmv at Franklin, Thomas at Nash- 
ville, and Sheridan wherever he met him ; 
and all this while General Grant was hold- 
ing Lee, with the principal Confederate 
army, near Richmond, as it were chained 
and helpless. Then Schofield was brought 
from the West, and Fort Fisher and Wil- 
mington were captured on the sea-coast, so 
as to aflord him a foothold ; from here he 
was sent into the interior of North Caro- 
lina, and Sherman was ordered to move 
northward to join him. When all this was 
effected, and Sheridan could find no one else 
to fight in the Shenandoah Valley, Grant 
brought the cavalry leader to the front of 
Richmond, and, making a last effort, drove 
Lee from his entrenchments and captured 
Richmontl. 

At tiic beginning of the final campaign 
Lee had collected 73,000 fighting men in 
the lines at Richmond, besides the local 
militia and the gunboat crews, amounting 
to 5,000 more. Including Sheridan's force 
Grant had 1 10,000 men in the works before 
Petersburg and Richmond. Petersburg fell 
on the 2d of April, and Richmond on tl-.e 
3d, and Lee fled in the direction of Lynch- 
burg. Grant pursued with remorseless 



i/LrssES s. (;ra,\t. 



energy, only stopping to strike fresh blows, 
and Lee at last found himself not only out- 
fought but also out-marched and out-gen- 
eraled. Being completely surrounded, he 
surrendered on the 9th of April, 1865, at 
Appomattox Court-House, in the open fiekl, 
with 27,000 men, all that remained of his 
army. This act virtually ended tiie war. 
Thus, in ten days Grant had captured 
Petersburg and Richmond, fought, by his 
subordinates, the battles of Five Forks and 
Sailor's Creek, besides numerous smaller 
ones, captured 20,000 men in actual battle, 
and received the surrender of 27,000 more 
at Appomattox, absolutely annihilating an 
army of 70,000 soldiers. 

General Grant returned at once to Wash- 
ington to superintend the disbandment of 
the armies, but this pleasurable work was 
scarcely begun when President Lincoln was 
assassinated. It had doubtless been in- 
tended to inflict the same fate upon Grant ; 
but he, fortunately, on account of leaving 
Washington early in the evening, declined 
an invitation to accompany the President 
to the theater where the murder was com- 
mitted. This event made .Vndrew Johnson 
President, but left Grant by far the most 
conspicuous figure in the public life of the 
country. He became the object of an en- 
thusiasm greater than had ever been known 
in America. Every possible honor was 
heaped upon him ; the grade of General 
was created for him by Congress; houses 
were presented to him by citizens; towns 
were illuminated on his entrance into them ; 
and, to cap the climax, when he made his 
tour around the world, "all nations did him 
honor" as they had never before honored 
a foreigner. 

The General, as Commander-in-Chief, 
was placed in an embarrassing position by 
the opposition of President Johnson to the 
measures of Congress ; but he directly man- 
ifested his characteristic loyalty by obeying 
Congress rather than the disaffected Presi- 



dent, although for a short time he had 
served in his cabinet as Secretary of War. 

Of course, everybody thought of General 
Grant as the next President of the United 
States, and he was accordingly elected as 
such in 1868 " by a large majority," and 
four years later re-elected by a much larger 
majority — the most overwhelming ever 
given by the people of this country. His first 
administration was distinguished by a ces- 
sation of the strifes which sprang from the 
war, by a large retluction of the National 
debt, and by a settlement of the difficulties 
with England which had grown out of the 
depredations committed by privateers fit- 
ted out in England during the war. This 
last settlement was made by the famous 
" Geneva arbitration," which saved to this 
Government $15,000,000, but, more than all, 
prevented a war with England. "Let us 
have peace," was Grant's motto. And this 
is the most appropriate place to remark 
that above all Presidents whom this Gov- 
ernment has ever had. General Grant was 
the most non-partisan. He regarded the 
Executive office as purely and exclusively 
executive of the laws of Congress, irrespect- 
ive of " politics." But every great man 
has jealous, bitter enemies, a fact Grant 
was well aware of. 

After the close of his Presidency, our 
General made his famous tour around the 
world, already referred to, and soon after- 
ward, in company with Ferdinand Ward, 
of New York City, he engaged in banking 
and stock brokerage, which business was 
made disastrous to Grant, as well as to him- 
self, by his rascality. By this time an in- 
curable cancer of the tongue developed 
itself in the person of the afflicted ex- 
President, which ended his unrequited life 
July 23, 1885. Thus passed away from 
earth's turmoils the man, the General, who 
was as truly the " father of this regenerated 
country" as was Washington the father of 
the infant nation. 



PRES/DEXTS OF THE UXITED STATES. 



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JTHERFORD BIRCH- 
ARD HAYES, thenine- 
' teenth President of 
' the United States, 
i877-'8i, was born in 
f^sr^#^T^^^' 'i, , Delaware, Ohio, Oc- 
'^(.■m^-'^-^^^ tober 4, .822. His 
ancestry can be traced as far 
back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish 
chieftains fighting side by side 
with Baliol, WilHam Wallace 
and Robert Bruce. Both fami- 
lies belonged to the nobility, 
owned extensive estates and had 
a large following. The Hayes 
family had, for a coatof-arms, a 
shield, barred and surmounted by a flying 
eagle. There was a circle of stars about 
the eagle and above the shield, while on a 
scroll underneath the shield was inscribed 
the motto, " Recte." Misfortune overtaking 
the family, George Hayes left Scotland in 
1680, and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. 
He was an industrious worker in wood and 
iron, having a mechanical genius and a cul- 
tivated mind. His son George was born 
in Windsor and remained there during his 
life. 

Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, married 
Sarah Lee, and lived in Simsburv, Con- 




necticut. Ezekiel, son of Daniel, was born 
in 1724, and was a manufacturer of scythes 
at Bradford, Connecticut. Rutherford 
Hayes, son of Ezekiel and grandfather of 
President Hayes, was born in New Haven, 
in August, 1756. He was a famous black- 
smith and tavern-keeper. He immigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in 
Brattleboro where he established a hotel. 
Here his son Rutherford, father of Presi- 
dent Hayes, was born. In September, 1813, 
he married Sophia Birchard, of Wilming- 
ton, Vermont, whose ancestry on the male 
side is traced back to 1635, to John Birch- 
ard, one of the principal founders of Nor- 
wich. Both of her grandfathers were 
soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 

The father of President Hayes was of a 
mechanical turn, and could mend a plow, 
knit a stocking, or do almost anything that 
he might undertake. He was prosperous 
in business, a member of the church and 
active in all the benevolent enterprises of 
the town. After the close of the war of 181 2 
he immigrated to Ohio, and purchased a 
farm near the present town of Delaware. 
His family then consisted of his wife and 
two children, and an orphan girl whom he 
had adopted. 

It was in 1817 that the family arrived at 
Delaware. Instead of settling upon his 




O .-/LvC^ 



// 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. 



'OS 



farm, Mr. Hayes concluded to enter into 
business in the village. He purchased an 
interest in a distillery, a business then as re- 
spectable as it was profitable. His capital 
and recognized ability assured him the 
highest social position in the community. 
He died July 22, 1822, less than three 
months before the birth of the son that was 
dfistined to fill the office of President of the 
United States. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, 
and the subject of this sketch was so feeble 
at birth that he was not expected to live 
beyond a month or two at most. As the 
months went by he grew weaker and weaker 
so that the neighbors were in the habit of 
inquiring from time to time " if Mrs. 
Hayes's baby died last night." On one oc- 
casion a neighbor, who was on friendly 
terms with the famiU , after alluding to the 
boy's big head and the mother's assiduous 
care of him, said to her, in a bantering way, 
"That's right! Stick to him. You have 
got him along so far, and I shouldn't won- 
der if he would really come to something 
yet." " You need not laugh," said Mrs. 
Hayes, " you wait and see. You can't tell 
but I shall make him President of the 
United States yet." 

The boy lived, in spite of the universal 
predictions of his speedy death; and when, 
in 1825, his elder brother was drowned, he 
became, if possible, still dearer to his mother. 
He was seven years old before he was 
placed in school. His education, however, 
was not neglected. His sports were almost 
wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circum- 
stances tended, no doubt, to foster that 
gentleness of disposition and that delicate 
consideration for the feelings of others 
whicli are marked traits of his character. 
At school he was ardently devoted to his 
studies, obedient to the teacher, and care- 
ful to avoid the quarrels in which many of 
his schoolmates were involved. He was 



always waiting at the school-house door 
when it opened in the morning, and never 
late in returning to his seat at recess. His 
sister Fannie was his constant companion, 
and their affection for each other excited 
the admiration of their friends. 

In 1S38 young Hayes entered Kenyon 
College and graduated in 1842. He then 
began the study of law in the office ol 
Thomas Sparrow at Columbus. His health 
was now well established, his figure robust, 
his mind vigorous and alert. In a short 
time he determined to enter the law school 
at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where for 
two years he pursued his studies with great 
diligence. 

In 1845 he was admitted to the bar at 
Marietta, Ohio, and shortly afterward went 
into practice as an attorney-at-law with 
Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he 
remained three years, acquiring but limited 
practice, and apparently unambitious ot 
distinction in his profession. His bachelor 
uncle, Sardis Birchard, who had always 
manifested great interest in his nephew and 
rendered him assistance in boyhood, was 
now a wealthy banker, and it was under- 
stood that the young man would be his 
heir. It is possible that this expectation 
may have made Mr. Hayes more indifferent 
to the attainment of wealth than he would 
otherwise have been, but he was led into no 
extravagance or vices on this account. 

In 1849 '^^ removed to Cincinnati where 
his ambition found new stimulus. Two 
events occurring at this period had a pow- 
erful influence upon his subsequent life. 
One of them was his marriage to Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James 
Webb, of Cincinnati; the other was his 
introduction to the Cincinnati Literary 
Club, a body embracing such men as Chief 
Justice Salmon P. Chase, General John 
Pope and Governor Edward F. Noyes. 
The marriage was a fortunate one as every- 
body knows. Not one of all the wives ol 



io6 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UX/TED STATES. 



our Presidents was more universally ad- 
mired, reverenced and beloved than is Mrs. 
Hayes, and no one has done more than she 
to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. 

In 1856 JSIr. Hayes was nominated to the 
office of Judge o( the Court of Common 
Pleas, but declined to accept tiu' nomina- 
tion. Two years later he was chosen to the 
office of City Solicitor. 

In 1861, when the Rebellion broke out, 
he was eager to take up arms in the defense 
of his country. His military life was 
bright and illustrious. June 7, 1861, he 
was appointed Major of the Twcntv-lhird 
Ohio Infantry. In July the regiment was 
sent to Virginia. October 15, 1861, he was 
made Lieutenant-Ccjloncl of his regiment, 
and in .August, 1862, was promoted Colonel 
of the Seventy-ninth Ohio Regiment, but 
refused to leave his old comrades. He was 
wounded at the battle of South Mountain, 
and suffered severely, being unable to enter 
upon active duty for several weeks. No- 
vember 30, 1862, he rejoined his regiment as 
its Colonel, having been promoted Octo- 
ber 1 5. 

December 25, 1862, he was placed in com- 
mand of the Kanawha division, and for 
meritorious service in several battles was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also 
brevetted .Major-General for distinguislicd 



services in 1864. He was wounded lour 
times, and five horses were shot from 
under him. 

-Mr. Hayes was first a Whig in politics, 
and was among the first to unite with the 
Free-Soil and Republican parties. In 1864 
he was elected to Congress from che Sec- 
ond Ohio District, which had always been 
Democratic, receiving a majority of 3,098. 
In 1866 he was renominated for Congress 
and was a second time elected. In 1867 he 
was elected Governor over Allen G. Thur- 
man, the Democratic candidate, and re- 
elected in 1869. In 1874 Sardis Birchard 
died, leaving his large estate to General 
Hayes. 

In 1876 he was nominated for the Presi- 
dency. His letter of acceptance excited 
the admiration of the whole country. He 
resigned the office of Governor and retired 
to his home in Fremont to await the result 
of the canvass. After a hard, long contest 
he was inaugurated March 5, 1877. His 
Presidency was characterized by compro- 
mises with all parties, in order to please as 
man}- as possible. The close of his Presi- 
dential term in 1881 was the close of his 
public life, and since then he has remained 
at his home in Fremont, Ohio, in Jefferso- 
nian retirement from public notice, in strik- 
ing contrast with most others of the wcjrld's 
notables. 



yAA/ES A. GARFIELD. 



1 09 




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AMES A. GARFIELD, 
twcntictli President of 
the United States, 1881, 
was born Novembei- 19, 
,,, --,_ «g\t,] • ^,- 1 83 1, in the wild woods 
\^!i'"-:'.i?|t^ i;'.,-/ of Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio. His parents were 
Abram and Eliza (Ballou) 
Garfield, who were of New 
England ancestry. The 
senior Garfield was an in- 
dustrious farmer, as the 
rapid impro\'ements which 
appeared on his place at- 
tested. The residence was 
the familiar pioneer log cabin, 
and the household comprised the parents 
and their children — Mehetable, Thomas, 
Mary and James A. Tn May, 1833, the 
father died, and the care of the house- 
hold consequently devolved upon young 
Thomas, to whom James was greatly in- 
debted for the educational and other ad- 
vantages he enjoyed. He now lives in 
Michigan, and the two sisters live in Solon, 
Ohio, near their birthplace. 

As the subject of our sketch grew up, he, 
too, was industrious, both in mental and 
physical labor. He worked upon the farm, 
or at carpentering, or chopped wood, or at 
an}' other odd job tliat would aid in support 
of the family, and in the meantime made the 



most of his books. Ever afterward he was 
never ashamed of his humble origin, nor for- 
got the friends of his youth. The poorest 
laborer was sure of his sympathy, and he 
always exhibited the character of a modest 
gentleman. 

Until he was about sixteen years of age, 
James's highest ambition was to be a lake 
captain. To this his mother was strongly 
opposed, but she finall_v consented to his 
going to Cleveland to carry out his long- 
cherished design, with the understanding, 
however, that he should try to obtain some 
other kind of employment. He walked all 
the way to Cleveland, and this was his first 
visit to the city. After making man)' ap- 
plications for work, including labor on 
board a lake vessel, but all in vain, he 
finally engaged as a driver for his cousin, 
Amos Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. In a short time, however, he 
quit this and returned home. He then at- 
tended the seminary at Chester for about 
three years, and next he entered Hiram In- 
stitute, a school started in 1850 by the 
Disciples of Christ, of which church he was 
a member. In order to pay his way he 
assumed the duties of janitor, and at tunes 
taught school. He soon completed the cur- 
riculum there, and then entered Williams 
College, at which he graduated in 1856, 
taking: one of the hiirhest honors of his class. 



PRES/DEXTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Afterward he returned to Hiram as Presi- 
dent. In his youthful and therefore zealous 
piety, he exercised his talents occasionally 
as a preacher of the Gospel. He was a 
man of strong moral and religious convic- 
tions, and as soon as he began to look into 
politics, he saw innumerable points that 
could be improved. He also studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1859. 
November 11, i.SjS, Mr. Garfield married 
Miss Lucretia Rudolph, who ever after- 
ward proved a worthy consort in all the 
stages of her husband's career. They had 
seven children, five of whom are still living. 

It was in 1859 that Garfield made his 
first political speeches, in Hiram and the 
neighboring villages, and three years later 
he began to speak at county mass-meetings, 
being received everywhere with popular 
favor. He was elected to the State Senate 
this year, taking his seat in January, 1S60. 

On the breaking out of the war of the 
Rebellion in 1861, Mr. Garfield resolved to 
fight as he had talked, and accordingly he 
enlisted to defend the old flag, receiving 
his commission as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
Fortv-second Regiment of the Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, August 14, that year. He 
was iminediatclv thrown into active service, 
and before he had ever seen a gun fired in 
action he was placed in command of four 
regiments of infantry and eight companies 
of cavalry, charged with the work of driv- 
ing the Confederates, headed by Humphrey 
Marshall, from his native State, Kentuckv. 
This task was speedily accomplished, al- 
though against great odds. On account of 
his success, President Lincoln commissioned 
him Brigadier-General, January 11, 1862; 
and, as he had been the youngest man in 
the Ohio Senate two years before, so now 
he was the youngest General in the arniv. 
He was with General Buell's army at Shi- 
loh, also in its operations around Corinth 
and its march through Alabama. Next, he 



court-martial for the trial of General Fitz- 
John Porter, and then ordered to report to 
General Rosecians, when he was assigned 
to the position of Chief of Staff. His mili- 
tary history closed with his brilliant ser- 
vices at Chickamauga, where he won the 
stars of Major-General. 

In the fall of 1862, without any effort on 
his part, he was elected as a Representative 
to Congress, from that section of Ohio 
which had been represented for si.xty jears 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and 



Joshua R. Giddings. 



Again, 



he was the 



youngest member of that body, and con- 
tinued there by successive re-elections, as 
Representative or Senator, until he was 
elected President in 1880. During his life 
in Congress he compiled and published by 
his speeches, there and elsewhere, more 
information on the issues of the day, espe- 
cially on one side, than any other member. 

June 8, 1880, at the National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, General Gar- 
field was nominated for the Presidency, in 
preference to the old war-horses, Blaine 
and Grant ; and although many of the Re- 
[Hiblican party felt sore over the failure of 
their respective heroes to obtain the nomi- 
nation. General Garfield was elected by a 
fair popular majority. He was dul)- in- 
augurated, but on July 2 following, before 
he had fairly got started in his administra- 
tion, he was fatally shot by a half-demented 
assassin. After very painful and protracted 
suffering, he died September 19, 1881, la- 
mented by all the American people. Never 
before in the history of this country had 
anything occurred which so nearly froze 
the blood of the Nation, for the moment, as 
the awful act of Guiteau, the murderer. 
He was duly tried, convicted and put to 
death on the gallows. 

The lamented Garfield was succeeded by 
the Vice-President, General Arthur, who 
seemed to endeavor to carry out the policy 



was detailed as a member of the general inauguratetl bv his predeccsso!'. 



CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 



"3 





{gi,f^'>t>- 'tifj '•!• iij» -I- t4> •!■ «j» -T- (a)ac'l^■.>l'oal'vi; -i- "«j» -i- <*»■ -r-" «i. -r-' to •oiii;^^- 



i^: 







HESTER ALLEN 
ARTHUR, the twcn- 
ty-t'irst Chief Execu- 
tive of this growing 
republic, 1881 -'5, was 
born in F r a n k H u 
County, Vermont, 
October 5, 1830, the eldest of a 
tainil}' of two sons and five 
daughters. His father. Rev. 
Dr. William Arthur, a Bai)tist 
clergyman, immigrated to this 
country from County Antrim, 
Ireland, in his eighteenth year, 
and died in 1875, in Newton- 
ville, near Albany, New York, 
after serving many years as a successful 
minister. Chester A. was educated at that 
old, conservative institution. Union Col- 
lege, at Schenectady, New York, where he 
excelled in all his studies. He graduated 
there, with honor, and then struck out in 
life for himself by teaching school for about 
two years in his native State. 

At the expiration of that time young 
Arthur, with $500 in his purse, went to the 
city of New York and entered the law office 
of ex-Judge E. D. Culver as a student. In 
due time he was admitted to the bar, when 
he formed a partnership with his intimate 



friend and old room-mate, Henry D. Gar. 
diner, with the intention of practicing law 
at some point in the West; but after spend- 
ing about three months in the Westeri; 
States, in search of an eligible place, they 
returned to New York City, leased a room, 
exhibited a sign of their business and al- 
most immediately enjoyed a paying patron- 
age. 

At this stage of his career Mr. Arthur's 
business prospects were so encouraging 
that he concluded Id take a wife, and ac- 
cordingly he married the daughter of Lieu- 
tenant Herndon, cjf the United States Navy, 
who had been lost at sea. To the widow 
of the latter Congress voted a gold medal, 
in recognition of the Lieutenant's bravery 
during the occasion in which he lost liis 
life. Mrs. Artnur died shortly before her 
husband's nomination to the Vice-I'resi- 
dency, leaving two children. 

Mr. Arthur obtained considerable celeb- 
rity as an attorney in the famous Lemmon 
suit, which was brought to recover posses- 
sion of eight slaves, who had been declared 
free by the Superior Court of New York 
City. The noted Charles O'Conor, who 
was nominated by the "Straight Demo- 
crats" in 1872 for the United States Presi- 
dency, was retained by Jonathrm G. Lcm- 



I'4 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



moii, of Virginia, to recover the negroes, 
but he lost the suit. In this case, however, 
Mr. Arthur was assisted by William M. 
Evarts, now United States Senator. Soon 
afterward, in 1856, a respectable colored 
woman was ejected from a street car in 
New York City. Mr. .Arthur sued the car 
company in her bclialf and recovered $500 
damages. Immediatel}' afterward all the 
car companies in the city issued orders to 
their employes to admit colored persons 
upon their cars. 

Mr. Arthur's political doctrines, as well 
as his practice as a lawyer, raised iiim to 
prominence in the party of freedom; and 
accordingly he was sent as a delegate to 
the first National Republican Convention. 
Soon afterward he was appointed Judge 
Advocate for the Second I^rigade of the 
State of New York, ami then Engineer-in- 
Chief on Governor .Morgan's staff. In if^6i, 
the first year of the war, he was made In- 
spector-General, and next, Quartermaster- 
General, in both which offices he rendered 
great service to the Government. After 
the close of Governor Morgan's term he 
resumed the practice of law, forming first a 
partnership with Mr. Ransom, and subse- 
quently adding Mr. Phelps to the firm. 
Each of these gentlemen were able law3'ers. 

November 21, 1872, General Arthur was 
appointed Collector of the Port of New 
York by President Grant, and he lield the 
office until July 20, 1878. 

The next event of prominence in Genera! 
Arthur's career was his nomination to tlie 
V ice-Presidency of the United States, under 
the influence of Roscoe Conkling, at the 
National Republican Convention held at 
Chicago in June, 1880, when James A. Gar- 
field was placed at the head of the ticket. 
Both the convention and the campaign that 
followed were noisy and exciting. The 
triends of Grant, constituting nearly half 



the convention, were exceedingly persist- 
ent, and were sorely disappomted over 
their defeat. At the head of the Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed a ver}'^ strong and 
popular man ; yet Garfield and Arthur were 
elected by a respectable pluraht}' of the 
popular vote. The 4th of March following, 
these gentlemen were accordingly inaugu- 
rated ; but within four months the assassin's 
bullet made a fatal wound in the person of 
General Garfield, whose life terminated 
September 19, 1881, when General Arthur, 
ex officio, was obliged to take the chief 
reins of government. Some misgivings 
were entertained bv many in this event, as 
Mr. Arthur was thought to represent espe 
cially the Grant and Conkling wing of the 
Republican [jartv ; but President .Vrthur 
had both the ability and tlie good sense to 
allay all fears, and he gave the restless, 
critical American people as good an ad- 
ministration as they had ever been blessed 
with. Neither selfishness nor low parti- 
sanism ever characterized any feature of 
his public service. He ever maintained a 
high sense of every individual right as well 
as of the Nation's honor. Indeed, he stood 
so high that his successor, President Cleve- 
land, though of opposing politics, expressed 
a wish in his inaugural address that he 
could onlv satisfy the people witli as good 
an administration. 

But the day of civil service reform had 
come in so far, and the corresponding re- 
action against " third-termism" had en- 
croached so far even upon "second-term" 
service, that the Republican partv saw fit 
in 1884 to nominate another man for Presi- 
dent. Only by this means was General 
Arthur's tenure of office closed at Wash- 
ingtiiii. On bis retirement from the Presi- 
dency, March, 18S5, he engaged iii the 
practice t)t' law at Kew York City, where he 
died -Xovomher l^i, l^^O. 




^ 



r 



GROVRR CLEVELAND. 



117 



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':^^'T 




ROVER CLEVE- 
^^ LAND, the twenty- 

;,f second I'resident of the 
United States, 18S5— , 
was born in Caldwell, 
Essex Count \-, New 
Jersey, March 18, 
1837. The house in whicii he 
was born, a small two-storv 
^ wooden budding, is still stand- 

;|#;itw^^ ing. It was the parsonage of 
CfeW^) the Presbyterian church, of 
which his lather, Richard 
Cleveland, at the time was 
pastor. The family is of New 
England origin, and for two centuries has 
contributed to the professions and to busi- 
ness, men who have reflected honor on the 
name. Aanin Cleveland, Grover Cleve- 
land's (jfreat-o^reat-grandfathcr, was born in 
Massachusetts, but subsequently moved to 
Philadelphia, where he became an intimate 
friend of Benjamin Franklin, at whose 
house he died. He left a large family of 
children, who in time married and settled 
in different parts of New England. A 
grandson was one of the small American 
force that fought the British at Bunker 
Hill. He served with gallantr}' through- 
out the Revolution and was honorably 
discharged at its close as a Lieutenant in 
the Continental army. Another grandson, 
William Cleveland (a son of a second Aaron 



Cleveland, who was distinguished as a 
writer and member of the Connecticut 
Legislature) was Gr<5ver Cleveland's grand- 
father. William Cleveland became a silver- 
smith in Norwich, Connecticut. He ac- 
quired by industry S(.)me propert)' and sent 
his son, Richard Cleveland, the father of 
Grover Cleveland, to Yale College, vviiere 
he graduated in 1824. During a year spent 
in teaching at Baltimore, Maryland, after 
graduation, he met and fell in love with a 
Miss Annie Neale, daughter of a wealthv 
Baltimore book publisher, of Irish birth. 
He was earning his own way in the world 
at the time and was unable to marry; but 
in three years he completed a course of 
preparation for the ministry, secured a 
church in Windham, Connecticut, and 
married Annie Neale. Subsequently he 



moved to Portsmouth, V 



diere he 



preached for nearly two years, when he 
was summoned to Caldwell, New Jersey, 
where was born Grover Cleveland. 

When he was three years old the family 
moved to Fayetteville, Onondaga County, 
New York. Here Grover Cleveland lived 
until he was fourteen years old, the rugged, 
healthful life of a country boy. His frank, 
generous manner made him a favorite 
among his companions, and their respect 
was won by the good qualities in the germ 
which his manhood developed. He at- 
tended the district school of the village and 



ii8 



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



was for a short time at the academy. His 
lather, however, believed that boys should 
be taught to labor at an early age, and be- 
fore he had completed the course of study 
at the academy he began to work in the 
village store at S50 for the first year, and the 
promise of $100 for the second year. His 
work was well done and the promised in- 
crease of pay was granted the second year. 

Meanwhile his father and family had 
moved to Clinton, the seat of Hamilton 
College, where his father acted as agent to 
the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, 
preaching in the churches of the vicinity. 
Hither Grover came at his father's request 
shortly after the beginning of his second 
year at the Fayetteville store, and resumed 
his studies at the Clinton Academy. After 
three years spent in this town, the Rev. 
Richard Cleveland was called to the vil- 
lage church of Holland Patent. He had 
preached here only a month when he was 
suddenly stricken down and died without 
an hour's warning. The death of the father 
left the family in straitened circumstances, 
as Richard Cleveland had spent all his 
salary of $1,000 per year, which was not 
required for the necessary expenses of liv- 
ing, upon the education of his children, of 
whom there were nine, Grover being the 
fifth. Grover was hoping to enter Hamil- 
ton College, but the death of iiis father 
made it necessary for him to earn his own 
livelihood. For the first year (iS53-'4) he 
acted as assistant teacher and bookkeeper in 
the Institution for the Blind in New York 
City, of which the late Augustus Schell was 
for many )'ears the patron. In the winter 
of 1854 he returned to Holland Patent 
where the generous people of that place, 
Fayetteville and Clinton, had purchased a 
home for his mother, and in the following 
spring, borrowing $25, he set out for the 
West to earn his living. 

Reaching Buffalo he paid a hasty visit to 
an uncle, Lewis F. Allen, a well-known 



stock farmer, living at Black Rock, a few 
miles distant. He communicated his plans 
to Mr. Allen, who discouraged the idea of 
the West, and finall)- induced the enthusi- 
astic boy of seventeen to remain with him 
and help him prepare a catalogue of blooded 
short-horn cattle, known as " Allen's Amer- 
ican Herd Book," a publication familiar to 
all breeders of cattle. In August, 1S55, he 
entered the law office of Rogers, Bowen 
& Rogers, at Buffalo, and after serving a 
few months without pav, was paid §4 a 
week — an amount barel}' sufficient to meet 
the necessary expenses of his board in the 
family of a fellow-student in Buffalo, with 
whom he took lodgings. Life at this time 
with Grover Cleveland was a stern battle 
with the world. He took his breakfast by 
candle-light with the drovers, and went at 
once to the office where the whole day was 
spent in work and stud}-. Usually he re- 
turned again at night to resume reading 
which had been interrupted by the duties 
of the day. Gradually his cmplovers came 
to recognize the ability, trustworthiness 
and capacit)' for hard work in their young 
employe, and by the time he was admitted 
to the bar (1859) he stood high in their con- 
fidence. A year later he was made confi- 
dential and managing clerk, and in the 
course of three years more his salary had 
been raised to $1,000. In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed assistant district attorney of Erie 
County by the district attorney, the Hon. 
C. C. Torrance. 

Since his first vote had been cast in 1858 
he had been a staunch Democrat, and until 
lie was chosen Governor he always made 
it his duty, rain or shine, to stand at the 
polls and give out ballots to Democratic 
voters. During the first year of his term 
as assistant district attorney, the Democrats 
desired especially to carry the Board of Su- 
pervisors. The ofd Second Ward in which 
he lived was Republican- ordinarily by 250 
majority, but at the urgent request of the 



GRO VER CL E VELA ND. 



119 



party Grover Cleveland consented to be 
the Democratic candidate for Supervisor, 
dnd came within thirteen votes of an elec- 
tion. The three years spent in the district 
attorney's office were devoted to assiduous 
labor and the extension of his professional 
attainments. He then formed a law part- 
nership with the late Isaac V. Vanderpoel, 
ex-State Treasurer, under the firm name 
of Vanderpoel cSc Cleveland. Here the bulk 
of the work devolved on Cleveland's shoul- 
ders, and he soon won a good standing at 
the bar of Erie County. In 1869 Mr. 
Cleveland formed a partnership with ex- 
Senator A. P. Laning and ex-Assistant 
United States District Attorney Oscar Fol- 
som, under the firm name of Laning, Cleve- 
land & Folsom. During these years he 
began to earn a moderate professional in- 
come; but the larger portion of it was sent 
to his mother and sisters at Holland Patent 
to whose support he had contributed ever 
since i860. He served as sheriff of Erie 
County, i870-'4, and then resumed the 
practice of law, associating himself with the 
Hon. Lvman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell. 



The firm was strong and popular, and soon 
commanded a large and lucrative practice. 
Ill health forced the retirement of Mr. Bass 
in 1879, and the firm became Cleveland & 
Bissell. In 1881 Mr. George J. Sicard was 
added to the firm. 

In the autumn election of 1881 he was 
elected mayor of Buffalo by a majority ot 
over 3,500 — the largest majority ever given 
a candidate for mayor^and the Democratic 
city ticket was successful, although the 
Republicans carried Buffalo by over 1,000 
majority for their State ticket. Grover 
Cleveland's administration as mayor fully 
justified the confidence reposed in him by 
the people of Buffalo, evidenced by the 
great vote he received. 

The Democratic State Convention met 
at Syracuse, September 22, 1882, and nomi- 
nated Grover Cleveland for Governor 
on the third ballot and Cleveland was 
elected by 192,000 majority. In the (all of 
1884 he was elected President of the United 
States by about 1,000 popular majority, 
in New York State, and he was accordingly 
inaugurated the 4th of March following. 



PRESTDEXTS OF THE tW'ITED STATES. 




=/**-*. 



^=^-^^. 



BENJAMIN HAI^I^ISON. 





liENJAMIN HARRISON, 
the twenty-third Presi- 
dent of the United States, 
1889, was born at North 
Bend, Hamilton (bounty, 
Ohio, in the house of his 
grandfather, "William Hen- 
ry Harrison (who was the 
ninth J^resident of this 
country), August 20th, 
1833. He is a descendant 
of one of the historical 
families of this country, as 
also of P^ngland. The 
head of the family was a 
Major-(4eneral Harrison 
who was devoted to the cause of Oliver 
Cromwell. Jt liecame the duty of this Har- 
rison to participate in the trial of Charles 1. 
and afterward to sicrn the death warrant of 
the king, which subsequently cost him his 
life. His enemies succeeding to power, he 
was condemned and executed October 13th, 
KitiO. His descendants came to America, 
and the first mention made in history of the 
Harrison family as representative in public 
affairs, is that of Benjamin Harrison, great- 
grandfather of our present President, who 
was a member of the Continental Congress, 
17'''4— 5-0, and one of the original signers of 



the Declaration of Independence, and three 
times Governor of Virginia. His son, Will- 
iam Henry Harrison, made a brilliant mili- 
tary record, was Governor of the Northwest 
Territory, and the ninth President of the 
United States. 

Tlie subject of this sketch at an early age 
became a student at Farmers College, where 
he remained two years, at the end of which 
time he entered Miami University, at Ox- 
ford, Ohio. Upon graduation from said seat 
of learnin<x he entered, as a student, the of- 
fice of Stover it (iwync, a notable law iirm at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he applied himself 
closely to the study of his chosen profession, 
and here laid the foundation for the honora- 
ble and famous career before him. He spent 
two years with the firm in Cincinnati, at the 
expiration of which time he received the 
only inheritance of his life, which was a lot 
left him by an aunt, which he sold for $800. 
This sum he deemed sufficient to justify him 
in marrying the lady of his choice, and to 
whom he was then eni'aj'ed, a daughter of 
Dr. Scott, then Principal of a female school 
at Oxford, Ohio. 

After marriage he located at Indianapolis, 
Indiana, where he began the practice of law. 
Meeting with slight encouragement he made 
but little the first year, but applied himself 





CK^a 



^;^^'?^<?v^t-<s^4:5^--x<. 



BENJAMIN' HARRISON. 



closely to his l)iisinei?, and by perseverance, 
lionorahle dealing and an upright life, suc- 
ceeded in building up an extensive practice and 
took a leading position in the legal profession. 

In 1S60 be was nominated for the position 
of Supreme Court Reporter for the State of 
Indiana, and then Ijegan his experience as a 
stump speaker. lie canvassed the State 
thoroughly and was elected. 

In 18r)2 his patriotism caused him to 
abandon a civil idlico aixl to offer his counti-y 
his services in a military capacity. He or- 
ganized the Scventietli Indiana Infantry and 
was chosen its ( 'olonel. Althoufjh his I'ccri- 
ment was composed of raw material, and he 
practically void of military schooling, he at 
once mastered military t.'ictics and drilled his 
men, so that when he with his regiment was 
assigned to Gen. Sherman's command it was 
known as one of the best drilled organ- 
izations of the army. He was especially 
distinguished for bravery at tlie battles of 
Hesacca and Peach Tree Creek. For his 
bravery and efficiency at the last named bat- 
tle he was made a Brigadier-General, Gen- 
eral Hooker speaking of him in the most 
com pi i me n tary term s. 

While (ieneral Harrison was actively en- 
gaged in the held (lie Supreme Court declared 
the office of Supreme Court Heportcr vacant, 
and another person was elected to fill the 
position. From the time of leaving Indiana 
with his regiment for the front, until the fall 
of ISO-i, General Harrison had taken no leave 
of absence. But having been Tiominated 
that year for the same office that he vacated 
in order to serve his country where he could 
do the greatest good, he got a thirty-day leave 
of absence, and during that time canvassed 
the State and was elected for another term as 
Supreme Court Reporter. He then started 
'to rejoin his command, then with General 
Sherman iu the South, but was stricken down 



with fever and after a very trying siege, made 
his way to the front, and participated in the 
closing scenes and incidents of the war. 

In 186'S General Harrison declined a re- 
election as Reporter, and applied himself to 
the practice of his profession. He was a 
candidate for Governor of Indiana on the 
Republican ticket in Is7(!. Although de- 
feated, the brilliant camj)aign brought him 
to public notice and gave him a National 
reputation as an able and formidable debater 
and he was much sought in the Eastern 
States as a public speaker. He took an act- 
ive part in the Presidential campaign of 
1880, .'itid was elected to the United States 
Senate, where he served six years, and was 
known as one of the strongest deliaters, as 
well as one of the aljlest men and best law- 
yers. When his term expired in tlie Senate 
he resumed his law practice at Indiana]K>lis, 
becoming the bead of one of the strongest 
law firms in the State of Indiana. 

Sometime prior to the opening of the 
Presidential campaign of 1888, the two great 
political parties (Republican and Democratic) 
drew the line of political l.iattle on the ques- 
tion of tariff, vvdiich became the leading; issue 
and the rallyirg watchword during the mem- 
orable cami,'..;^-n. The Repul)licans appealed 
to the people for their voice as to a tariff to 
protect home industries, while the Democrats 
wanted a tariff for revenue only. The Re- 
pulilican convention assembled in Chicago in 
June and selected Mr. Harrison as their 
standanl bearer on a jilatform of jrinciples, 
among other important clauses being that (_d' 
protection, which he cordially indorsed in 
accepting the nomination. November H, 
1888, after a heated canvass, General Harri- 
son was elected, defeating Grover Cleveland, 
who was ao-ain the nominee of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was inaugurated and as- 
sumed the duties of his office March 4, 1889. 







4 X -:^^:m^-i/ 






^/<^^t£^(^2y(y t^ 





.^. 



fJ. :^fi//ro7^ C//Uf''J- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



125 



[IMEON MILLS.— Any history, bio- 
graphical or otherwise, of the city of 
Madison, or in fact of tiie State of Wis- 
consin, would necessarily be incomplete with- 
out extended mention and illustration of the 
life of Simeon Mills, who for over half a centu- 
ry has been a citizen of the State. During that 
time he has been in all probability more 
closely identified with the capital city and its 
growth than any other citizen now living. 
Since early in 1837, Mr. Mills has been a 
citizen of Madison, and during all that time 
he has occupied a high position in the es- 
teem and honor of his fellow citizens, and to- 
day he is an object of love and respect to all 
who know him. 

Mr. Mills was born in Norfolk, Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, February 14, 1810. He 
is a son of Martin and Clarissa (Tuttle) Mills. 
Martin Mills was also a native of Norfolk, 
Connecticut, and his father, Constantine, so 
far as can now be ascertained, was a citizen 
of the same town, (constantine Mills was a 
soldier of the Kevolutionary war, and for 
such military services received a pension 
from the Government during his last years. 
In 1817 he removed to Ashtabula county, 
Ohio, where he died. Martin Mills was 
reared on a farm in Connecticut, and followed 
farming in that State until 1812, when ac- 
companied by his wife and two children, he 
removed to ( )hio, making tlie journey by 
team, and taking with him all his possessions. 
He settled in Ashtabula county, and was one 
of the pioneers of Moi'gan township, where 
he purchased a tract of timber land. ICrect- 
ing a log house on his land in the wilderness, 
he cleared his farm, which he cultivated un- 
til his death. His wife was the daughter of 
Clement and Abigail (Uuttonj Tuttle, and 
was born in Connecticut. Her jiarents were 

10 



also natives of Connecticut, and removed to 
Ohio in 1812, settling in Morgan township. 
Simeon Mills was less than two years old 
when his parents removed to Ohio. He grew 
up in the wilderness, experiencing all the 
deprivations and hardships incidental to pio- 
neer life. In those days there were no rail- 
roads nor convenient markets in the lUickeye 
State, and the people lived principally upon 
the products of their land, and upon the wild 
game, which was abundant in the woods. His 
education was acquired in the pioneer schools 
taught in rough log schoolhouses, where the 
furniture was of the most primitive kind. 
When he was seven years of age he went to 
live witli his maternal grandparents, with 
whom he remained until he reached his ma- 
jority. At this time he entered a drug house 
in Ashtabula, where he clerked for some time, 
and then entered a dry -goods store in Ashta- 
bula as a clerk, where he remained over a 
year, and then engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness for himself at Jefferson, Oliio, con- 
tinuing there until 1835. During the latter 
year he made his first visit to the far West. 
Taking passage on the steamer Thomas Jef- 
ferson, he made the trij) to Chicago, then a 
village of about 8U0 people, and while there 
attended the first land sales held in that city. 
After remaining in Illinois for a short time 
he returned to Ohio, but in the following 
spring, 1836, again left Ohio for the West, 
with the intention of making it his future 
home. He made the journey tVom Ohio to 
Chicago on horseback, thence journeyed on 
to Joliet, and from there, by way of Galena, 
to the mining districts of Wisconsin, then a 
Territory, and was at Belmont during the first 
session of the Territorial Legislature. In 
the following June he came to Madison, and 
permanently settled here, the city at that 
time consisting of one small log house. He 



126 



BIOQRAPEIGAL REVIEW OF 



iiiiiTietliatoly erected a hewn-log house, 
16 x 16 feet in size, and then, going to Galena, 
purchased a stock of goods and at once opened 
a general store. After continuing success- 
fully the mercantile business for a number of 
years, he turned his attention to real estate, 
his sound judgment and business sagacity en- 
abling him to realize and appreciate the great 
possibilities of such investments in the new 
country in which he had cast his lot, and 
being a tirm believer iu the future of the 
then town of Madison. He returnt'd in the 
spring of 1838 to Ohio for his wife, who had 
remained behind, and returning to the West 
they reached Madison the following June. 
Tiie journey was made by water to Milwaukee, 
and thence across the country by wagon, 
crossing Rock river at Janesville. There was 
then no house between Janesville and Madi- 
son, a distance of forty miles, and no road 
nor marks to point the way they should travel, 
except a few stakes that had been driven into 
th(! prairie, and a few trees that had been 
blazed by an exploring party the previous 
fall. 

In 1837 there was no mail nor mail service 
route between Madison and Milwaukee, but 
in the fall of that year Mr. Mills made a con- 
tract with the United States for carrying the 
mail between these j^oint^ until the Istof July, 
1844. The difficulties of getting the mail 
through twice a week with no houses between 
Madison and Aztalaii, and only at rare inter- 
vals the remainder of the route, with the 
streams and marshes unhridged, and roads 
unliuilt, cannot be easily understood or ap- 
preciated by the present generation as they 
fly over the country with the speed of the 
wind, and talk with their friends at the anti- 
podes as with their next door neighbor. 
The task was however accomplished without 
the loss of a 8in<ile trip durinif the term of 



tlie contract, a feat rarely performed at the 
present day, though the distance is spanned 
with iron and traversed by powerful locomo- 
tives. 

August 12, 1837, he was appointed the 
first Justice of the Peace of Dane county, 
and was probably the only one at that time 
between Dodgeville and Milwaukee. In 
1839, Dane county was organized and he 
was elected one of the County Commission- 
ers, and appointed Clerk of the Court, which 
latter office he held about nine years. lie 
held the office of Territorial Treasurer when 
the State Government was organized, and was 
elected the first State Senator from Dane 
county, afterward receiving a renomination, 
which he declined. In 1848 he was aji- 
pointed one of the regents of the nniversity 
of Wisconsin, p.nd took an active part in the 
organization and establishment of the insti- 
tution, purchasing its site, and superintend- 
ing the erection of its first buildings. In 
1860 he was appointed one of the Trustees 
for the State Hospital for the Insane, and 
was an active member of that lioard for seven- 
teen years, taking a deep interest in the erec- 
tion of buildings, and in the general man- 
agement of affairs in and about the institn- 
tioii. He has always been identified with 
public improvements and has contributed 
largely to the general prosperity of the city 
of Madison. He invested all his gains in 
lands and in the erection of buildings, mak- 
ing their care the business of ins life. 

In 1861, at the breaking out of the Kebel- 
lion, he took an active part in tlie enlistment 
of troops by extending material aid to the 
families of the earliest volunteers, and was 
appointed by Governor Ilandall, Paymaster 
General, and during the first year of the war 
he disbursed more than §1.500,000 of the 
war funds of the State. Since 1838, Mr. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



127 



Mills and his wife have made Madison their 
pennaneTit home, rearini^ here five children, 
two of whom still survive. Their eldest 
daughter, Florence Emeline, became the wife 
of Dr. C. Hayes, in 1859, and is now de- 
ceased. Their only living son, Arthur Con- 
staiitine, married Helen, daughter of Thomas 
Bennett, of Green Bay, in 1860, and with the 
youngest daughter of Mr. Mills, Genevive M., 
reside with their parents in Madison. Since 
1837. Mr. Mills has watched the constant 
growth of this beautiful city of Madison 
from its infancy with all the pride of a fond 
parent watching over the growth to manhood 
of a promising child. To-day, with one excep- 
tion, he is the oldest livino; citizen of the 
place or county, and to him more than to any 
other one man is credit due and given for 
assistance rendered from year to year in the 
development of the capital city from a primi- 
tive village to one of the largest cities of the 
State. Though well advanced in years he 
is still rugged in health, and retains all the men- 
tal vigor which has characterized him through 
life, and which has made him so prominent 
and conspicuous a tigure among the leading 
citizens of Madison. He has substantially 
aided in the building up of cliurches, schools 
and colleges, and in developing the resources 
of a new country he has encouraged iiis fel- 
low-countrymen, both by precept and exam- 
ple, in the attainment of a higher civilization- 
In religion he has always claimed to be ortho- 
dox, having been early taugl^t to believe that 
God foreordains whatever comes to pass. 
For many years he was a member of the Re- 
publican party, but of late years has affilia- 
ted with the Democracy, his views on the 
tariff question rendering it impossible for 
him to support the Republican platforms. 
Mr. Mills is considered one of the best in- 
formed men in the State, and he has con- 



tributed many articles to the literature of the 
day, which have appeared from time to time 
in different works, and these articles have 
ever stamped him as a writer of more tlian 
ordinary ability. 

Mks. Mauia Louisa Mills, deceased, wife of 
General Simeon Mills, of Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, was born in Sandstield, Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts, on May 21, 1815, and was the 
daughter of Church Smith. When about 
twelve 3'ears of age her father removed to 
Ohio, locating in Austinburg, Ashtabula 
county, where the family resided at the time 
of her marriage to General Mills, on May 21, 
1834. With her husband she came to Wis- 
consin, then a Territory, settling at Madison. 
At that time the interior of the State was 
sparsely settled, the entire population of 
Dane county not exceeding four or five fami- 
lies. The journey from Ohio to Milwaukee 
was made by water, then by wagon and on 
foot to INIadison, from Janesville to Madison, 
a distance of forty miles, there were nei- 
ther houses nor roads, and the trip consumed 
three days' time, they arriving at the latter 
place on June 18, 1838. In speaking of her 
pioneer life and e.vperience Mrs. Mills said: 
" I came expecting to make my home in 
Madison, and not for one moment have I ever 
been homesick, or regretted the location we 
made." This remark illustrates her strength 
of purpose and force of character. Full of 
life, animation and enterj)rise to a marked 
detrree, she infused the same elements in the 
company in which she mingled. Of excel- 
lent mental attainments, her conversation 
was ever ready, and interesting. Strictly 
domestic, industrious, and frugal, retiring in 
her ha!)its and disposition, she never made 
any pretension to publicity, and, being a firm 
believer in Christianity, ever inculcated in 
her children a love for the same principles 



128 



BIOGRAPHICAL RBVIEW OF 



whicli formed an attractive feature of her 
daily life and character. Her memory is en- 
shrined in the hearts of her family and large 
circle of friends and neighbors. In early life 
she united with the reliijious denomination 
known as the Christian or Church of Christ, 
better known as Cauipbellites, in which faith 
she died, but owing to the absence of any 
church in Madison, of that denomination, 
she attended the Methodist Episcopal. Her 
death occurred June 10, 1884. 



fANETTE W. AINSWORTII, nee Clng- 
ston, proprietress of the Madison Acad- 
emy of ]\[n8ic, located at 19-21 S. Pinck- 
ney street, and established by her in 1870, and 
which she has since managed and developed 
with wonderful success. 

Mrs. Ainsworth is a natural teacher, and 
has been thus engaged since she was twelve 
years of age. When not yet seven years old 
her musical al)ility was developed to a won- 
derful extent. Her early life was passed at 
Manchester, England, where she was born 
and educated, having served an apprentice- 
ship of si.x years as a pupil teacher, learning 
the science and art of teaching under the 
government in the public schools of Man- 
chester. 

For many years Mrs. Ainsworth was the 
organist in one of the leading churches of 
her native city. When she came to this 
country and desired to make a permanent 
home, she came to Madison, Wisconsin, in 
1870, and has continuously taught music 
since that time. She makes a specialty of the 
piano, of which she is a perfect master, the- 
oretically and technicall}', playing with skill 
and expression, and having the faculty of 
imparting some of this facility to lier pupils. 



She cannot make a musician out of a clod of 
earth, hut if there is a spark of the divine 
tire she will find it and nourish it to its great- 
est blaze. On account of this perseverance 
and her charming manner, Mrs. Ainsworth 
can have no fault to find with the good peo- 
ple of Madison, for her success has been 
steady from the tirst. 

To one of the temperment of this accom- 
plished lady, her music is as meat and drink, 
and she has scarcely lost a day from her pro- 
fession since her coming liere, and lias now a 
comfortable bank account, a good home and 
parlors where she devotes her time to her 
classes. She came of Scotch parentage, be- 
ing the daughter of John and Susan (Mc- 
Donald) Clugston, who were natives of Ar- 
gyleshire, Scotland, and botii came of old 
Scotch families, who have figured for years 
prominently in the history of Argyleshire. 
Especially is this true of the McDonald fam- 
ily. Mr. and Mrs. Clugston were uiarried 
in Manchester, whither they had gone from 
Scotland, and there the former established 
himself as a builder and contractor, and was 
thus engaged until 1869, when he brought 
his family to the United States and settled in 
Madison City, and here Mr. Clugston died 
April 27, 1873. He was born in the town 
of Ayr, Ayrshire, Scotland (the birthplace of 
the Scottish poet, Robert Burns), August 3, 
1824. 

Mr. Clugston hail been reared a Presby- 
terian, but in England he joined the E])is- 
copal Church, and died in that faith. His 
wife is yet living, and makes her home 
with her daughter, Mrs. Ainswortii, of this 
notice. She is a well-preserved lady of 
sixty-six years, and has taken the full Chau- 
tauqua course, graduating from it in 1890, 
with thirteen seals, having read everything 
connected with the prescribed course. Since 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



129 



that time she lias earned more seals, and is 
now an active and interested student of 
Greek; is a lady of mucii intelligence and 
culture, and shows the result of her applica- 
tion to the delightful course laid down for 
those who desire to take it. 

Mrs. Clugston has been the mother of 
seven children, three of whom died while 
young. The living are: Agnes T., for some 
years a siudent in Italy for grand opera, but 
who, on account of failing health, after a 
few years upon the stage in Italy, was obliged 
to give up her ambitious plans, and is now a 
teacher of music in Elgin. She is also the 
organist and choir mistress of the Kpisco])al 
choir there. Annie S., is the wife of L. P. 
Goodchap, of Sparta, Wisconsin. She has 
the family gift also, and is a prominent 
teacher of music there. Alex 11., is an em- 
ploye in the watch- works in Elgin, and his 
wife was Miss Anna Lewis, of Monroe. Wis- 
consin. Mrs. Ainsworth, of this notice, is 
the eldest of the family, and is the mother of 
two children, Harry Holroyd, a student in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Chicago; and Charles Sydney, at home, a 
student in the public schools. Both are 
bright youths. Both Mrs. Ainsworth and 
her sons are members of the Episcopal 
Church, where they are highly regarded and 
appreciated^ 

^SA E. PETTENGILL, one of the citi- 
zens of Madison, is the subject of this 
notice. He holds the important office 
of Clerk of the Municipal Court of the city, 
having been in that position since January, 
1875, and has been continually in office since, 
having served nearly all of his third term of 
six years. He was appointed I)y Judge A. 



B. Braley and was under him for fourteen 
years, and when this Judge died, in 1879, 
he has served since under Judge Keys. Mr. 
Pettengill has been a very prominent clerk 
and has many friends in the city. Comino- 
to Madison City in 1868, he engaged in 
business for two years, later going to Sioux 
City, Iowa, and for sixteen months engaged 
in the hotel business, opening a new hotel, 
which he called the Madison House. 

Our subject now went to Independence, 
Iowa, and conducted the St. James Hotel 
there until 1873, when he sold out tiiere on 
account of the ill health of his wife, return- 
ing to the city of Madison, where he spent 
about a year in retirement, then being ap- 
pointed to the position he now holds. He 
has been active in local afRxirs in any wav 
that he has thought looking toward the bet- 
tering of the city of his residence. He is a 
Democrat and a local worker for his party. 
Our subject is a Master Mason and has been 
so for nearly forty years, and a social being 
and has a natural love for good company, 
having many jolly friends on his list of ac- 
quaintances. 

The birth of our subject took place in 
Sheldon, Vermont, in 1816, March 21, and 
came of New England parentage, his father, 
John, was a native of Salisbury, New Hamp- 
shire, and he was the son of Samuel, who 
was either born in Scotland or of Scotch 
parentage, and lived and died in New Hamp- 
shire in the old town of Salisbury, be- 
ing then in middle life. He was a farmer 
by occupation and was a soldier throuo-h the 
Revolutionary war, and was in many emrage- 
ments. John Pettengill was yet a youncr 
man when he lost his father, and he was yet 
single when he went up to Vermont and be- 
gan life as a young farmer and was there 
married to Miss Sarah Stone, a Vermont lady 



ISO 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIRW OF 



h\ birth ami voariiiy;. oomiiigf of Now Eiisr- 
laiui stiH'k. Al'tor luarriaijo livinl on a farm 
in tlio town of SlioUlon for some years. For 
a short time Mr. tlohii Petten<;ill was a sol- 
dier ill the war of 1S12, but he took sick 
and his brotlier went as his substitute. In 
ISll' Mr. Tottensjill sohi out and moved into 
the township of Milo. Yates county. New 
York, and boiran life there as an aarieultur- 
ist. where lie resided for a number of years. 
Later he retired to Torrey in the same county 
and spent liis last years with his son. Geoiije 
AV., and liis life went out, like a lamp with- 
out oil, the day he was eii;litv years of ajje, 
January li>. 1870. .lohn rettengill had 
hardly known what is was to be sick, and 
was a ijuiet and very temperate man, with 
many friends. He was a strong Wiiig and 
Uepubliean in polities, and was active in 
school-matters, haviuij been a member of the 
School Hoard for years. He was a moralist 
in his Ivlief. and in later life joined the 
Methodist Church, dyinjj in that faith. His 
wife had died about 1S50 of an attack of 
pleurisy, aijiHl sixty-six years. She was. from 
early I'irlhood days, a strict Presbyterian and 
was the mother of ten children, six sons and 
four daughters, and all but one liveil to be 
grown until pjist sixty years. The eldest of 
the family is now eighty-three years of age. 
l>ur subject is the third son and sixth 
child and was reared and educated while at 
home upon his father's farm, and later at- 
tended an academy at I'enn Yan, Yates 
county. New York. He had learned the 
trade of satldler and harnessmaker and 
worked at it for twelve years. Later he was 
a general merchant in Brauchp^^rt, New York, 
where he remained for a perioil of twelve 
years, and then went into the drug and gro- 
cery business, i-emaining in it for tive years 
in Naples. (Ontario county. Later he came 



west in 1S67 and spent part of one year in 
N'ernon county, Wisconsin, and then came to 
Madison in 1868. Histirst presidential vote 
was cast for Martin Van Buren. 

Our subject was married December 17, 
1842, to Miss Mary A. Gamby in Hranch- 
port. New York, who was born in Yates 
county. New \ ork, a few months after her 
father had died and she later went with her 
mother to Massachusetts, which was the hit- 
ter's former home and there the widowed 
mother was a second time married and canie 
to nraiK'hport. settling on a farm, but later 
went back to Massachusetts, where the hus- 
band and stepfather died. His name was 
I miner Hubbard. Mrs. Hubbard afterwanl 
came to Vernon county, Wisconsin, and dieil 
at the home of her son when sixty-six years 
of age. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tettengill are good 'uul con- 
sistent people, but not creed followers. 
They have no children. 

ILLIAM K. GOl)l>AlU>, a farmer 
of Dane township, l)ane county, 
Wisconsin, was born in Shetiield 
county, Canada, in 1828. a son of William 
K. Goddaiil, who W!is born in the same place 
in 1808. The latter's father. Abram God- 
dard, was a farmer and blacksmith of Ver- 
mont. He married a ^Hss Kellogg, a native 
of New Entrland. and they had four sons and 
tivo daughters who grew to>-ears of maturity. 
William K., the father of our subject, was 
married in Canada to Catherine Phillips, also 
a native of New Euirland. In the summer of 
1848 they came with eight children to Mil- 
waukee. Wisconsin, and later to Walworth 
countv, where they farmed on rented land 
until the fall of 1849. In that v^ar the 




JJANI'! COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



131 



father pnrcliaHed 100 acrcH ol' l;uii| in Ujukj 
townsliip, iJiirie county, orcctcJ a log Iiouhc, I 
20 X 22 feet, one and a half Btories high, and 
there ho paBsod the remainder of IiIk dayB, 
dyiiif^ in February, 1855, at tlie age of forty- 
gix years, leaving his widow with five sonw 
and four daughters. She aftcsrward Bold her 
interest in the farin, conBisting of forty ufreK, 
and removed to Warren, .Jo Daviess coNnly, 
Illinois, where she died, in 1880, aged 
eeventy-iive years. Mr. and Mrs. (Joddard 
had three eons in the late war, Ahrani, who 
was discharged on account of nicknesB; 
Marshall N., who was with Slmrman during 
the Georgia campaign, and served until the ! 
close of the struggle; and George O., who 
served but a short time. 

William K. (Joddard, our subject, was 
early inured to hard labor, and his education j 
was received in a district school three mih^B | 
from his home. In company with his father 
and brother, he owned the home farm of 100 
acres, and at his death the father deeded our 
subject eighty acres. Mr. (Joddard is engaged 
in farming arirl stock growing, raising oats, 
corn and wheat, but he gives special atten- 
tion to the raising of I'oland (Jhina hogs, of 
which he sells from twenty to forty head 
yearly. He also keeps about seven head of 
horses, twenty head of horned cattle, and 
from forty to fifty head of Shropshire sheep. 

He was married in 1854, at the age of 
twenty- six years, to Miss (Jlarissa liabcock, 
a native of St. Lawrence county, New York, 
and a daughter of John and (Jatherine 
(Miller) Babcock, also natives of that State. 
They came to Wisconsin in a very early day, 
locating on a farm in Springfield township, 
Dane county, where the father soon afterward 
died. The mother died at the home of her 
daughter about twelve years later. Mr. and 
Mrs. Goddard bad fhrei- children: (Clarence 



h., a farmer of western Kansas, and has two 
sons and two daugliters; Ada May, wife of 
George W. lieynolds, a farmer of Spiring- 
fjeld townshif), Dane county, Wisconsin; one 
son and one daughter; and (Jlarissa K., widow 
of W. Vj. Rice, a resident of Tremjiealeau 
county, Wisconsin, and lias two ilaughters 
and one son. 'J'lie mother died eight years 
after her marriage, at, the age of twetity-six 
years. In December, 18(;;j, Mr. (Jodilard 
married Kate Hull, who was then visiting 
her uncle in this State, flu;rli Younir. She 
is a daughter of Hiram and Luna (lio-wortlij 
Hull, natives of N(;w York, but reared in 
(Jhio, where their pan^nts had moved at an 
early day. In 1872, .Mr. and .Mrs. Hull re- 
moved from that State to Nebraska. The 
mother <lied jn January, 18JJ0, at the age of 
seventy-eight years, and the father still re- 
sides at Kearney, Nebraska, aged eighty 
years. Two of their sons took part irj the 
late war. William Hull was in the South, 
and has niiver been heard froiri since, and 
Lieutenant .loi;l Hull, now a resident of 
jMinden, Nebraska, served in the (Jne hun- 
dred and fifteenth Ohio Volunteer infantry. 
lie remained until the close of the war, and 
served principally on the frontier. Mr. and 
Mrs. Goddard have had the following chil- 
dren: William IL, of Mason (.^ity, Iowa; 
Edward C., a telegrapli operator of Middle- 
ton, Dane county; Elmer J., a farmer of 
Trempealeau county, Wisconsin; Jesse IL, 
Veda 1'., and Horton M. at home. Mr. God- 
dard is a stanch iicjpublican in his political 
views, and has held the office of Postmaster. 
His wife held the same position at Hyers 
corners an<l at Acorn for eight years. Loth 
are members of the Methodist Church. 



132 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



j^ENRY LINLEY, a successful business 
man of Mazomanie, was born in Blyth, 
Nottinghamshire, England, May 24, 
1824, a son of John and Isabella (Beighton) 
Linley, also natives of Nottingham. The 
father was acrardener and coachman of Eng- 
land, and the parents moved to Yorkshire, 
that country, when our subject was eight 
years of age. In 1844 they came to America, 
locating in Iowa county, Wisconsin, where 
the father followed farniintf. 

Henry Linlc}', the eldest of live children, 
three sons and one daughter, received only a 
limited education, and at the age of ten years 
began work in a foundry. At the age of 
twenty-five years, in 1849, he joined his 
parents in the United States, in Iowa county, 
Wisconsin, and was engaged' in fanning 
there for thirty-nine years. In 1888 he 
came to Mazomanie, where he has partially 
retired from active business life. He still 
owns two sorghum mills and a fine farm. 
He votes with the RepublicaTi party, and 
while in Iowa county, held the office of 
Township Supervisor. Religiously, he is a 
member of the Congregational Church. 

Mr. Linley was married in Yorkshire, 
England, Juno 2, 1840, to Sarah Hagnell, 
and they have had ten childien, nine now liv- 
ing, viz.: Isabella, William II., Elizabeth, 
John, Arthur L., Frank, Gertie, Herman and 
May. 

SALTER SCOTT HIDDEN, editor 
and proprietor of the Countryman, a 
weekly newspaper published at Sun 
Prairie, is a native of Wisconsin, the son of 
J. E. and Catherine Hidden. Dane county, 
Bristol township, was the place of his birtli 
and April 2, 1861, the date. Ills primary ed- 




ucation was received at the district school, as 
he was reared on his father's farm, but in ad- 
dition to this he had the advantage of two 
years at the State University and a term at 
the business college of Bryant & Stratton, at 
Chicago, Illinois. He was seventeen years 
old when he first left home and after finish- 
ing at the last nan\ed institution he went 
to Ashton, Dakota, where he had charge of 
the Spink County Herald as general mana- 
ger. 

In two years' time he had returned to Dane 
county and worked in the office of the Coun- 
tryman, at Sun Prairie for four years. The 
paper was then under the management of C. 
S. Crosse, but in 1889 Mr. Hidden purchased 
the paper and since that time has had full 
charge. The paper has greatly prospered un- 
der his skillful management. Mr. Hidden 
has added new presses, an engine and other 
material and now has a first-class job office 
in connection with his paper. The paper is 
run in the interests of the Republican party, 
although Mr. Hidden is too just a man to let 
it become strongly partisan. The little sheet 
contains spicy editorials and local news and 
the steadily growing circulation indicates 
the appreciation of the people. 

Our subject comes of an old family and can 
trace his ancestry back on his paternal side 
to early days in England, while the maternal 
family tree runs almost as far back on the 
maternal side. The father came from Ver- 
mont to Lowell. Massachusetts, where he was 
engaged in merchandit^ing for a number of 
years. He then came to liristol township and 
bought the farm where our subject was born. 
This farm consists of eighty acres of unim- 
proved land, which he has cultivated, until it 
is now an attractive home. Mr. Hidden, Sr., 
made his advent into Wisconsin in 1858. He 
had two children, our subject and a brother, 



DANE COUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



133 



Clmrles, on the farm. Mr. Hidden, Sr., was 
one of nine children, two of whom are still 
living, the father of our subject and Violet, 
wife of W. H. Pember, of Craftsbury, Ver- 
mont. 

Our subject is a pleasant, agreeable gen- 
tleman, whose object seems to be to please 
every one with whom he comes in contact, and 
who succeeds, for few men of Sun Prairie have 
as many friends as has our friend, the editor 
of the Countryman. 



^. 



4(@)' 



^ 



r'ATI''^^**^' ^'■- ^"^^^EEX, Attorney of Ore- 
■]Ah> L\ tion, Dane county, Wisconsin, has 

£il--4ILL 1 

^i^^ been a resident of the county since 

1850, and consequently has a large and ex- 
tended acquaintance throughout the State. 
He was born in Wayne county. New York, 
November 21, 1S37, son of Samuel and Nancy 
(Chase) Green, natives of the same State, born 
in Washington and Ontario counties, I'espect- 
ively. The father of onr subject was born 
in the year 1807, being one inafamily of thir- 
teen children. Wlien he was seven years old 
his father died and four years later his motlier 
followed her husband, leaving him to the care 
of an elder brother, with whom he remained 
until he attained years of discretion, engaged 
in hard work instead of attending school. 
When still a young man with a brother-in- 
law he emigrated to Lyons, Wayne county, 
then on the frontier, where he pursued farm- 
ing on a tract of land he purchased, and as 
the country was unsettled he had plenty of 
work to do in order to clear his land. In 1835 
here he met and married Nancy Chase, of 
Ontario county, a daughter of Jenks and Je- 
miua (Robbins) Chase, natives of Rhode Is- 
land, and pioneers of Ontario county, having 
settled in Phelps, when wliite settlers were 



few and Indians plenty. After marriage Mr. 
an<l Mrs. Green, Sr., resided on the farm in 
Wayne county, which was a large one, finely 
located and considered to be the best in that 
section of country. Here they reared their 
family and continued to reside until 1850, 
when they emigrated to Wisconsin by way of the 
lakes to Detroit, railroad across Michigan and 
the lake to Kenosha, hnally settling in Fitch- 
burg township, Dane county, where he pur- 
chased 280 acres of land, of which fifty-five 
were broken and on wdiich was erected a log 
cabin and log barn, covered with straw. Here 
the family settled and lived for many years, 
the father dying on the farm May G, 1879. 
Many improvements were made during his 
life and the farm was nicely cultivated, al- 
though he contended against many difficul- 
ties, chief among which was the ilestroying 
of his residence and household goods by fire. 
She and ailaughter now make the farm, which 
contains 160 acres, their home. The father 
was a very quiet, industrious, unassumingciti- 
zen, a Democrat in politics, although he only 
took sufficient interest in ])olitics to vote. He 
was a very healthy man until about three 
years prior to his death when he suffered a 
stroke of paralysis. He and his wife had three 
children, namely: M. M., our subject; Mary J., 
now wife of Ethan S. Postle, who resides on 
the old homestead; and Allen J., a member 
of Company D, Twenty-third Wisconsin, who 
served until the end of the war. He was otily 
seventeen years of age when he enlisted and 
participated in all the engagements of the 
regiment from Arkansas Post to the close of 
hostilities. Although taken prisoner sev- 
eral times he always escaped. After the war 
he went West and drove stage on the plains, 
but never returned home, the last that was 
heard of him was that be started out on an 
Indian raid, fi-om which he did not come back, 



134 



BIOaRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



SO the natural inference was that he was killed 
by the savages, a sad ending to so brave a 
life. 

Our subject was in his tliirteenth year 
when he came to Wisconsin and in this State 
he attended district school in the winter and 
assisted his father on the farm in the summer 
and ran a tlireshing machine in the threshing 
season. During his boyiiood he eagerly read 
all law books he could possibly obtain. In 
1862 he enlisted in the same regiment that 
his brother joined and was mustered into 
State service with the Twenty-third Wiscon- 
sin Regiment in September,but when the regi- 
ment was mustered into the United States' 
service, he was commissioned recruiting of- 
ficer and served in that capacity until 1863, 
when he purchased horses tor the Govern- 
ment, being associated with John Dalrymple, 
of Green county, in the business, and in all 
they bought 535 iiorses. The partnership 
thus formed has since been dissolved, but tlie 
two gentlemen continue to be warm friends 
and many are the pleasant talks they have 
over those exciting days. 

In 1867 he was associated witli B. F. Nott 
at Oregon in the clothing trade, but later 
withdrew and went to Cherokee, going over 
much of the western country with a team. 
He was Justice of the Peace during his stay 
in (Jregon and did a large business. lie went 
to Madison in the fall of 1869, where he at- 
tended law school and did some collecting in 
the capacity of Deputy Sheriff and attended 
law school, [n 1873 he returned to Oregon, 
but the following year spent several months 
in Colorado and other parts of the West. In 
1876 he was admitted to the bar and has fol- 
lowed the practice of his profession ever since. 

Mr. Green was married July 1, 1858, to 
Hnldah C. Bennett, daughter of Egbert Ben- 
nett. Mrs. Green was born in Ciienantro 



county. Xew Vork, December 1, 1840. They 
have two children: George E., born Novem- 
ber 8, 1861, station agent and grain dealer at 
Dempster, South Dakota, married Miss Ruby 
Boswell, September 27. 1892; and Ilattie M., 
wife of Dudley S. Elliott, born March 4, 1866, 
married December 6, 1885. A little daughter 
Jennie Celestia, was born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Ellliott, July 22, 1888, at Sioux City, Iowa, 
who is the pet of her grandparents. Our sub 
ject was a Republican until 1888, since which 
time he has been a stanch Democrat, as a thor 
ough study of the tariff question convinced 
him that that party was the one which was 
in nearest accord with his own convictions, 
lie is a member of Oregon Lodge, No. 151, 
A. F. & A. M., of which he is a charter mem- 
ber, lie is also a member of the A. O. IT. W. 
and in both organizations is <iuite active. 
Mrs. Green and her daughter are devoted 
inembersof the Presbyterian Church, in which 
they are faitliful workers, and Mrs. Green is 
is a member of the W. R. C. The family is 
well-known and respected throughout the 
county. 

,UGUST WILLIAM BARTSCH, now 
deceased. — Our subject was born in 
Brandenburg, Prussian Germany, April 
1, 1841, of good German ancestry. His 
father died when our subject was a small boy, 
and iiis mother was left with a family of four 
children, two sons and two daughters. About 
1854 the family came to America, immedi- 
ately settling upon a small farm near Asha- 
pound, not far from Watertown, Wisconsin, 
and there the mother died, when past seventy 
years of age. Her name was Catherine 
Bartsch, and both she and her husband were 
members of the Lutheran Church. 



D^\IiE COUNTY, WISCONSIN, 



135 



Our subject remained with liis mother un- 
til he became of age, and then came to Madi- 
son. His brother Fritz had died at the old 
home, where the fainily settled after coming 
to the State, leaving a family. His two sis- 
ters are yet living: Minnie, the wife of Mike 
Lindert, a farmer of Wisconsin; and Emily, 
the widow of Jacob Ileimerl, and now lives 
in San Francisco. Our subject was the 
youngest of the children, still young when he 
came to Wisconsin and learned the trade of 
blacksmith in the shop ot a brother-in law. 
Just about the time the war broke out, our 
subject attained his majority and he went in- 
to the army, in Company D, Twenty-sixth 
Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 
and fought at Chancellors vi lie, Gettysijurg, 
Mission Ridge, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, At- 
lanta and Sherman's march to the sea. A 
great many of the brave boys who went out 
to battle at that time never came back. Our 
subject soon won honors and was promoted, 
becoming First Lieutenant, taking part in 
the battle of Gettysimrg. He was wounded 
in the left lobe of the lung and from this in- 
jury was confined to the hospital for some 
time, only getting back to his regiment just 
before the war closed, and was honorably dis- 
charged. He was brevetted Captain of Com- 
pany D for bravery, as he had been in some 
serious engagements and did his duty with 
heroism and received other wounds, but none 
60 serious as the one mentioned. 

Afterthe war our subject returned to Madi- 
son and for a few years engaged in the manu- 
facture and wholesale cigar trade, and was 
successful in Imsincss from the beeinnine:. 
But a cold settled upon his weak lungs and 
for two years he suffered, dying at last as 
much a martyr to his country's cause as if he 
had fallen on the field in front of a cannon. 



He was much missed, havintr been one of the 
leading young Germans of this city. He 
took great interest in all local enterprises. 
When the Governor's Guards were formed 
in this city he was made Captain and held 
the ])Ositiou until death. He was in politics 
a Republican, and was also a member of the 
leading German societies, and also belonged 
to the Masonic order. 

In Madison, May 28, 1868, he was married 
to Miss Johanna Bans, who was born in 
Krefeld, near the river Rhine in Prussian 
Germany, April 21, 1848. She was the 
ilanghter of Richard and Sophia (Hess) Baus, 
natives of a Rhine province, who there grew 
up and married, and there their two children 
were l)orn. In 1851 they came to the United 
States in a sailing vessel and landed in New 
York, came to Wisconsin and finally settled 
in Madison, where Mr. Baus went into the 
cigar business with his son-in-law, and was 
thus engaged until his death. May 8, 1880. 
He was then fifty-six years of age. The 
mother of Mrs. Bartsch died in 18(i8, at the 
aged of sixty-seven years. They were mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church. Mrs. Bartsch 
was the younger of two children. Her l)rother 
Edward, who is a cigar manufacturer, mar- 
ried Anna Hippeiimeyer, and tiiey have two 
children: Richard and Irma. Mrs. Bartsch 
has one bright son, Walter E., attending 
school at a German seminary in Milwaukee. 
He is about of age and has displayed great 
intelligence, and is a young man of whom his 
mother may be justly proud. Since the 
death of her husband, Mrs. Bartsch has man- 
aged the business with skill. She owns 
some valuable city property and her home at 
the corner of Spaight and Patterson streets 
is a very nice one, overlooking beautiful lake 
Monona. She is a lady gifted in many ways, 
and her friends know her to l»e kind, sympa- 



136 



BIOORAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



tlietic and oblicrins. The death of Mr. 
Bartsch opcurred August 17, 1^76, in Den- 
ver, Colorado, where he had gone hoping to 
derive benefit, but he passed away at the age 
of thirty-tive years, after a stay of but three 
weeks. lie was much lamented and is still 
remembered by the citizens of this city as 
one of the honest and true-hearted German 
citizens, whose heart was all in the right 
place. 



^ 



'^ 



IIIARLES POYNOR, a successful 
fanner of Dane township, Wisconsin, 
located on section 36, was born in 
Leicestershire, England, in 1826. His fa- 
ther, Jonah Poynor, a native of the same 
county, was a clock and watch maker by 
trade, which occupation he learned during a 
service of seven years in the town of Leices- 
ter. The grandfather, James Poynor, was a 
mechanic and followed blacksmithing the 
greater portion of his life. lie died in 
Leicester at an advanced age, having reared 
three sons and three daughters. The grand- 
mother of our subject was a Miss Erewen, 
who lived some years after her husband, died 
at the same place and both rest in tlie same 
churchyard. Jonah was the eldest child of 
the family and married Eliza iiiley, a 
daughter of Richard Kiley, and they came to 
America in the spring of 1847, having set 
sail from Liverpool, about the last of May, 
upon the merchant sailer, Elizabeth Bruce, 
under Captain Day. They had a pleasant 
voyage and landed in August, in New Or- 
leans, came up the Mississippi river to Ga- 
lenaontheGalenariver,then called Fever river. 
The family consisted of George W., who died 
in England, past middle life. By occupation 
lie was a mechanic and he left a family- 



Eliza was the next child and is now Mrs. 
James Slater, of Milwaukee. Iler husband 
was a mechanic, but is now living retired, 
living on his interest. Charles of this 
sketch; Thomas, who followed the high seas 
as a sailor for years and later was a mate on 
a Mississippi steamer, where he was acci- 
dentall}' killed in the prime of life, leaving a 
daughter; John Poynor died in London and 
left a wife and two sons, still in Loudon. 
He was apprenticed to one Thomas Cooke, 
of Cooke & Sons and was Mr. Cooke's secre- 
tary and amanuensis. Mary Ann is now the 
wife of John D. Placket, a farmer of Vienna 
township, Wisconsin, and Richard is also a 
farmer of Vienna township. 

After coming to America his family set- 
tled on eighty acres of laud. They moved 
into a rude log house on this land and here 
the parents i-esided until death. The mother 
died in 1854, aged about fifty-six years and 
the father in 1869, having been born in the 
first of 1800. They were possessed of some 
means when they came here and died leaving 
an estate of 200 acres, improved. 

Jonah Poynor was reared on the farm un- 
til the age of fourteen and then was appren- 
ticed to his trade. He received a fair amount 
of schooling and early became connected 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
which he became an earnest worker in this 
and the temperance movement. Ho accom- 
plished much both in this country and in 
England toward the evangelizing of the race. 
When he left England he received an ovation, 
a regular public demonstration, testifying to 
his faithfulness. 

Charles Poynor, of this sketch, served from 
his fourteenth to his twenty-first year in 
Leicester as an apprentice to the wood and 
bone turning business. The jirincipal occu- 
pation was that of making ivory spools. For 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



137 



one month he worked as a journeyman be- 
fore coming to America. Since locatincr 
here he has engaged in farming, altliongh lie 
does not consider this a congenial occupation. 

lu 1853 Mr. Poynor was married to Ame- 
lia A. Ford, born in Massachusetts, a 

daughter of Robert Ford and (Hogan) 

Ford, both parents from Scotland. They 
came to Wisconsin about 1851. The mother 
died at a ripe old age, having celebrated her 
golden wedding and the father, still living in 
Springtield township, Wisconsin, is an octo- 
genarian, having the use of all his faculities, 
except his hearing. Mr. and Mrs. Poynor 
have two children, George L., a mechanic in 
Kansas; and Estella I., a school teacher for 
some years. Immediately after marriage 
Mr. and Mrs. Poynor settled on their home 
place of eighty acres, of which they have 
sold forty acres and still live in their primi- 
tive log house. Mr. Poynor was Assessor 
for two years and has been School Treasurer 
and Director for several years. He has been 
a life-long Democrat and an Odd Fellow for 
nearly twenty years. 

Mrs. Poynor is the third child and second 
daughter of her family. She was the tirst 
child born at Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, 
where the parents moved soon after coming 
to New York city, in 1834. They made 
the journey on a sailing vessel. The father, 
Robert Ford, was reared to the weaver trade 
and was engaged mostly in the manufacture 
of damask linens. lie was a mechanical ge- 
nius and was the master mechanic in the 
gingham factory in Thompsonville, Connecti- 
cut. For years he was at the head of the 
print works at Chicopee Falls. They reared 
eight children, of wiiom five are still living 
and also the father, aged eighty-five years. 
His wife died in 1883 at the age of seventy- 
six. 



DOLPII WAGNER, proprietor of the 
I Lake City Bottling Works, located on 
■-iip^ the corner of Spaight and Peterson 
streets, is a successful man. He is a manu- 
facturer of that exhilarating l)everage known 
as "pop'' and all unintoxicating drinks. 
This business was established by himself in 
the spring of 1887, and ever since that time 
he has had a satisfactory increase in business, 
and now employs seven men all of the time. 
The name of his partner is Mr. Joseph Bol- 
lenbeck, who travels constantly, representing 
the business on the road in a commercial 
way. 

Mr. Wagner came to Madison in 1872 and 
established himself in the business, after a 
few years of experience as a clerical worker for 
Joseph Hausman, the extensive brewer of 
this city. Mr. Wagner is a man of energy 
and is bound to succeed. He was born at 
Carlsruhe, capital city of P>aden, Germany, 
March 21, 1848, and came of pure Gorman 
stock. His parents lived and died in their 
native country, where his father, Adolph 
Wagner, was a prominent manufacturer of 
furniture. Here the father died, in Carlsruhe, 
the place of his birth, when sixty-four years 
of age. He was well-known to the people of 
that city, and there he had lost his wife some 
years before, when she had reached only mid- 
dle life. She was in youth Miss Frederika 
Schneider, and was a native of the city, where 
she lived and died, and had become a mem- 
ber of the German Lutheran Church. 

Our subject was reared by his parents and 
obtained a practical education in the public 
schools of his native city. While a lad un- 
der seventeen years of age he was a dry-goods 
clerk, and at the age of seventeen he enlisted 
in the German army and reniained until he 
was twenty-tive. He marched through France 
in the Franco- Prussian war and was a mem- 



138 



BIOGUAPBICAL REVIEW OF 



ber of tlie Fourteenth Army Corps, General 
Werder coiuiuaudiug, and participated in the 
active engagements at Strasburg, Woerth and 
Weisenburof. and was in al! the battles 
thronirh Vosj^es; and tlience down to Relford 
and liis army corps, 45,0U0 strong, whipped 
Bonrbacke, with an army of 185,000 men, in 
a three days' battle. Almost every officer in 
the reojinient to which Mr. Wagner belonged 
was killed or wounded in the battle near 
Nuits, December 18, 1870. The same eve- 
ning he was the only sound officer in the 
battalion, and as such he marched back from 
the battle to the camp with the small part of 
the survivors. After the war was over he 
resolved that he would leave the service and 
come to the United States. This resolution 
he carried out in the spring of 1872. Since 
he has become a resident of tiie city of Madi- 
son he has been prominently associated with 
the German element, and is an active member 
of the German societies, including the Turner 
and singint^ associations. He also is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, Madison Lodge, 
No. 5, and of Monona Lodge, No. 69, A. O. 
U. W. 

Mr. Wagner has been City Alderman from 
the Sixth ward for two terms, and is a sound 
Democrat in his politics. 

The marriage of our subject was celebrated 
in this city, with Miss Albertina Hausman, a 
daughter of Joseph Ilausman, a prominent 
German citizen of the capital, and one of the 
leading brewers of the Northwest. Mrs. 
Wagner was born, reared and educated in 
this city, and is a worthy, good wife and the 
mother of three bright children: Meta, 
Grovcr C. and Paul, all at home. 



^ 



.^IIILETUS IirilD. of Blooming Grove 
township, Dane county, Wisconsin, was 
born at Ira, Cayuga county. New York, 
May 5, 1822, a son of Samuel Hurd, who was 
born at Fort Ann, Washington county. New 
York, and the grandson of Nathan Ilurd, a 
native, it is thought, of England, and an early 
settler of Fort Ann. The grandfather was a 
very early settler; removed thence to Cayuga 
county, being a pioneer there, making the 
journey with o.\ teams, lie let a tract of 
timber land in the town of Ira and gave each 
of his children a farm. The old gentleman 
continued his residence in Cayuga until his 
death. His wife, whose maiden name was 
Eiizal)eth (Cutter) Ilurd, likewise a native of 
England, died on the old home farm in Ira. 

Samuel Hurd was but a lad when his pa- 
rents removed to Cayuga. His location was 
upon a farm given him by his father, living 
for a long time upon the products of tlie farm, 
chiefly, as it was many years before any rail- 
roads or canals reached old Cayuga, and 
markets were too remote to make any eflort 
to keep one's self supplied with any of the 
luxuries now obtainable anywhere. The in- 
dustrious mother carded, wove, and nnide 
into garments the homespun clotliinir 
worn by the children. Elizabeth Ward was 
the maiden name of this jrood woman, daiiirh- 
ter of Israel Ward, and the mother of si.\ 
children. She su'-vived her husband many 
years, finally dying at the home of her daugh- 
ter. Samuel, the father, died in the town of 
Ira, in the year 1832. 

Our subject was the third son and fourth 
child of the children, the others being in the 
order of their naming: Nathan, Silas, Dru- 
silla, Simon and Sarah. Reared and educated 
in his native county, at the age of twenty-two 
he removed to the Territory of Wisconsin, 
going by way of Welland canal and the lakes 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



139 



to Milwaukee, and thence by team to Rock 
county. When be reached the Territory, a 
lari^e portion of its area was owned liy the 
Government and in the trreat forests deer and 
other wild <(ame undisturbed roamed at their 
pleasure. He bought eighty acres of Gov- 
ernment land in the town of Fulton at $1.25 
an acre, and then purchased forty acres ad- 
joining, for which he paid §300. Being sin- 
gle, he did not settle upon his projierty Init 
hired out for two years and then went back 
East, where he remained for an equal period. 
Upon his return, he went to Dane county 
and bought 120 acres on sections 34 and 35, 
in Blooming Grove township, for the sum of 
$150; after improving which, he purchased 
adjacent land until he had a line farm of 320 
acres, 240 of which ho still owns. JVlr. Hurd 
lived upon this property until 1883, when he 
built the home he now occupies on section 16, 
where he lives retired from active labors. Be- 
sides the holdings named, he owns land in 
Sauk county, Wisconsin, and also in Kansas. 
In the year 1849 our subject was married 
to Clarissa Malvina Sawyer, l)y whom he has 
had two daughters, Isadore and Eloise, the 
latter remaining at home. Isadore is the wife 
of Lawrence Eighmy. Mrs. Ilurd was born 
in Reading, Windsor county, Vermont, Au- 
gust 29, 1825, a daughter of Thomas Sawyer, 
a native of the same place. Tier grandfather, 
Cornelius Sawyer, born in Massachusetts, was 
one of the earliest settlers in Reading. Buy- 
ing a tract of timber hind there, he cut down 
the trees and built u[) a vaiual)le farm, upon 
which he lived and wiiere he finally died. 
This ancestor was a soldier in tiie war of the 
Revolution. 

The father of Mrs. Ilurd learned the trade 
of shoemaking, but did not fcjllow that vo- 
cation, preferring the life of a farmer. In 
1847 he sold his property and emigrated to 



the Territory of Wisconsin, accompanied by 
his five children, proceeding by team to 
Whitehall, thence by Champlain and Erie 
canal to Buffalo, then to Dane county, partly 
by stage and partly by private conveyance. 
His son had previously entered for him a 
tract of Government land located in what is 
now Blooming Grove township, on section 5 
and 6, upon which the father at once built a 
lof cabin, the first home of the familv at Wis- 
cousin. In this humlile liouse he died one 
year later. 

The maiden nanie of the mother of Mrs. 
Hurd was Clarissa Bigelow, born in Reading, 
Windsor county, Vermont, the daughter of 
Joseph Bigelow and the mother of six chil- 
dren, nantely: James D., Jerome ()., Clarissa 
M., Cornelia I., Marcus II., and Helen J. 
This estimal)le lady died at Reading, in the 
year 1835. 



'>^^^^^^}<^ 



'RANK GROSS was born in Germany, 
ft April 2, 1819. In 1848 he came by 
^3° sail vessel to the United States, having 
spent thirty-two days on the ocean. After 
landing in New York he immediately began 
work at the wagon-maker's trade in Roches- 
ter, wliere he remained nine years, and then, 
in 1857, came to Dane county, Wisconsin. 
DurincT that time he saved $1,000, and after 
coming to this county, bought eighty acres 
of land in Sun Prairie township, for which 
he paid §B00. Two years later he sold this 
land for $900, bought eighty acres for $1,200, 
of which he improved fifty acres, and then 
purchased eighty acres of his present farm. 
He afterward added to the last purchase un- 
til he owns IGO acres. 

Mr. Gross was united in marriage to Ann 
Wertli, who was born in Prussia, Germany, 



140 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 




in 1825, and came to this country with three 
sisters. Both her parents are now deceased. 
Our snhjectand wife had seven children, viz. : 
Nicholas, a farmer of Dakota; Frank, of the 
same place; ilargaret, deceased; John, at 
home; Thelka, of St. Agnes, P'ond du Lac 
county, Wisconsin; Albian, a farmer of this 
county; Peter, at home. Politically, the 
family are identified with the Democratic 
party; and religiously, are members of the 
St. Joseph Catholic Church at East Bristol. 

RS. MARY TRUMBULL.— The lady 
whose biography claims our atten- 
tion is the widow of Salmon Trum- 
l>ull. She was born in England, in 1815, 
and was the daughter of James Lee, a spin- 
ner in a woolen factory in England, and the 
mother of our subject was Bettsy Butter- 
worth. They came to Amei'ica and located 
in Massachusetts, in 1825. and came upon a 
sailer. The journey was in summer time 
and the ship was six weeks sailing from Liv- 
erpool to New York, and encountered some 
severe storms and the vessel was reported 
lost, and on their return to England it was 
lost, and some lives with it. The ]>arents 
resided at Pawtucket, Massachusetts, not far 
from Providence, Rhode Island. They had 
a family of three children, of which our sub- 
ject was the first born. Her first sister, 
Alice Lee, is the widow of John Ilershaw, 
of Westport, and Sarah is the widow of Na- 
than P. Ilicks, of Pawtucket, Rhode Island. 
The father died in Providence, Rhode Island, 
in middle age, in 1837, and his wife sur- 
vived him many years, dying in 1872, in her 
eiglity-f(jiirth year. For eight years prior 
to her death she was a helpless and suffering 
cripple, cared for by Mrs. Trumbull, at whose 



home she died. The parents were in indi- 
gent circumstances and the dauijliters ob- 
tained but little schooling, but all were 
bright, enterprising girls and managed to be- 
come well informed. The mother of our 
subject was unlettered, as in her day the boys 
had the most of the education, as public 
opinion at that time decided that girls did 
not need any. The n^otlier did not come 
West until 1859, when all her girls were 
married. She buried her first husband, 
James Lee, and then married John Brieley, 
an Englishman, and this union was blessed 
with two daughters and one son, the latter 
of whom died at the age of four. 

Mrs. Trumbull has been twice married, 
first to William Perry, of Massachusetts. 
This occurred in Pawtucket, when our subject 
was twenty-six years old. At the age of 
eleven she had entered a cotton factory, where 
she remained eighteen years, and the most 
she received was S3 per week, out of which 
she paid her mother §2 for board. Mrs. 
Trumbull has but one son, Theodore Will- 
iam Perry, who died some ten years after 
his father, in his twentieth year. Mr. Perry 
was a farmer and the lad was reared on the 
farm and was a good and promising young 
man. 

The second marriage of our subject was in 
Pawtucket, in 1859. She and her husband 
came west to Madison and settled on an 
eighty-acre farm left her by Mr. Perry. 
This was wild land and required hard 
work to improve it, and Mr. Trumbull died 
in 1872, aged sixty-two. He had been a 
widower and had had one son and one daugh- 
ter. Fi-ances J. Trumbull is at home and 
Dennis Trumbull died in his nineteenth year, 
of consumption. 

Mrs. Trumbull has rented the land since 
the death of her husband. She was in debt 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



141 



at that time and has had a liard time to pay 
up. Mrs. Trumbull raises from ten to 
thirty pigs, keeps eiglit head of horned cat- 
tle and one pair of horses. Mrs. Trumbull 
is a lady much respected in this locality and 
is a consistent member of the Baptist 
Church. 

fHOMAS DAVIDSON, one of the sub- 
stantial farmers of Verona township, 
W Dane county, Wisconsin, is a native of 
the township in which he lives, the date of 
his birth being June 11, 1847. 

His father, Adam Davidson, was born near 
Edinburg, Scotland, May 2, 1811. Being 
poor and the oldest of a large family, he con- 
tributed all his time to the support of the 
family until he was twenty-eight years of age, 
being employed in whatever he could find to 
to do. That year he emigrated to America 
and located in Canada, in the vicinity of 
Hamilton. Two of his lirothers and one sis- 
ter also came to America. They are as fol- 
lows: George, who was a resident of Dane 
county, Wisconsin, is deceased; Thomas, a 
resident of North Freedom, Wisconsin; and 
Agnes, who received fatal injuries wliile 
alighfing from a wagon, died in Primrose 
township, Dane county, Wisconsin. In 
Canada Mr. Adam Davidson met and mar- 
ried Mary Ferry, who was born near Belfast, 
Ireland, in 1813. In 1844, learning of the 
advantages of Wisconsin, he moved from 
Canada to tliis State, then a Territory, and 
purchased a soldier's land warrant for forty 
acres, and witli this entered forty acres of 
land in what is now section nineteen, Verona 
township, Dane county. His capital at this 
time consisted of only $200. He cleared 
his land, lived in a Xon cabin, hauled his 

grain to Milwaukee with ox teams, and dur- 
11 



ing the early years of his residence here en- 
dured many hardships and privations. Af- 
ter some years a railroad was built to Madi- 
son, and after that he felt he was no longer 
on the frontier. He worked hard, oljserved 
due economy, never went in debt (except 
once for $50, on which he paid twenty-live 
per cent interest), saved his money and when 
able to do so purchased more land and made 
better improvements, finally becoming tlie 
owner of 400 acres of well-improved land. 
In 1885 he sold his farm to a son and ex- 
pected to retire from active life, but at this 
time he was persuaded to go to White Lake, 
South Dakota, where he invested in 160 
acres of land. He remained there eighteen 
months, lost some n;oney, sold out, and re- 
turned to Wisconsin, settling in Madison. 
He died in Madison in November 13, 1887. 
His widow still resides in that city. His 
life was characterized by simplicity, industry 
and generosity. He was well known in this 
vicinity and was held in the highest esteem 
by all. He assisted each of his children to a 
start in life before he died, and to his widow 
he left a C(Mnpetency. He was a member of 
the Presbyterian Church. FoUowinij^ are 
the names of the six children of this worthy 
couple: Thomas, the oldest; Neil, who lost 
an arm wliile operating a feed cutter, died 
soon afterward of blood poison; Sarah, wife 
of Thomas Thomas, resides at Dodgeville, 
Wisconsin; Adam, who lives on tiie old 
homestead; Bridget, wife of Melville Proud, 
Madisqn, Wisconsin; and Margaret, wife of 
Dennis McMann, Emery, South Dakota. 

Tliomas Davidson, witli whose name we be- 
gin this article, remained at home until 1877. 
That year he married Miss Agnes Whyte, who 
was born on the farm on which tliey now re- 
side, daughter of Peter Whyte, her parents be- 
ing among the pioneers of the township. Peter 



142 



BWGIiAI'UICM. UKVIMW OF 



Whjte was born in Scotland in 1837, and 
came to this county in 1842. He bought 
240 acres in Verona, wliere he resided until 
his death in 18G7. In 1858 he married Jes- 
sie Black, who was born in Scotland in 1827 
and died in Verona in January, 1865. There 
were three children: Agnes, Jane, and John, 
who died in childhood. J'oth parents were 
Presbyterians. Left an orphan at an early 
age, Afrnes Whyte was reared in the family 
of an uncle. Mr. and Mrs. Davidson have 
four children: William, Maggie, Jessie, and 
Blanche. 

One year after his marriage, Mr. Davidson 
purchased 280 acres of his j)resent farm, 
which was the estate of his wife's father. 
He is now the owner of 360 acres of line 
land and is engaged in stock raising and gen- 
eral farming. 

He is independent in his political views. 
Ileligiously, he is a Bresbyterian. 

fESSE S. MEYERS, Superintendent of 
the Dane County Asylum and Overseer 
of the Datie County Boor Barm, is the 
subject of the present sketch. It was said 
by the State Board of Charities that the 
United States provides the best care for her 
unfortunate poor and insane than probably 
any other nation in tlie world. The same 
Bjoard claims for Wisconsin the best system 
for the care of her chronic insane of any 
State in the Union, and that the Dane County 
Boor House and Asylum are among the 
models of their kind in the State. 

The farm is located on Section 15, Verona 
township, and for the beautiful and appro- 
priate buildings, and the careful attention 
which has made the place noted, much credit 
is due the subject of tins sketch. He took 



charge of the farm March 25, 1879, and at 
that date the buildings were old, dilapidated 
and inadequate, and lacking in and out of 
doors, needed facilities for providing proper 
care for th(! inmates. These unfortunate per- 
sons were kept in miserable outbuildings, as 
if their added misfortune was one for which 
they should be punished; in fact the whole 
place presented the appearance of a neglected 
old locality to be shunned. 

Immediately upon taking charge, Mr. and 
Mrs. Meyers set to work clearing up both 
liouse and buildings, and ere long all was 
remodeled and enlarged. In 1882 an asylum 
for the chronic insane was built, and March 
24, 1883, this large, handsome and conven- 
iently arranged structure, costing 835,000, 
was ready to receive inmates. Here 100 per- 
sons can be well cared for. For several years 
this place was well filled by unfortunates 
from other Wisconsin counties which had no 
suitable place in which to (^arc for them, but 
at present there are 108 inmates, 105 of 
whom belong to Dana county. 

The poor house has an average of sixty 
inmates, and all are comfortably cared for. 
This whole j)roperty is valued at §75,000. 
Mr. Meyers is one of those men who are 
built on a broad gauge, his sympathy and 
kindness of heart being temiiered with firm- 
ness and good judgment. He has introduced 
many reforms in the institution, one of these 
being the opening of the doors of the asy- 
lum (lurinir all hours of the dav, so that the 
inmates can jiass in and out at will. Many 
thought that this would not be feasible, but 
he has long ago proven to doubters the great 
benefit derived from such liberties, and it is 
now done in many institutions of the kind. Mr. 
Meyers is t^ thorough business man, his books 
are carefully kept, and he has always received 
the highest encomiums from the county 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



143 



officers and the State Board of Charities. 
The poor farm contains 331 acres of land 
with 120 more of timber lanii. Tlie poor 
house is lieated hy iiot water and tlie asylum 
by hot air. 

The subject of this sketch was born in 
Northampton county, Pennsylvania, February 
6, 1848, a son of John and Deborah (t^lick) 
Meyers, also natives of that county. Tiie 
family came to Wisconsin in 1847, and set- 
tled in the township of Verona, where the 
father entered 20U acres of land. Here he 
pursued farmiiicr until a few years prior to 
his death, when he removed to Verona village, 
where he lived a retired life until his death, 
June 30, 1865, at the age of tifty-eight. 
The mother is still living in Verona village. 
They had eleven children, eight of whom at- 
tained maturity: Aaron, Reuben J., Caro- 
line, Jesse S. (our subject), and Barbara E., 
all of whom live in Verona; Lydia, now Mrs. 
George Pitman, who lives in Madison; Han- 
netta, now Mrs. George Pehle, who lives in 
Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, and Jolinson, 
now deceased. 

Mr. Meyers, of this notice, was only four 
years of age wlien the family came to Wis- 
consin. He passed his early life on the home 
farm, and the first school that he attended 
stood on the present site of the poor farm. 
He attended a disti'ict school and spent a 
short time at the State University, but dis- 
continued his studies on account of ill 
health. He elisted in the late war on August 
14, 1862, and was mustered into service in 
Company I, Twenty-Third Wisconsin Volun- 
teers, with the rank of Sergeant. From 
Camp Randall he went South, and partici- 
pated in the first attack on Vicksburg, after 
which followed the battles at Arkansas Post, 
Port Gibson, Champion Hills, and Black 
River bridge, the Siege of Vicksburg, and 



the engagements at Jackson, Mississipjji, and 
Jacksdn, Louisiana, and Carrion Crow bayuu, 
interspersed with numerous mai'ches and 
skirmishes. At the last fight he was taken 
prisoner, and was held two months at Alex- 
andria, when, in May, 1864, he was exchanged. 
He then rejoined his command, with which 
he continued until the last fight at Spanish 
Fort and Fort Blakely, Alabama. 

After the war Mr. Meyers returned to his 
home in Verona, after a three years' faithful 
army service, and found that the father whom 
he had left mourning the departure of a son 
three years before, had died and been buried 
two weeks prior to his arrival from the war. He 
at once stepped into the place made vacant 
by his father, until business and other mat- 
ters, late in progress, were straiglitene(^i up. 
He then engaged in farming, carpenter work, 
and teaching, attempting by his etforts to 
gain for himself a university education, in 
which he failed on account of ill health. 

He was married June 30, 1873, to Ade- 
laide M. Shults, daughter of Daniel and 
Louisa (Sanford) Shults. His wife was 
l)orn near Terre Haute, Indiana, September 
3, 1850. March 25, 1879, he received his 
ajipointment as Overseer of the Dane County 
Poor House and Farm, and in the sprint of 
1883 was also appointed Superintendent of 
the Dane County Asylum. During the time 
of service in these institutions Mr. and Mrs. 
Meyers had born to them two children: 
Jessie Josephine, who died when ten months 
old; and Idella May, now nine years of age. 

Mr. Meyers has a farm of 240 acres, well- 
improved, on which he expects to raise 
horses. 

Politically, he is a Prohibitionist, and has 
always been independent. Socially, he is a 
member of Sylvester Wheeler Post, iN^o. 75, 
G. A. R. In religion he is a Baptist, and 



144 



niOOHAPnWAL REVIEW OF 



has always been interested in churcli and 
Siinday-sciiool work, of which latter he has 
been Superintendent for many years. 

In all the various walks of life Mr. Meyers 
has always been characterized by integrity, 
fidelity, and capability, and justly enjoys the 
favorable regard of his fellow-men. 



^ M. WILLIAMSON, a retired real- 
estate dealer, and a venerable pioneer 
^* of Wisconsin, was born at Bedford, 
Westchester county, New York, October 19, 
1801, son of Garrett, and Elizabeth (Ilaight) 
Williamson, who were born and reared in the 
same county. Garrett Williamson was en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits, and reared his 
children on the farm. Four of these still 
survive, two sons and two daughters. The 
Williamsons are descended from Holland, 
and have been residents of America since be- 
fore the Revolution. The mother of our 
subject was of Welsh descent, and was a 
great-granddaughter of Rev. James Whit- 
more. His father emigrated to Broome 
county, New York, about* 1804 or 1805, when 
that country was nearly an unbroken wilder- 
ness, leaving E. M. with the grandparents, 
with whom he continued to live until he was 
fifteen. lie then joined the family in Hroome 
county. Although his educational advantages 
were limited, he made the best of his oppor- 
tunities, and at an early age was able to meet 
the requirements of a teacher of a public 
school. He spent his winters in teaching 
and his summers in work in the lumber 
camps or at milling until he arrived at the 
age of twenty-five, when lie left his father's 
home and engaged in farming. 

In 1839 Mr. Willianison decided that the 
West offered better advantages for a young 



man, and accordingly he began to look about 
for a location. Friends of the family had 
come to Wisconsin, and through their solici- 
tude he started here in 1839, reaching Dane 
coutity in the spring of 1840. In accordance 
with his life-long motto of "make hay while 
the sun shines," be had so vigorously prose- 
cuted his studies when young, that he became 
a competent surveyor, and did much ot that 
work in New York. After coming West he 
at once drifted into surveying. He was 
elected County Surveyor of Dane county, 
and while in that office did tnucii toward sur- 
veying and laying out early roads in the 
county. This business he followed officially 
and otherwise, for many years. Wild land 
in Wisconsin — and at that time there was 
not much except wild land — was largely 
owned by non-residents, speculators in the 
East. Seeing an opportunity for a profitalde 
business, Mr. Williamson and his brother-in- 
law, Mr. Catlin, formed a partnership for the 
handling of real estate. They at once se- 
cured the agency of several large Eastern 
owners, and worked away in this line of busi- 
ness till they became one of the leading firms 
in Wisconsin, as agents for non-resident par- 
ties, their sales running up to many hundred 
thousand dollars. Mr. Williamson was for 
three years Clerk of the Board of County 
Commissioners, under Territorial organiza- 
tion. 

In 1850, Mr. Williamson married, at 
Rochester, New Yoik, Mrs. Eliza Wallace, 
7iee Bristol, a lady of culture and refinement 
born in New York city and educated in Roch- 
ester. Tliey had three children, two of whom 
are deceased. Mrs. Williamson departed 
this life in 1891, and is interred at Madison. 
Miss Susan, their only living child, is now 
the comfort of her father in his declining 
years. He has suti'ered the misfortune of 



DiilfE CODNTY, WISCONSIN. 



145 



total loss of sight, but he is quite active and 
is as clear in mind as one of tiiirty, not- 
withstanding he is now in his ninety-second 
year. 

For more than forty years Mr. Williamson 
has lived on the same block, ou east Dayton 
street. On this same lilock he owns and 
rents a residence, which, years ago, when it 
built, was among the linest in Madison. At 
the time he erected this building, it was dif- 
ficult to procure the necessary material, so he 
had his lumber hauled from Milwaukee and 
Sauk City, and the shingles from northern 
Wisconsin, all of wliich required much time 
and great expense. 

Politically, Mr. Williamson is a Republi- 
can. He has never been an ofHce seeker, 
although at one time he filled the office of 
Justice of the Peace, and at another was 
Deputy Sheriff of Dane county. He is a 
member of the Episcopal Church. 



fSON. RICHARD DOUGLAS FROST, 
H\ one of the first settlers of Ulooming 
Grove, Dane county, Wisconsin, is our 
subject. This well-known resident was l)orn 
in the town of Schaghticoke, Rensselaer 
county, New York, October 9, 1821. His 
father, Stephen Frost, was born in Washing- 
ton county. New York, and his grandfather, 
Ezra Frost, was born in New England of 
Scotch ancestry, later removing from Massa- 
chusetts to Washington county. New York, 
and settling at Union village, where he en- 
gaged in mercantile life and so continued 
until death. Tiie father of our subject re- 
ceived a good education, and wlien lie grew 
to maturity, he engaged in clerking, later in 
bookkeeping, and from Union village he 



went to Brooklyn, where he continued as an 
accountant, and remained until death. 

The maiden name of the mother of our 
subject was Elizabeth Cooper, born near 
Fort Edward, New York, daughter of Richard 
and Sarah (Osborne) Cooper. She died at 
her home in Schaghticoke. The maternal 
grandparents of our subject were of English 
ancestry. The grandfather, Richard Cooper, 
was born in New York, May 12, 1771, and 
spent his entire life in his native State. His 
parents were born in England. His wife was 
born in New York April 2, 1783, and her 
father was born in England and came to 
America in colonial times, dying in New 
York at an advanced age. The mother of 
our subject married for her second husl;>and, 
John Dusenberry, and liy this marriage 
reared two^children : Joseph and Mary. Our 
subject was the only child of the first mar- 
riage. 

Richard was about eleven years of age when 
he lost his father. He grew up in his home 
until manhood, attending school steadily, and 
obtaining an excellent education. After mar- 
riage he went to Troy, New York, and as- 
sisted in starting a gingham factory, the 
second institution of the kind in America, 
superintending the operation of that factory 
until 1850, when ill health compelled him to 
change his business. He had purchased a 
tract of laud in 1848, in the great West, on 
section 20, Blooming Grove township, where 
he now resides, and when he knew that he 
must change his mode of life he started to- 
ward his western purchase, liy way of rail- 
road he reached 13uflalo, then by lake to De- 
troit, then by rail to New Buffalo, thence to 
Milwaukee, and then by stage to Madison. 
The pleasant old days of stage coaching have 
passed away, only now enjoyed by the votar- 
ies of fashion, as tliey make a summer tour, 



146 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



but in the days of which we write that was 
the only possible way to quicklv cover long 
distances, as there were no railroads so far in | 
the wilderness. At the present time Mr. 
Frost rents his tine farm, having retired from 
active labor. j 

The marriage of our subject took place | 
February 4, 1841, to Miss Sarah M. Van 
Anden, a native of Schaghticoke. New York, 
and her father. Bernard Van Anden was 
born in the Mohawk valley, and was of 
Holland parentage, but married and spent 
his last days in New York. The maiden 
name of the mother of Mrs. Frost, was Miss 
Clarissa Robinson, born in Rensselaer county, 
New York, and her father. Nathaniel Robin- 
son was a native of New England, and had 
been a soldier in the Revolutionary war. lie 
spent his last years in Schaghticoke. The 
mother of Mrs. Frost came to Dane county 
and spent her last years with her daughter. 

Mr. and Mrs. Frost reared a family of 
three children; Lewis, Emma E. and Sarah 
M. The latter was born in 1849. and died 
in 1S65. Emma married i[. E. Flesh, and 
resides in Chicago, and has two children. 
Sarah B. and Linnie. Lewis, the first child 
and only son, enlisted in 1862, in Company I, 
Twenty-third Regiment, Wisconsin Volun- 
teer Infantry. Among the many battles in 
which he participated, was that of Carrion 
Crow, Louisiana, where he was severely 
wounded. He was mustered in as a private, 
was promoted to be First Lieutenant, and as 
such commanded his company, and was hon- 
orably discharged with it at the close of the 
war, and is now in business at Winona. Min- 
nesota. He married Miss Julia Karns, and 
has a family of three children: Gertrude B., 
Lewis V. and Donald K. 

Our subject has been a Republican since 
the formation of the party. He has served 




as Township Assessor, and for a period of 
twelve years he represented the town on the 
County Board of Supervisors, and in 1887 
was called still higher, being elected to the 
State Legislature, and cast his vote for Hon. 
Philetus Sawyer for State Senator. He was, 
for several years a member of the Executive 
Committee of the State Grange, and was also 
Director of the Northwestern Relief Associa- 
tion, and also Director and Treasurer of the 
Cottage Grove Fire Insurance Company. 
He is one of the most prominent men of the 
county, progressive and popular, the model 
of a good citizen of State and county as well 
as of his town. 



EORGE H. FOX, a physician of Stongh- 
ton, Wisconsin, was born in Oregon 
township, Dane county, this State, 
Jnne 6, 1846, a son of Joseph G. and Mary 
(^Lalor) Fox, natives of Ireland. The father 
was born in Waterford county, and came to 
America at the age of thirteen years, but 
later returned to his native country. After 
completing his education he came again to 
America. The mother is a sister of Richard 
Lalor, now a member of Parliament, and she 
came to this country after marriage. She 
died when our subject was only four years of 
age, and four years afterward the father 
again married. 

George H. Fox remained on a farm and 
attended select schools until fifteen years of 
age, after which he entered the University of 
Wisconsin. In August, 1S66. he became a 
student in the Bellevue Medical Hospital, 
where he remained two years, but was en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine after his 
first course of lectures. Mr. Fox then fol- 
lowed his profession in Dayton, Green 



BASE corsTF. wmooNsiy. 



147 



county, Wisconsin, two years, was in part- 
nership with his nncle thirteen years, re- { 
maiued alone four years, ami in 1887 came to ' 
Stono-hton, where he has ever since re- 
mained. i 

Mr. Fox was married Febraany- 5, 1870, to i 
Lucy Allen, a native of Buffalo, New York, 
and a daughter of Kin^ P. Allen, a farmer '■. 
near that place. To this union lias been born 
six children: May, Paul A., Lynn, Anna, 
William H. and Lucy. Paul has spent the 
past three years in the University of Wis- 
consin, and the remainder of the children are 
attending the public schools of Stoughton. 
Mr. Fox affiliates with the Democratic 
party, but has never sought public office. 



|ANIEL G. SHELDON, one of the pio- 
neers of the great city of Madison, and 
a man worthy of mention in every walk 
of life, is the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Sheldon was born in Pittsfield, Otsego 
county, New York, August 10, 1823. His 
father. Gardner Sheldon, was born in Rhode 
Island, and his father, Isaac Sheldon, was 
born in the same State. The great-grand- 
father of our subject was also named Isaac, 
and his father was born in England, and 
came to America in the seventeenth century, 
and settled in Rhode Island. He was one of 
three brothers, the others being named Isaac. 
William and John. 

The grandfather of our subject was reared 
to agricultural pursuits. He removed from 
Rhode Island to New York, and lived in 
Saratoga county a few years, then moved to 
Otsego county, but spent his last days in 
Sherburne, Chenango county. The father of 
our subject went to New York when eighteen, 
and resided in Saratoga county a few years; 



from there he went to Pittstield, Otsego 
county, and lived there until 18i3, then with 
his family moved to Genesee county, making 
the journey overland with teams. He located 
in that part of Genesee now known as and 
included in Perry. Wyoming county, and 
purchased a farm and resided there many 
years. At the time of his death he was 
living retired in Bethany, Genesee county. 

The maiden name of the mother of our 
subject was Nancy Gorum, born at Ballston 
Spa, New York, a daughter of George and 
Sarah (White) Gorum. She spent her last 
years with a daughter in Middlebury. New 
York. Oar subject was ten years old when 
his parents moved to Genesee county. At 
that time the country was but sparsely set- 
tled and but little improved. There was no 
railroad or canal there, and Albany was over 
200 miles distant, and it was the principal 
market and depot for supplies. Wheat at 
that time sold as low as 40 cents a bushel. 
The mother used to card, spin and weave, 
and dressed her children in homespun. She 
spun and wove the cloth for the first overcoat 
our subject ever wore, and then made the 
garment herself. Farming was conducted on 
a very different plan from that of the present. 
All grass was mown with a scythe; all grain 
was cut with a cradle and bound by hand. 
Farm labor was cheap: for ordinary farm 
work 50 cents a day was giyen; for haying, 
60 cents a day; for harvesting, $1 a day. 
His mother used to cook by a fireplace, and 
his earliest recollection is of having no lamps, 
and even candles were a luxury. Evening 
work was done by the light of the tire. 

Our subject resided with his parents until 
he was twenty-one. then began life for him- 
self, working on the farm at SIO a month. 
He remained a resident of New York until 
18i9. when he came to Wisconsin. He jour- 



148 



BIOGRAPHIOAL REVIEW OF 



neyed by team to Buffalo, thence via the lake 
to Detroit, thence on the lake via Chicacro to 
Milwaukee, thence with a team to Dane 
connty, where his uncle, Daniel Gorum, had 
previously settled. At that time his entire 
wealth was S-lOO, and he looked around for a 
place to invest his money in a home, and in 
December of that year he purchased eif^hty 
acres of land, which is included in iiis present 
home. He had no team, and used to change 
work with his uncle, and in that way got a 
team to break a portion of his land, lie 
worked out by the month, and was tinally 
enabled to buy a pair of oxen. With those 
he did his farm work and marketing. Mil- 
waukee was the principal market for some 
time. Wheat would sell for from 35 to 40 
cents a bushel, and corn at home would sell 
for from 10 to 12 cents, and oats from 7 to 
10 cents. People who in later years have 
obtained so much larger prices can realize 
little what struggles he had to go through 
with before he could build and equip his 
farm. He was very industrious, and success 
crowned his efforts. He was at one time 
owner of 240 acres of land, IGO of which he 
still retains. His place has a beautiful loca- 
tion, overlooking the lakes and capital city. 

On October 8, 1851, our subject was mar- 
ried to Miss Adeline Curtiss, who was born 
in Middlebury, Wyoming county, New York. 
Her father, Levi Curtiss, was born in Berk- 
shire county, Massachusetts, in 1805, and his 
father. Comfort Curtiss, was born in Massa- 
chusetts, of Scotch ancestry. He removed 
from Massachusetts to Genesee county, New 
York, in 1807, and made the removal with 
team. He was one of the pioneers in the 
town of Middlebury, and bought land from 
the Holland Purchase Company, and erected 
the log house in the wilderness. For some 
years bear and wolves were plentiful, and all 



stock had to be placed in pens at night to 
preserve them from harm. Here he im- 
proved a farm, which he occupied until his 
death. The maiden name of his wife, the 
grandmother of Mrs. Sheldon, was Priscilla 
Whitney. She was born in Massachusetts, 
and died on the home farm in Middlebury. 
The father of Mrs. Sheldon was reared on a 
farm, bought land adjoining that of his 
father, and resided there for many years. 
He then moved to Wyoming village, where 
he died one year later. 

The maiden name of the mother of Mrs. 
Sheldon was Climeiia Roberts, a daughter of 
Ebenezer and Mary (^Stanhope) Roberts, both 
natives of Massachusetts, the former born in 
Greenfield, Franklin county; and the mother 
died in 1890, at the home of her son. in 
Saunders county, Nebraska. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sheldon have three children living: Levi, 
May and Bertha. Levi married Miss Roxy 
Benson, and lives in Chicago and has two 
diildren: Cora and Curtiss. May married 
Jerome Holt. 

Mr. Sheldon is independent in politics, and 
has oHieiated as a member of the Township 
Board of Supervisors. 



higxg).-: 



^^S«^ 



fOHN DUDLEY, one of the early .set- 
tlors and self-made men of the county, 
was born in Orleans county, Vermont, 
February 20, 1823. His father, TiTnothy Dud- 
ley, was born, as far as known, in New Hamp- 
shire, and his father, Stephen, is thought to 
be a descendant of three brothers, natives of 
Eiiirland, who came to America in early colo- 
nial times. Stephen removed to Barton, Or- 
leans county, Vermont, where he followed his 
trade of blacksmith and spent his last days 
there. 



DA^E COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



149 



The father of our subject was nineteen 
years old when he left his native State for 
Vermont, where he was married. A few 
years after marriage he removed to Caledonia 
county and bought a farm, on which he re- 
sided a number of years and then returned 
to Orleans county, bought a farm in Barton, 
where he died. He speculated extensively 
in land and raised a good deal of stock. His 
death occurred in July, 1890, when he was 
in liis ninetieth year. The maiden name of 
his wife was Patience Jackson, born 
in New Hampshire, daughter of Tiiomas 
Jackson. She died al)out ISfiO, after bear- 
ing her husband nine children, tive 
of whom are still living, namely: John, 
George, Levi, Henry, and Diantha. 

Our subject was reared and educated in 
his native county, attending school in the 
winter and working on the farm in the sum- 
mer. He remained with his parents until 
1844, when he resolved to go West to seek 
his fortune, so via team, Burlington railroad, 
Lake Champlain and Cham plain canal to Al- 
bany, Lake Erie to Buffalo and then to Mil- 
waukee, from which city he secured a ride 
with a Green county farmer to Janesville, 
and from there made his way on foot to the 
present site of Brooklyn. Here he spent 
four months with Esquire Graves and as- 
sisted him at cutting and splitting rails. 

Li July, 1845, he went to Janesville, 
which was only a small town and the sur- 
rounding country was but sparsely settled, 
much of the land being owned by the Gov- 
ernment and selling for $1.25 per acre. 

Mr. Dudley found employment in Janes- 
ville, quarrying stone and burning lime and 
remained three years, during which time 
he saved his earnings and at the end of the 
three years purchased the place he now owns, 
consisting of 120 acres, at $3.50 per acre, on 



which there were no buildings nor fence. At 
this time he was a single man and was 
obliged to pay for his board, a part of tiie 
time working for it. At times he worked 
by the day, at others by the job and when 
nothing else offered directed his energies to- 
ward improving his own land, on which he 
settled at the time of his marriage. 

His marriage occurred February, 18, 1852, 
when he was united to Rhoda Simmons, born 
in Shrewsbury, Vermont, September 15, 1823, 
daughter of William Simmons, a native of 
the same town, and his father John Simmons, 
was a native of Germany, who came to 
America during the Revolutionary war as a 
soldier in the British army. His sympathies 
became enlisted on the side of the colonists, 
so he deserted and fought for independence, 
and became a good and loyal citizen of the 
United States, after the war. He settled in 
Shrewsbury, Vermont, where he pu7-chased a 
farm and resided on it until his death. The 
maiden name of his wife was Roby, born in 
Rliode Island, and died in Shrewsbury. 
The father of Mrs. Dudley was their only 
child, and was reared and married in his na- 
tive State. In April, 1827, he moved to 
Mendon, Vermont, and bought a farm, where 
he remained a few years. His ne.\t removal 
was to Sherburne, Vermont, where he lived 
until 1846, when he came to the Territory of 
Wisconsin, settled in the town of Fulton, 
Rock county, bought a farm of forty acres, 
improved it and resided there a few years, 
then renioved to Minnesota, settled in Rice 
county, and resided there until bis death, 
which occurred in 1870, in the eighty-third 
year of his life. The maidan name of his 
wife was Jane Cheney, born in Deerlield, 
Vermont, daughter of Barnabas and Rhoda 
Cheney. Mrs. Simmons died in Rice county, 
Minnesota, in 1871, aged eighty-three. 



150 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Mr. Dudley has been a Republican since 
the formation of the party. His farm is one 
of the finest in the county, and on it he has 
a set of buildings that surpass almost all in 
the county. He and his wife are good, 
worthy citizens, and highly esteemed by all 
who know them. 

||ETEK W. MATTS, one of the venerable 
I? pioneers of Dane county, Wisconsin, 
has been prominently identified with 
its history, and it is therefore fitting that 
honorable mention be made of him in this 
work; indeed, without some biographical 
mention of him a history of Dane county, 
would be iucompk^te. 

Peter AV. Matts was born in J5ucks county, 
Pennsylvania, June 20, 1814, son of John 
and Catherine (Hoffman) Matts. His father 
was born in Philadelphia, March 16, 1786, 
and his mother in Bucks county, same State. 
April 7, 1786. Grandfather John M. Matts 
was born in Bavaria, (Jermanj, where he 
grew to manhood and was married. He emi- 
grated to America prior to the Revolution- 
ary war, and was a resident of Philadelphia 
during that memorable struggle. Being a 
cripple he was unable to serve in the army, 
but he made shot pouches, and his wife car- 
ried them on foot or horseback to the front 
and distributed them among the soldiers. 
After the war they settled on a piece of land 
in Bucks county, and engaged in the tanning 
of leather. He died there, September 23, 
1818; his wife, November 25, 1825. Of 
their nine children only two reached adult 
years: Sarah and John. The former was 
born November 7, 1781, became the wife of 
Jacob Anthony, and died in Northam])ton 



county. Pennsylvania, leaving a large fam- 

iiy. 

John Matts, the father of our subject, 
worked in the tanyard with his father, car- 
rying on an extensive business. In 1808 he 
married Catherine Hoflnian, daughter of John 
and Margaret (Mayer) Hoffman, natives of 
Germany. Her father died November 28, 
1838, aged eighty-two; her mother, August 
31, 1834, aged seventy -sLx. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Matts also carried on farming. He 
died January 14, 1875. His wife passed 
away in Pennsylvania, May 2, 1887. They 
had ten children, all of whom grew to ma- 
turity, namely: Maria, wife of Joseph An- 
thony, was born December 5, 1809, and died 
in Kansas in 1892; Josiali H. B., born June 
7, 1812, was a farmer and at the time of his 
death, in March, 1882, was a resident of Ve- 
rona township, Dane county, Wisconsin; 
Peter, whose name heads this article; Alex- 
ander, J., born October 3, 1816, resides on a 
farm in Lehigh county, I'ennsylvania; Elias, 
born July 24, 1818, lives on the old home- 
stead that was settled by his grandfather; 
Delia F., born October 22, 1820. married 
W'illiam Servatus, of Franklin county, Kan- 
sas; John M., born August 7, 1822, lives in 
Oregon, Wisconsin; Nicholas M., born Oc- 
tober 16, 1824, is a resideiit of Franklin 
county, Kansas; Jackson F., born March 2, 
1827, lives in Lehigh county, Pennsylvania; 
Catherine, born June 28, 18B1, lives with 
her brother on the old homestead. The 
average age of the eight living children is 
over seventy years. 

The subject of this sketch was reared in 
his native county and spent his early life 
working in the tannery and on the farm, re- 
ceiving only a limited education in the conn- 
try schools. At the age of eigliteen he en- 
tered upon an apprenticeship to tiie trade of 



DjiNE COUNTY, WI8C01SSIN. 



151 



carpenter and cal>inet-maker, and served two 
years. He then followed his trade in Penn- 
sylvaTiia, New Jersey and New York city. 
In 1837 business almost suspended on ac- 
count of the panic, and he returned home. 
He did not remain long, however, for a de- 
sire to see the Western country brought liim 
out to the frontier. He went by stage to 
Philadelphia, then by I'ailroad to within eight 
miles of Harrisburg, by stage to Pittsburg, 
and thence down the Ohio river to Cincin- 
nati. Cincinnati was then only a small village. 
This was in the summer of 1837. From 
there he went on foot and alone to Indian- 
apolis, where he found business lively, and at 
once obtained employment at fi2.5tl per day. 
In 1838, in company with Elias Stouthover 
and wife, and two yonng men, with a four- 
horse team, he started for Wisconsin, arriving 
at Madison in June. Tiie old capitol was 
then being erected and he worked on it two 
months. After that he again started out 
alone and on foot, going to Galena, Illinois, 
Dubuque and Potosi, and returning to Wis- 
consin and again locating in Madison. There 
he worked at his trade and also did contract- 
ing, continuing thus employed until 1846. 

That year he was elected Sheriff of Dane 
county. In 18-48 he was again elected to the 
same office, and served etficiently in that 
capacity two terms, his tirst term being the 
last under Territorial Government, and his 
last term, the first after Wisconsin was made 
a State. In 1848 he moved his family to the 
present site of Paoli, where he purchased a 
section of land from the Government and 
built a house. After leaving the sheritPs 
office he improved the water-power at Paoli 
and built a sawmill and several houses, and 
also cultivated his land. He ran the sawmill 
until he sold the water-power to B. M. Minch 
& Co., about 1867. In the meantime, in 



1853, he was elected to the State Legislature, 
and served one term. As the years rolled by 
and the country became settled, he was one 
of the pi-ominent factors in advancing the 
interests of this place. He platted Paoli on 
his land, and still owns nearly all the unim- 
proved lots in the town. He finally sold his 
farm, with the exception of forty acres. For 
a numiier of years he was Chairman of the 
Town Board. He has been serving a num- 
ber of years as Justice of tlie Peace. 

Septeml)er 4, 1842, Mr. Matts married 
Helen R. Dickson, who was born in Butter- 
nuts, Otsego county. New York, October 7, 
1824. Her father, Thomas P. Dickson, was 
born in Voluntown, Connecticut, April 1, 
1780, son of Thomas Dickson, who was born 
in the same place, October 27, 1753, and died 
January 13, 1803. Thomas P. Dickson was 
married three times. His first wife, nee 
Hanna Olnistead, died in 1808, leaving two 
children, viz.: Anna, wife of David Hyer, 
who died in Madison, Wisconsin, in Septem- 
ber, 1843; and Hannah, who died at the age 
of eighteen. May 15, 1809, he married Deb- 
orah Kichardson, who died March 10, 1825, 
leaving an only child, the wife of Mr. Matts. 
His third wife was Esther Richardson, whom 
he wedded February 5, 1827. She departed 
this life at Galesburg, Illinois, in 1869. Mr. 
Dickson died at Butternuts, New York, in 
1829. The only child by his third marriage 
is David T., who came to Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, when a small boy, and was " devil" in the 
first newspaper office in Madison, delivering 
the first papers there. This was in 1838. He 
is now a printer in Chicago. 

Mr. and Mrs. Matts have had seven chil- 
dren, as follows: Eugene W., born November 
15, 1845, married Calista Andrews and lives 
in Paoli; Alvernon T., born May 25, 1848, 
died that same year; Mary, born .lune 22, 



152 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



1852, married Edwin D. Wood, and her death 
occurred in I'aoli, November 10, 187S; Ella, 
born March 25, 1855, died January 5, 1878; 
Orville E., born July 7, 1857, resides at 
home; Florence, born February 4, 1800, died 
October 2, 1886; aud Elmer D., bora Octo- 
ber 1, 1863, resides at Missoula, Montana, a 
lawyer by profession. After fifty years of 
happy married life, Mr. and Mrs. Matts 
celebrated their golden wedding in 1892. 
They are not members of any church, but are 
believers in the faith of the Second Ad- 
ventists. 

Politically, Mr. Matts was a Whig in his 
early life. F>om 1854 till 1868, he was a 
Republican, then he was independent of party 
for a while, and since 1876 has voted with 
the People's party. 

fOHN 0. CRABTKEE, oneof the wealthy 
and influential farmers of Burke town- 
ship, was born tifty-tive miles from Liv- 
erpool, England, December 8, 1835. Uis 
father, Jonathan Crabtree, was, as far as is 
known, a native of Lancastershire, although 
his ancestors were formerly from Yorkshire. 
The grandfather spent his entire life in Lan- 
castershire, as did his wife, Ann Hudson. 
The father of our subject learned the trade of 
block printer. This was before machinery 
was invented to do printing with. Mr. 
Crabtree followed liis trade until machinery 
was introduced into the mills where he 
worked, when, in 1846, he came to America, 
accompanied by his wife and eight children. 
They embarked from Liverpool on the sailing 
vessel Empire, aud landed in New York June 
17, after a voyage of twenty-eight days. 
They went directly to Staten Island, where 
the father found work at his trade, and later 



became manager of the factory. Here he re- 
sided until his death, which occurred in 1871. 
The maiden name of his wife was Mary Hud- 
son, born in the same shire, daughter of 
George and Martha (Barcroft) Hudson. She 
died iu 1867, after rearing ten children, viz.: 
Annie, James, George, John C, Martha, Su- 
sannah, Sarah, ^Mary, Isabella and Barcroft. 

Our subject commenced work in the mill 
at the tender age of seven, and received three 
shillings a week for his labor. When he was 
eight years old he entered the coal mines 
and received eight shillings a week. Here 
he continued until coming to America with 
his parents, in his eleventh year. After ar- 
rival in America he commenced work in the 
mill at Staten Island, receiving $6 a month 
for the same work he had only received three 
shillings a week for in England. In time 
his waives were increased and he reniuiiied in 
the mill until 1856, when he went to Penn- 
sylvania and engaged in farming and mining 
until 1866, when he emigrated to Wisconsin, 
selecting Judah, Green county, as his first 
location. Here he only remained one year, 
and then bought land in Monroe, where he 
resided until 1877. At that date he sold 
this farm and bought the land he now owns 
and occupies, on section 11, Burke township. 
This farm contains ninety-tive acres of well- 
improved land. 

Mr. Crabtree married in Pennsylvania, in 
1857, Miss Matilda Moughmer, born in Cen- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, daughter of Adam 
and Margaret (Traister) Moughmer. The 
father of Mrs. Crabtree was born in Berks 
county, Pennsylvania, and her mother at 
Selin's Grove, same State, both parents 
I were of German ancestry. Mr. and Mrs. 
Crabtree have had nine children, namely: Cy- 
rus, Margaret, Mary, Elmer, Annie, Charles, 
Albert, Cora, Edward. Cyrus married Jessie 



DANE COUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



153 



Cramptoi) and has four children, namely: 
Alice, AUiert, Ernia and an infant. Mar- 
garet is the wife of Edward Keelock and has 
one child, Arthur. Mary is the wife of Fred- 
erick Wolf. Elmer married Sarah Roberts, 
and Annie is the wife of Arthur Hunt. Po- 
litically, Mr. Crabtree is independent in 
politics, votincr for the man he considers is 
best suited for the office, regardless of party 
lines. 



^ 



^ 



I^OLON De VALL, of Stonghton, Wis- 
consin, was born in Weathersfield, 
Windsor county, Vermont, January 22, 
1823, a son of James and Eliza (Gould) De 
Vail, natives of Lancaster, in Massachu- 
setts. Solon was given a district school 
education, and began life for himself as a 
farm laborer in Vermont. In 1853 he pur- 
chased 200 acres of unimproved land in 
Rutland township, Dane county, AVisconsin, 
which he improved. lie afterward sold this 
place and purchased another farm, three- 
quarters of a mile nearer Stonghton. where 
he remained from 1872 until 1884. In the 
spring of 1885 he came to this city, where 
both he and his wife still reside. 

Mr. De Vail was married in 1848, to Fran- 
ces M. Show, also a luitive of Weathersfield, 
Vermont, and they have three living children : 
James D., of Stonghton; Calvin, of Coun- 
cil Bluffs; and Carrie, wife of A. E. Gurmal, 
of Gihnore City, Iowa. One child died in 
infancy. 

James D. De Vail was born in Dane county, 
Wisconsin, February 5, 1854, a son of Solon 
and Frances M. De Vail. At tlie age of 
twenty-one years he began learning the car- 
penters' trade with Ellis Bros., of Oregon, 
Wisconsin, at which he worked for the fol- 



lowing six years. For the next four years he 
farmed on rented land in Rutland township, 
and in 1884 came to Stonghton, where lie has 
since been engaged in the leaf tobacco trade. 
At one time he owned the warehouse across 
the track, at No. 15, but now does business 
at No. 16. Mr. De Vail is one of the tobacco 
dealers in Stonghton. 

He was married January 12, 1879, to 
Alice Gurnsey, a native of Dunkirk town- 
ship, Dane county, and they have two chil- 
dren: Inas M. and Cora A. Politically, 
Mr. De Vail is identified with the Democratic 
party; and socially, is a member of the Ke- 
trosa Lodse of Freemas(tns, also the Knitrhts 
of Pytiiias. 



1^«|[ILLIAM S. WHEELWRIGHT, M. 
'WiMM ^' — Prominent among the medical 
[■=sffeS profession of Belleville occurs the 
name of the gentlemen whose name opens 
this sketch. He has made this city his 
home since the month of June, 1878, when 
he located within its borders. Dr. W^heel- 
wright was born in Ohio, Decemlier 18, 
1851, being a son of David and Jane (Sim- 
mons) Wheelwriijht, natives of Englaml. The 
father came to the United States when he 
was twenty-one years of age and the mother 
emigrated to this country with her parents 
when a small child. The father of our sub- 
ject located in Ohio upon bis arrival in this 
country, and it was in this State that he mar- 
ried. In 1854 he removed to Wisconsin, 
settling in Middleton, Dane county, where 
he remained until 1865, tilling the soil. At 
that date he removed to Vernon county, Wis- 
consin, where he settled in the town of Frost, 
remaining until his death. After his demise 
the mother came to Belleville and made her 



154 



BIOGRAPHICAL HE VIEW OF 



home with our subject, but died in Iowa 
wiiiie 1)11 ii visit to a daugliter. She had 
borne licr hushaud eleven children, of whom 
nine grew to maturity, namely: Sarah, who 
married Daniel Garlield, resides in Dawes 
county, Nebraska; Subject; Hattie, who mar- 
ried William T. Markee, resides in Toledo, 
Iowa; lluth, wbo married James H. Under- 
wood, resides in Nol)raska, but is now at- 
tending medical college at Iowa City, Iowa; 
Ella, who married Henry Pepper, resides in 
Elroy, Wisconsin; Daniel W. is a physician 
of Lake View, Iowa; Thomas S. is a wagon- 
maker of Chicago, Illinois; Sidney is a stu- 
dent of Toledo, Iowa; Nellie is in Omaha, 
Nebraska. 

The early life of our subject was passed 
on the farm, he receiving his early education 
in the district schools of the neighborhood. 
His medical studies were commenced under 
Dr. A. A. Kowley, of Middleton, and later 
he attended Rush Medical College, at Chi- 
cago, graduating in the class of 1878. Im- 
mediately after graduation he located at 
Belleville, where he has since remained. In 
the spring of 1878 he married Miss Lnln 
Kowley, daughter of N. C. and Sarah Row- 
ley, l)orn at Verona, Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin. Three children have been born to Dr. 
and Mrs. Wheelwright, namely: E. Maurine, 
William Orville and Vivian R. Professional 
duties engross the Doctor's attention to sucli 
an extent that he only takes sufficient inter- 
est in political matters to cast his ballot for 
the candidates nominated by the Republican 
pai'ty. Socially, he afiiiiates witii Belleville 
Lodge, No. 74, I. (). O. F., in which be lias 
passed all the chairs, and he is also a mem- 
ber of the A. (). U. W. Both professionally 
and socially Dr. Wheelwright is popular, and 
deservedly so, for his constant endeavor is to 



faithfully perform every duty as it is pre- 
sented to him. 



LEXANDER McMURRAN, an es- 
teemed farmer, residing in the town of 
lUirke, Wisconsin, was born in the home 
where he now resides, September 28, 1859. 
His father, Marshall McMurran, was one of 
the early settlers of Dane County, and was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1811. The latter 
went to Indiana when a young man, and U\hu 
there removed to AViscotisin, settling on the 
farm now occupied by the subject of this 
sketch. He was accompanied by his wife 
and family, and the journey was made over- 
laTid with a team. At this time the county 
was sparsely settled, and deer and other kinds 
of game were plentiful. His death occurred 
August 21, 1887. The maiden name of tiie 
mother of our subject was Mary Knight, 
who was born in Indiana, and died on the 
home farm March 15, 1890. She reared 
eight children. 

Our subject now has a fine farm of 320 
acres, and is considered one of the best 
farmers in the county. He has been engaged 
in farming and general stock raising. For 
some years he raised Galway cattle, but not 
liking them for dairy purposes, changed them 
for shorthorns. In politics he is a Repub- 
lican. 

||LE S. NORS^[AN, the popular City 
Clerk of the city of Madison, although 
yet a young man, has held a number of 
important and responsible positions, and is at 
present serving his third term as City Clerk. 
He is also a member and clerk of the Board 
of Education, and director and secretary of the 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN, 



155 



Madison Benevolent Society. He is a man 
who enjoys to the fullest extent the confidence 
and esteem of his fellow-citizens, and deserv- 
edly so, on account of his unswei'ving fidelity 
to duty, unquestionetl integrity and accom- 
modating disposition. 

Mr. Norsman was born in the townsliip of 
Vienna, Dane County, Wisconsin, on the 
13th day of September, 1851, and his boy- 
hood life" was spent on his father's farm, at 
work in the summer, and attending school in 
winter. At the age of sixteen he entered 
Luther College, Decorah, Iowa, and remaineil 
there two years, after which he attended the 
Wisconsin State University a couple of terms. 
Returning home he continued working on 

o to 

the farm during the summer, and teaching 
school in the winter, until the spring of 
1876, when he came to Madison and accepted 
a position as Clerk in the office of the Reg- 
ister of Deeds, under Hon. L. J. Grinde, 
who was then Register. After one year's 
service as Clerk he was appointed Deputy 
Register, which position he held for two 
years. He then, in 1879, accepted a posi- 
tion as clerk in the office of the Ilekla Fire 
Insurance Company of Madison, and after 
a few months he became the company's book- 
keeper, and continued in its employ until 
December 31, 1S82. During the last year 
of his connection with the company', he was 
assistant secretary thereof. 

In the fall of 1882 he was oftered and ac- 
cepted the Democratic nomination for the 
office of Register of Deeds. Securing the 
election, he assumed the duties of the office 
January 1, 1883, and continued as Register 
until December 31, 1886, having been re- 
elected in 188-1. In June, 1887, he was 
appointed Deputy Collector of Internal Rev- 
enue under General A. C. Parkinson, Col- 
lector Second District of Wisconsin. 



This position he held until the expiration 
of General Parkinson's term, and was also 
reappointed by his Republican successor. 
General Earl M. Rogers, in July, 1889, but 
re-igned (Jctolier 1st of the same year. In 
January, 1890, he was elected to his present 
position as City Clerk, taking the office on 
the succeeding tirst day of April, and he has 
been re-elected annually since. 

Mr. Norsman was united in marriage, in 
Madison, on tlie 21st day of June, 1882, to 
Miss Eleonora Katinka Seemann, who was 
Ijorn anil reared in Madison, and who is a 
most faithful and helpful wife and mother. 
She is of Norwegian birth, her father, Jacob 
Seemann, and her mother, whose maiden 

name was Johanna Maria IJrunsberg, were 

to' 

both born in Norway, near the city of Chris- 
tiania. Mr. Seemann came to this country 
in 1854, and to Wisconsin in 1855, and Mrs. 
Seemann came here with her parents, at the 
age of nine, in 1850. They were married in 
Madison in Mav, 1857, and having made the 
Capital City their home ever since, are well- 
known and prominent people. Mr. Seemann 
is a successful attorney, who has held various 
important official positions. He is an ac- 
complished musician, his specialty being the 
violin. In politics he a true blue Jackson- 
ian Democrat of the old school. 

Mr. and Mrs. Norsman are the happy par- 
ents of three bright and promising children, 
the eldest a girl, now ten years of age, named 
Cora Marion Ray; and two boys: Jerome 
Orton, seven years old; and Edgar, the 
youngest, a little over four. 

Mr. Norsman is also of Norwegian parent- 
age, his father, Ole Svallieim, and his mother, 
Randi Thomasdatter I'^then, were both born 
in the parish of Sogn, Bergens Stift, Norway. 
They came to this country, and to Dane 
county, in 18-18, the year Wisconsin was ad- 



1D6 



BIOGIiAPUlCAL REVIEW 'OF 



initted as a State. They became acquainted 
after tlieir arrival in this country, and were 
married at Vienna in 1850, settling down 
immediately on tiie farm, whicli still consti- 
tutes the family homestead. His father 
died in 1876, at the age of iifty-six. He was 
a man of tiie strictest integrity, a worthy and 
highly respected citizen, a good and success- 
ful farmer, and an active member of the 
Lutheran Church. His mother is still living 
on the old homestead, active and in fairly 
good health, although over si.xty years of age. 
She is also a Lutheran in her religious faith, 
and has tenderly reared a large family of 
children, of whom ten are now living, two 
having died in infancy. 

Three sons and two daughters are married. 
Our subject is the oldest of the family. His 
brothers are: Thomas, married to Betsy 
Eggiim, and they have three children. He 
owns and operates a farm near the old home- 
stead; Peter, married to Nellie Huseboe, 
lives on the old homestead; Soren, is a hook- 
keeper in the Stoughton State J'ank, of 
Stoughton, Wisconsin, and John, the young- 
est in the family, is bookkeeper in the Capi- 
tal City Mills, at Madison. His sisters are: 
Emma, married to Ole Gullickson, machinist, 
residing in Chicago; Julia, married to O. S. 
Wangsness, a merchant at Minneapolis, 
Minnesota; Mollie and Carrie, both employetl 
in Chicago, and Anna, who is a teacher, and 
lias just completed a full course at the State 
Normal School at Whitcnvator, Wisconsin. 

^•-ir.^f.VKON 13. FRENCH, a businessman 
,1, Vm? ^^ ^''^ ^''■y *'*" Madison, Wisconsin, 
^^~ and also of Gainesville, Florida, is 
the subject of the present sketch. He was 
born in Leno.\ township, Madison county, 



New York, July 8, 1826, and was the son of 
Leonard and Mary (Wallace) French. The 
mother was born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, 
and the father in Vermont, near l'>rattlei)oro. 
His people were originally from Wales and 
Scotland. By occupation his father was a 
carpenter and farmer. Mr. and Mrs. French, 
Sr., became the parents of eight children, of 
whoni our subject is the third in number. 
The father passed away in 1853, in ALidison, 
and the mother in 1880. They had come to 
the State in 1847, locating in Fitchburg 
township, where the father took npafarm. 

Our subject received very limited school 
facilities, leaving school altogether when he 
was si.xteen years of age. At this time he 
began work as a carpenter and farmer, al- 
though he had done some clerking in a store 
when but fourteen ye^iX^ old, in New York. 
For two terms our subject taught school in 
Fitchburg township, and then came to Madi- 
son, entering the store of Robinson ife Water- 
man as a clerk. Here he stayed until 1853, 
when he began keeping a restaurant in this 
city, which he followed until 1855, when he 
opened a grocery and meat market with 
James E. Rhodes. This firm kept the first 
meat market on State street. He followed 
in this Iiusiness until 1S()6, when he sold out 
on account of ill health and entered into the 
real estate business. Since that time he has 
done nothing else. Since 1882 he has had 
an ofKce in Gainesville, Florida, where he 
spends the winter, and one in Madison, where 
his summers are spent. 

Tiie marriage of our subject took place 
October 19, 1853, with Miss Elizai)eth Page, 
of Bucksport, Maine. The adopted daughter 
of our subject, Katie B., married Edward W. 
Hawley, a merchant of this city. Mr. Frencii 
has been identified with the real- estate busi- 
ness in this city, being a pioneer in it, and 




h/L 



aAO~T^i^ 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



157 



has liandled much property and possesses tlie 
coniidence of the business coniniunity. In 
politics he is a Republican, active in the 
party work, and was once a member of the 
Board of Supervisors of Dane county. Ke- 
ligiously, both himself and wife are connected 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church. So- 
cially, he has long been an ardent and useful 
member of the I. O. O. F., and while upon 
attendance at one of the meetincrs in Florida, 
he was so unfoi-tunate as to dislocate the 
knee of his left leg. His name is one well- 
known in both States, and he is held in high 
efateem. 



^ 



^ 



I^ON. WILLIAM PENN LYON.— The 
Iffl^ subject of this sketch, one of the Asso- 
'^M ciate Justices of the Supreme Court of 
the State of Wisconsin, is the son of Isaac 
and Eunice (Coffin) Lyon. He was a native 
of Chatham, Columbia county, New York, 
born October 28, 1822. His parents were 
members of the religious society of Quakers 
and he was reared in that faith and still 
clings to some of its excellent doctrines. 
AVilliam attended an ordinary common dis- 
trict school until he was eleven years of age, 
when he was placed at the counter as, a clerk 
in a small store conducted by his father and 
after this he had the advantage of about one 
year at select schools. These were the only 
educational advantages whiph he enjoyed, 
but he was bright and ambitious and by 
close application he qbtained a fair English 
education, inclndii^g a limited knowledge of 
algebra, geometry and natural philosophy, 
and gave sqnie time to the Latin language. 

At the early age of fourteen years he 
taught a district school, but this emj)loyment 
did not suit his taste and as soon as he could 
manage the matter he took a clerkship in a 

12 



grocery store in Albany and continued there 
until the age of eighteen. While there his 
mind ran upon other lines and he spent all of 
the time he could spare from his duties in 
attendance upon the courts and Legislature 
then in session. In 1841 when he was nine- 
teen years old he accompanied his father and 
family to Wisconsin and settled at what is 
now the town of Lyons, in AValworth county, 
and here he residetl until 1850. 

With the exception of two terms of school 
teaching he worked upon a farm until the 
spring of 1844, when he entered the office of 
the late Judge Gale as a student of law at 
Elkhorn. He remained a short time with 
the Judge, but returned to spend the sum- 
mer at farm work, and soon after this he was 
attacked with an inflammation of the eyes, 
which prevented him using them for a year. 
That year he worked on a mill, tlien being 
erected in Lyons, for $12 a month and 
earned §100. In the fall of 1845 he 
ao-ain became a law student, and this time 
entered the office of Judge Baker, of Geneva, 
and in 184(3 was admitted to the bar in Wal- 
worth county. He was chosen Justice of the 
Peace of the town of Hudson, now Lyons, 
ami immediately opened an office for the prac- 
tice qf law. His receipts for professional and 
pulilic services during the first year amount- 
ed to $60, the second year the receipts 
were $180, the third he had increased it to 
$400 and the business of the fifth yeai- 
amounted $500. 

In 1847 Judge Lyon decided that his in- 
come had increased sufficiently to admit of 
his marriage and the lady of his choice was 
Miss Adelia C, the accomplished daughter 
of the late Dr. E. E. Duncomb, of St. Thomas, 
Ontai'io, Canada. In those days the necessi- 
ties of life, as well as the luxuries, did not 
cost as much as now, and Judge Lyon and 



158 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



his bride found their income ample in that 
part of tlie cduiitry. In 1S50 he removed to 
Eurliiigton, Ilacine county, and tiiere formed 
a partnership with the late C. P. Barnes and 
remained at that place until 1855, when he 
removed to the city of Racine and continued 
there in active practice until 1861. From 
1855 to 1858 he was the District Attorney of 
Racine county, and in 1859 he was chosen as 
a Representative in the Wisconsin Legisla- 
ture and was made Speaker. This was an 
unusual proceeding, as very seldom does a 
deliberative body call to the delicate and 
onerous duties of presiding oliicer, one wlio 
has not been a member of any previous legis- 
lature, but in the case of Mr. Lyon the choice 
wasjustiiied by the capable manner in which 
he discharged his duties. The following 
year he was again elected and again chosen 
Speaker and he retired from his second term 
in the Legislature of his State at the age of 
thirty-eight, with the warm admiration of 
the members, without distinction as to party, 
and with an enviable reputation throughout 
Wisconsin. An honorable and useful career 
was prophesied for him and this prophecy has 
been fully realized. 

When the attack upon Fort Sumter 
aroused the country to arms Mr. Lyon did 
not allosv his peaceful religious scruples to 
interfere with his patriotic duty. One hun- 
dred brave and determinoil citizens enlisted 
under him and he became Captain of Com. 
pany K, Eighth Wisconsin Infantry, ranking 
from August 7, 1801. The regiment to 
which this company was assigned was or- 
ganized September 4th, with Robert C. 
Murphy, of St. Croi.\ Falls, as its colonel. 
Leaving Madison on the 4th of October 
they arrived at St. Louis on the evening of 
the next day. This was the famous " Eagle 
liegiment," so called from the circumstance 



of their having with them an eagle, "Old 
Abe." They reached Renton barracks 986 
strong. The very next day after their arrival 
they marched against the enemy. By the 
20th of October they were in pursuit of 
"Jefferson Thompson" and on the 21st were 
near Greenville, when a desperate tightensued, 
of which Major Jefferson, of the Eighth wrote: 
" The battle lasted an hour and a half and I 
think it was one of the most brilliant and 
complete victories we have had during the 
war." Captain Lyon took an active j)art in 
this, the first conflict engaged in by his regi- 
ment. After various duties had been per- 
formed by them, on the yth of May the 
Eighth regiment was posted in front, when 
the enemy, with 20,000 men came out to at- 
tack Gen. Pope. The Eighth was employed 
as a skirmish line and was intended to tall 
back when the (Confederates advanced in 
force. The regiment withstood the artillery 
fire of the foe for an hour without support, 
as the enemy outnumbered the Federals and 
(general Ilalleck did not wish to bring on a 
battle, the National line retired to the rear 
and that terminated the action. After other 
important service the regiment went into 
summer quarters at Camp Clear creek, nine 
miles south of Corinth. On the 5th of Au- 
gust, while in the hospital at luka, Missis- 
sipjii, the Captain was promoted to be Colo- 
nel of the Thirteenth Wisconsin. He subse- 
quently returned home for a brief period and 
after being mustered out was made Com- 
mander of the regiment just named, joined 
it at Fort Henry, Tennessee, in October, 1862. 
In the last of October they joined the force 
of General Ransom, marciieii thence to IIop- 
kinsonvilie, intending to attack the enemy 
under General Morgan, but did not come up 
with them until the 6th of November. A 
short skirmish took place at Garrettsburg, 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



159 



and subsequently Colonel J^yon returneil to 
Fort Henry. 

From tlie 21st of Deeenilier to the end 
of the year the regiment ])ursued Forrest, 
but returned to Fort Henry January 1, 18G3. 
On February 3d, information was received 
that Fort Donelson was attacked. In half 
an liour Colonel Lyon had his rei^iment on 
the road, marching to re-enforce the Eighty- 
third at tiiat point. They arrived in the 
vicinity of the f(.)rt in the evening, with the 
loss of one man on the march. Meanwhile 
the garrison of Fort Uonelson, assisted by 
gunboats, had repulsed the Confederates, had, 
in tact, gained a signal victory. During the 
spring and summer of 1863 Colonel Lyon's 
men were sent out by him on scouting duty, 
taking many prisoners and preventing the 
formation of any considerable force of guer- 
rillas. This duty was perhaps the most diffi- 
cult that the soldiers of the war were called 
upon to perform. Participating in the for- 
ward movement of the Army of the Cumber- 
land the Tliirteentli liegiment left Fort Don- 
elson on the 27tli of August, reaching 
Stephenson, Alabama, on the 14th of Sep- 
tember. Colonel Lyon was placed in com- 
mand of that post and this was a post of 
great importance, being the depot of supplies 
for the whole army. The garrison was very 
small, provided with but little artillery and 
the place was easily accessible to the cavalry 
of General Bragg; however, help came at the 
beginning of October, with General Hooker 
in command, from the Army of the Potomac. 
On the evening of the 26tli of October, 1868, 
Colonel Lyon left Stephenson with his regi- 
ment and joined the brigade and went into 
winter quarters at Edgefield, where they 
were employed on picket and guard duty. 
However, three-fourths of their number hav- 
iugveteranized, the regiment left for Wiscon- 



sin on furlough, where they remained five 
weeks and then returned to Nashville, ar- 
riving on their old camp-grounds on the 25th 
of March. In the last of April the Tliir- 
teentli regiment was ordered again to Ste- 
phenson and Colonel Lyon placed in command 
of that post. In the reorganization of the 
army, in 1868 and 1864, Colonel Lyon's 
regiment was assigned to the First Brigade, 
Fourth Division, Twentieth Army Corps. 
He left Stephenson the 5th of June and for 
nearly three months had his quarters at Clay- 
ville, Alabama, guarding during this time 
various fords and crossings of the Tennessee 
river. Late in August he was ordered to 
Hunts ville, where he arrived September 3, 
and was placed in charge of the railroad from 
Claysville to Stephenson, and was responsi- 
ble for the preservation of the posts and 
lines of communication within his charge. 
His headquarters were at Huntsville until 
1865. On the 7th of July all this command 
was ordered into camp at Green Lake, Texas, 
and here on the lltli of September, 1863, 
Colonel Lyon was mustered out of service. 
He was subsequently brevetted Brigadier- 
General of the United States Volunteers, 
to date from October 26, 1865. The Thir- 
teenth Regiment was mustered out in 
November, at San Antonia, reached Madi- 
son on Christmas, the men were paid off 
aiul the Regiment disbanded. Alhough 
Colonel Lyon and his men were not engaged 
in any of the great actions of the war they 
have an honorable record for the performance 
of arduous duties, holding important posi- 
tions, guarding trains, watching the move- 
ments of the enemy and contributing in var- 
ious ways to the success of the battles. Be- 
fore Colonel Lyon was mustered out of the 
service he was chosen Judge of the First 
Judicial Circuit ot Wisconsin and entered 



KiO 



BIOORAPniCAL REVIEW OF 



iipon the dnties of tliat poBition December 
18G5, and ser%"ed with ability until the close 
of hie term. July 4, 1866, Judge Lyon was 
selected to deliver an address to the Gov- 
ernor and people on behalf of the soldiers on 
the presentation to tiie State of the battle 
flags. His oration was a masterly effort, 
impressive in its eloquencre. 

In 1879 Judge Lyon was the Kopublicau 
candidate for Congress in the Fourth District, 
but was defeated by Alexander Mitchell. 
The death of Byron Payne January 13, 1871, 
caused a vacancy on the Supreme J>encii of 
the State, which was filled by Governor Fair- 
child by the appointment of Judge Lyon on 
the 20th of the same month. In the foUow- 
ing April he was elected by the people for 
the unexpired term and for the full term 
succeeding. He was again elected in 1878 
and again in 1884, the last time for ten years. 
He is now the Senior and ex-otiicio Chief 
Justice, his term expiring in January, 1894. 
Without considering whether, if ho desired, 
he could be re-elected to his present position, 
.Judge Lyon publicly announced two years 
a<:o that he did not desire, and would not ac- 
cept a re-election. He has never wavered in 
his determination to retire from the bench at 
the close of his present term. His associates 
u])on the l)encli are Orsamus Cole, Ilarlow S. 
Orton, David Taylor and John ]>. Cassidy. 
On commencement day, 1872, the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of LL. D. 

The published decisions of Judge Lyon 
since he has been upon the bench run from 
volume 27 to 82 inclusive, and are character- 
ized by their brevity, and also sliow a careful 
examination of tlie law appertaining to the 
cases in liand. Proi)al)ly Judge Lyon was 
the first of the Supreme Court justices to 
jirepare a statement of the facts in each case, 



a task usually performed by official reporters. 

Judge Lyon is distinguished for his plain 
simplicity of speech, and while it indicates 
the thoroughness of the lawyer, it also shows 
the straightforwardness of the man. Judge 
Lyon's knowledge of law is thorough and his 
instinct of equity perfect. ~/ 

There are two surviving children of the 
family of Judge Lyon: Clara Isabel, born in 
1857, the wife of J. O. Hayes, Esq.; and 
William Penn, Jr., born iu 1861. Both re- 
side in California. 



lis^ON. WILLIAM II. POKTEIi.— Our 
subject is a wealthy farmer, miller and 
Legislator, of Medina township, Dane 
county. Wisconsin, whose sterling (jualities 
and manly ways have won for him legions of 
friends and an enviable reputation far and 
near. Mr. Porter is the son of William F. 
Porter, whose father was Jonathan Porter, a 
native of Massachusetts, a farmer born in 
1771 and died in 1829, being the father of 
six children, viz.: Harriet S., John, Tyler, 
William F., Henry and Edward. The father 
of Jonathan and the great-grandfather of our 
subject. Dr. Tyler Porter, was a physician of 
Wenham, Massachusetts, and a distinguished 
citizen ami patriot during the Ivevulutionary 
war. Edward is the only one of the six 
children of Joiuithan Porter who is now liv- 
ing. William F., the father of our subject, 
was, as will be seen above, the fourth child. 
He was born in Essex county, Massachusetts, 
April 18, 1806; was brought up on the farm 
and received his education in the public 
schools of Massachusetts; left that State in 
the spring of 1856 and came to Madison; 
had been previously married to Clarisa Lum- 
mis, .laiiuary 30, 1830, in Massachusetts, and 



DANE OODNTT, WISCONSIN. 



161 



slie had died at Bradford, Massachusetts, 
September 23, 1854, leavinir two childrtMi, 
Martha and William II., our subject. The 
father of the latter after reaching Madison 
settled upon what is now known as Orchard 
farm, in the town of Burke, buying 22-4 acres 
of unimproved land, mostly prairie, which lie at 
once proceeded to improve; erecting upon it a 
good brick residence, built a barn, outhouses, 
erected fences, etc. This farm he sold in the 
spring of 1859; then removed to Madison, 
where he began to speculate in the real-estate 
market; for several years he continued to buy 
and sell and then went to Boston. He spent 
bis winters in Florida, where he bought 
thousands of acres of land; owning a portion 
of the island of St. George, where he erected 
two hotels and ran steamers for the accommo- 
dation of guests; put out orange groves, 
graded streets and had three hundred acres 
in Orange county, which was one of the best 
orange groves in the State. He died at 
Jacksonville, Florida, Noveml)er 20, 1878, 
aged seventy-two years, and was buried in 
his native town of Wenham, Massachusetts. 
He was married to his first wife January 30, 
1830; and his second wife was Elizabeth 
Lane, of Haverhill, Massachusetts, there being 
no children by the last marriage. The widow 
is living at Maiden, Massachusetts. 

Our subject, William H. Porter, was the 
only son of his parents, and was born in 
Essex county, Massachusetts, Novemi)er 10, 
1830. He was educated first iu the common 
schools, and after in the Lawrence Academy, 
at Groton, Massachusetts. Accompanying 
his father to Wisconsin, he remained on 
the farm in Bnrke with his father until he 
sold out; when ho prospected for some time 
going through Minnesota, Iowa, Ohio and 
Pennsylvania, looking at oil lands in the lat- 
ter State. Finally he came to Dane county. 



at Marshall, in 1860, where his father had 
property — land and a flouring mill — which 
interests he took charge of and lived in Mad- 
ison until 1865, when he made Marshall his 
home. He now owns in Marshall 800 acres 
and 360 acres in the adjoining town. Atone 
time he owned nearly all the townsite and 
now owns nearly all the vacant pro|)erty 
there. All the land is used by him in fai-m- 
ing, he employing the necessary help. He 
also owns the flouring mill at Marshall, a 
fifty- barrel water mill on Waterloo creek; 
also is owner of the creamery building; is a 
dealer in salt, etc., and owns a warehouse at 
the depot. His business interests are much 
larger than those of any other man in the 
township and he is adding steadily and 
largely to his already great means by shrewd 
management, clear business ability and 
economic use of his forces. He is a man of 
great force of character, exact justice, strong 
will power, fine sense of right and possessed 
of ])urpose to be fair in all things. 

Our subject was married April 26, 1870, to 
Elizabeth Bell, of New Brunswick, whose 
people came to Marshall from that province 
and afterward settled at Washburn, where her 
father still lives, her mother being dead. 
One child was born to Mr. Porter by this 
union, William, who died when thirteen 
months old. Aftea the death of his first wife 
Mr. Porter married December 26, 1876, 
Nettie Page, of Dunkirk, Dane county Wis- 
eonsin, who was born in Columbia county, 
Wisconsin. Her people were from New 
York State, and removed to Wisconsin, where 
they were early settlers. Her parents now 
live in Cowley county, Kansas. By the sec- 
ond marriage there have been three children, 
viz.: William F., deceased; James II., at 
home; and Charles, deceased. 

Mr. Porter has some valuable property in 



163 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



terests in Florida. He was adininistrator of 
iiis father's estate, and in that capacity dis- 
posed of property to the value of about $40,- 
000. He has been chairman of his town for 
about twelve years; and was Postmaster for 
eighteen years, beginning witii the adminis- 
tration of Andrew Johnson; and was treas- 
urer of Marshall Academy. Mr. Porter was 
elected to the Legislature in November, 1S90, 
and has proved a most efficient public servant. 
His election to the Legislature is a high com- 
pliment to his merit and his popularity, he 
being a Republican and the district from 
which he was elected being Democratic. His 
success in life, the wealth he has attained, 
has not lifted him up in pride above his neigh- 
bors, but on the contrary, he is a man of 
modest merit, kind to all and a favorite of 
all who know him. 



4^ 



^©^ 



^ 



fHOMAS O'M ALLEY, resident for 
nearly one-half a century on his present 
farm in section 13. Westport, Wiscon- 
sin, was born in Ireland, January 12, 1815. 
His father was Michael O'Malley, born in 
county Mayo, Ireland, and his father, the 
grandfatiior of onr subject, was born in 
the same place, and these early settlers of 
Dane county, Wisconsin, named the town of 
Westport for their ohi home of the same name. 
The name of the grandfather was Patrick 
O'Malley, and his wife was Mary Stanton, of 
the same neighborhood. Tiiis family had 
been a family of farmers for generations, and 
the occupation of the descendants since has 
been the same. The grandparents of our sub- 
ject had six sons and four daughters, whom 
they reared on their farm in Ireland, and 
Miciiael was one of the older children. These 
old people died at a venerable age in their 
comfortable home in Ireland, he at the age of 



eighty-two years, and she after a few years 
died at about the same age. 

Patrick O'Malley and some of his sons 
were active and efficient in aiding the French 
in the war between the French and the 
British. The wife of Michael and the mother 
of our subject, was named Mary O'Neil, the 
daughter of Martin and Hannah (Fadden) 
O'Neil, and they too, were farmers in Ireland 
and died there, having reared a large family. 
Our subject and his brother John were the 
advance guard of the family to America, 
sent by their father and with the privilege of 
returning to the old home and sharing in the 
estate if they did not like the new world. lie 
fnrnished the means for the journey, and they 
sailed from Westport with four or five hun- 
dred other passengers in a sail boat, and after 
a pleasant voyage of seven weeks landed in 
Quebec. 

From this port they went to St. Catherine, 
and worked for a farmer until spring. Mr. 
O'Malley had but SS in harvest time, but no 
promise for the winter, and the first boat 
that made the passage in the spring to Wis- 
consin carried our subject to join his brother, 
who had accompanied their uncle Thomas 
there. This uncle had come with the boys 
to America. These two sons at first bought 
120 acres on Big Foot Prairie, on which they 
lived in bachelor style, and then went on the 
Mississippi river to New (Orleans, working 
their passage and chopped white ash wood at 
$1 per cord, and lodged on a flat boat on the 
bayous and small rivers. The country was 
wild in the extreme and the weirdness of the 
scene was heightened at night by the howl 
of panthers, which infested the place. While 
down tiiere they also worked at ditching on 
sugar plantations, and they celebrated St. 
Patrick's day by picking blackberries in the 
woods. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



103 



Wlien our subject came to Dane county, in 
the spring of 1843, Lie entered eighty acres for 
pre-emtion, where hn now lives, and bought 
eighty acres of the Government adjoining. 
Here he built a rough lo"; cabin, 16 x 20, one 
and a half stories, and the steps to the upper 
room was a ladder. This house he roofed with 
stakes, which ho rived and these pins were 
made of red oak from a fine large tree on an 
adjoining piece of land. The old log house 
was of the simplest kind, made in the most 
primitive style of architecture. In additiiin 
to the unskilled labor it required I)ut a small 
outlay of money for lumber, hardware and 
glass to construct those humble log abodes, 
as the first fioor contained two small windows 
and one door, hung on wooden hintres, and a 
gaping fireplace, as stoves were something 
yet unknown. The dwelling was not spacious 
nor elegant, but supplied all the needs of a 
comfortable home for the hardy dwellers 
who settled among the hills. This log cabin 
was very durable, as it _stood erect until six 
years ago, when it was torn down to make 
room for an orchard. The timbers were hewed 
by his own hands, and for the remainder of 
the material he hauled logs ten miles to a 
mill to be sawed into lumber. 

One long summer he lived alone, but he 
remembered a bright Irish girl from his old 
home that now lived in Milwaukee. She and 
her parents, I'eter and Bridget (Boland) 
Walsh came to America one year before the 
O'Malley's. They also sailed from Westport, 
landed in Quebec after a voyage of seven 
weeks of storm. Their passage to Quebec 
cost five pounds, but to New York would 
have been much more. Miss Catherine ap- 
preciated the lover who would come 100 miles 
to woo her, and became the wife of our sub- 
ject January (3, 1848, the marriage ceremony 
being performed i>y Father McLaughlin. 



Three years after the location of our subject 
in America his parents also came to this 
country. Mr. and Mrs. O'Malley settled at 
once in the little but comfortable house which 
he hail liuilt, and she appreciated his care to 
have a home before he asked any one to be- 
come his wife. 

Our subject is a man possessed of real immly 
courage. To build a home at that time in that 
wild, forsaken spot, he also must I)e endowed 
with good physical strength and endurance 
to withstand the many hardships necessary to 
remove the heavy forests and convert the 
rough lands into such a fr\iitful farm as may 
be gazed ujjon to-day. Mr. and Mrs. O'Mal- 
ley are now living in the full enjoyment of 
their hard-earned possession. They performed 
their mission well; and when departing leave 
to posterity a good inheritance^ and their 
honored names, homes and deeds that their 
children of to-day or future generations should 
long cherish in grateful remembrance. 

This is a couple who left kindred 'mid tears, 
Who quitted the scenes of their earlier years, 
With hearts full of hope for their fiUine success, 
Who lal)ored for years amid want and distress 
In the depths of a desolate dark wilderness. 

For the first two years after our worthy 
couple settled in their wild home the nearest 
neighbor was three miles distant, which was 
the father of our subject, excepting Indians, 
there being as many as six camps to be seen 
about half a mile away. Mrs. O'Malley, not 
being used to such society was very much afraid 
of her new associates at first, but in a short 
while she grew to rather enjoy their company 
in her lonely hours, and now takes great 
pleasure in relating her dealings with them, 
and even going to visit them in their camp. 
Once during Mr. O'Malley's absence from 
home a rail fence took fire through the means 
of hunters, ancf had it not been for the faithful- 



164 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



ness of the Indians in assisting Mrs. O'Mal- 
ley to extinguish it, the loss of property 
might have been great, as the flames were fast 
approaching tiie barn. Ofttimes the Indian 
women brought pieces of gingham and calico 
to swap for meat, potatoes, turnips, etc., and 
after making a satisfactory bargain to both 
parties, would sit down usually and make 
the goods into aprons for Mrs. O'Malley be- 
fore leaving the liouse. She relates one very 
amusing incident; while slicM'as in the cellar 
filling their bill, they helped themselves to a 
cradle (juilt. wliich was over the sleeping 
baby. She did not miss it until she discovered 
a corner of it hanging from nnder one of their 
blankets, as they were a short distance from 
the house, she said nothing but with hastened 
step overtook them, and the tiist thing they 
knew she gently drew tlie prize away. They 
only lauglied and seemed to enjoy the joke as 
much as she did. However, this did not 
lessen her dealings with the Indians or her 
regard for them, but it certainly was the 
cause of her doul)ting their honesty, and ever 
afterward kept them well in sight. Wells 
and cisterns in those days were unknown in 
this part of the world, and two years passed 
before digging a well, during which time for 
household purposes, water was drawn three- 
quarters of a mile from a lioiling spring, to 
which place Mrs. O'Malley often, during the 
8umm(^r days took the clothes of the family 
and did a large washing rather than bring 
such an amount of water as was necessary, 
80 long a distance. She even boasts of wash- 
hw some of the best butter that was ever 
eaten at the self-same spring. 

In these early days deer and wolves were 
very numerous. Mr. O'Malley often sent his 
dog to hunt a large flock of deer from grazing 
on his tine field of winter wheat, and enjoyed 
the sport of watching them jump so grace- 



fully over a high rail fence. (A.11 the fences on 
his place in those days were made of rails, 
split by our industrious subject.) On no rare 
occasions were wolves known to come to the 
door of this hnrable dwelling and help them- 
selves to slaughtered pork or the like, hang- 
ing outside, if not taken indoors by dark. 
Mrs. O'Malley, on returning from the home 
of her father-in-law, where she had been 
visiting, barely escaped with her life from a 
large gray wolf, who followed her three- 
quarters of a mile. The first year of Mrs. 
O'Malley pioneer life, when her husband 
was called from home on business and had 
not returned at nightfall, would take a wrap, 
go out and crouch in the corner of a fence 
close by to await his return, which ofttimes 
reached the lonely hours of twelve and one 
o'clock, owing to the great incon\eniiMice of 
travel, rather than remain in the house, lest 
the Indians would happen in find her alone 
and kill her. Who now among us in these 
days of pleasure and plenty would willingly 
face the privations and many dangers of these 
early pioneers; yet they have lived through 
it all, Mr. O'Malley in the seventy-eighth year 
of his age, healthy looking, with a constitution 
of a school boy, Mrs. O'Malley in her sixty- 
fifth year, was a woman of wonderful strength 
and endurance, looks well, with an intellect 
as brifht as a 4rirl of sixteen, deliixhts to re- 
late to her children and grandchildren her 
experiences of former years. 

When Mr. O'Malley first came here he 
went thirty miles to the nearest gristmill. 
Here they lived for some ten happy years. 
In 1861 onr subject built the present large 
and comforta])le home. Trior to building the 
barn, Mr. O'Malley proposed a new house, 
but his wife was practical and proposed that 
the barn should be built first, and this was 
done, and it is still iti good condition. It is 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



165 



40x60 with a basement for stables. The 
barn looks well now by the side of the new 
barn, which was built in 1880, at a cost of 
$800. In the old oak barn he stored his 
wheat and oats for some years, and stacked his 
hay outside. His first crop of winter wheat 
remained in the stack for three years, there 
being no market for it and as there were no 
threshing machines. He then made a bed 
and trampled the grain out with oxen; this he 
hauled to Milwaukee by a slow team of oxen, 
taking a whole week to go and return. 
Traveling accommodations being very poor at 
that date, he camped out over night on the 
journey. He sold his wheat for 60 cents a 
bushel, and in order to make the trip profit- 
able, he would take with him on his return 
loads of merchandise for the few storekeepers, 
who had just opened business in Madison. 
There were better times in store for our sub- 
ject, however, and lately, during the Russian 
war, he sold his fine crops of wheat for from 
$1 to $2 per bushel. Milwaukee was also 
their nearest place of worship for six years, 
when a Catholic Church was erected in Madi- 
son, i'riests being very few Mass would not 
sometimes be held oftener than once in 
three months. At that time the settlers 
traveled fifteen miles to reach Madison, which 
is now only nine miles, thei'e being then no 
bridge across the Cattish stream. In those 
days the priests used to hold Mass in the 
different farm houses in turns, occasionally 
offering up the Holy Mass, to give the faith- 
ful an opportunity to attend to that all im- 
portant part of their souls' salvation, which 
was appreciated by those God-fearing people. 
Some years ago they buried one daughter, 
Bridget, aged nine years, and another named 
Catherine, who became a Sister of Charity, 
bore the name of Sister Felieitia, and was one 
of the noble volunteers who became victims 



of fever in New Orleans, September 26, 1878, 
aged only twenty-three years. She was a 
volunteer from I'altimore in the yellow fever 
scourge in 1878, and had been a Sister three 
and one-half years. All honor to the memoiy 
(.>f this noble woman! The living children 
are: Mary, who now is a Sister of Charity in 
Buffalo, New York, where she has been for 
four years, and is known as Sister Mary 
Francis. She took the veil at the age of 
seventeen years at Einmettsburg, and about a 
year later was sent to New Orleans, where she 
remained for twenty-three years, and in 1867 
barely escaped with her life from an attack of 
fever. Hannah is the widow of Thomas Welsch 
and resides in Milwaukee, where she removed 
from her farm in Springtield township, in 
order to educate her children, of whom she 
has six. Martin is a farmer on his 280 acres 
in this township. His wife was Anna Con- 
nor, of Toten Creek, and they have two sons. 
Michael is a physician in Milwaukee, a gradu- 
ate of Rush Medical College, and married 
Lizzie Sweeney, of Watertown. Annie is the 
wife of Garret Sullivan, and lives in New 
London, Wisconsin. Bridget is a maiden at 
home; Ellen is a teacher at Marinet, Wisconsin. 
She was received into tlie order of the School 
Sisters de Notre Dame at the mother house 
in Milwaukee August 14, 1887, at the age 
of twenty-four, and is known as Sister Laetitia, 
and is a very accomplished woman. Thomas 
is a young man at home on the farm; Vin- 
cent is the youngest of the family and is now 
twenty-four years of age. 

Mr. and Mrs. O'Malley and sou Vincent, in 
January, 1882, took a trip to New Orleans, 
to see their daughter. Sister Mary Francis, 
who was at that time nursing the sick in 
Providence Retreat Hospital, whom they had 
not seen since her first depai-ture from 
home, in 1866. They also knelt at the vault 



16G 



BIOGRAPUIOAL REVIEW OF 



which contained the dear remains of their 
daughter, Sister Felicitia, and on their return 
visited niatiy friends in Chicago, whom they 
had nut met in years. Mr. O'Malley always 
had a threat desire to view once more his 
native land, so, after receiving full consent of 
his wife, who preferred remaining on land, 
set sail for his old home in Ireland, June 14, 
1882, landed tlie 2l8t, after seven days of 
very enjoyable voyage. While all around 
him were seasick he boasts of never missing 
a meal. He was also accompanied by his son, 
Michael, who was at that time attending 
college at the Seminary of Our Lady of An- 
gels, Suspension Bridge, New York. Time 
had wrought wonderful changes in that old 
home since Mr. O'Malley's boyhood days. 
Of the companions of his youth few were 
left to greet him now, some dead and others 
gone to lands unknown; not a trace of tlie 
house in wiiich he was born, but he recognized 
tlie very spot where it stood, every hill he 
had climbed in youtiiful days, as well as other 
places of interest wiiicii he had known. He 
arrived home in August, after an absence of 
two montiis, fully convinced there was no 
place like his American home. 

Mr. O'Malley now owns nearly 4:00 acres of 
land in one body, and has more than half of 
it under cultivation, and the balance in tim- 
ber. He has 150 acres in corn and oats, 
keeps forty head of cattle, a number of work 
horses. He feeds all of his corn to stalled 
cattle and hogs, and turns out as high as 150 
hogs aTid from fifteen to twenty beeves yearly. 

In Ids politics Mr. O'Malley is a Democrat, 
and is one of the most highly respected men 
in this county. 



AYDEN H. BEEBE, the efhcient and 
popular State agent for William Deer- 
ing & Company, located at Madison, 
Wisconsin, was born in Platteville, this State, 
June 6, 184:9. His parents were William 
and Hannah (Holcomb) Beebe, the former a 
native of Perry, New York, and the latter of 
Southwick, Massachusetts. His father, a 
saddler and harnessniaker by trade, removed 
to Ohio when a young man, wliere, on April 
11, 1838, he was married. In the fall of 
1843 he made a prospecting tour to Wiscon- 
sin, at the time a new and sparsely settled 
country. The journey was made by the way 
of the canal and river. In December of the 
same year they returned, but as the river was 
frozen they were cou)pelled to walk the 700 
miles, which they did in eighteen days, ar- 
riving at their destination several days before 
the regular mail. In tlie year of 1845 he 
returned to the Badger State with his family, 
and settled in Platteville, Grant county, 
where they now reside. They had four chil- 
dren, two sons and two daughters. 

The subject of this sketch was reared on a 
farm, and walked three miles to the district 
sciiool of his locality. At the age of twenty- 
one, he began to learn the blacksmith, car- 
riage and wagon trade in Platteville, at which 
he served an apprenticeship of three years. 
He was shortly afterward oifered an induce- 
ment to rejirosent a large retail house, deal- 
ing in machinery and implements, which 
position he accepted, remaining with them 
four years. About 1882 or 1883 he entered 
the employ of William Deeriug & Company, 
as expert and canvasser, and after four years 
became, in 1886, the manager at Platteville 
for the territory of southern Wisconsin and 
northwestern Illinois. In 1889 he came to 
Madison to assume the management of 
southern Wisconsin, where he has remained 



DANE VOUNTT WISCONSIN. 



167 



ever since. By energy and perseverance he 
has succeeded in placing the business of his 
company at the head of its line in the State, 
their present wareliouse being now too small 
to accommodate the increased demands of 
their trade. He brings to his position a 
thoroughly practical knowledge of machinei-y, 
being able to make anything from a hay rake 
to a traction engine. 

Mr. Beebe was married in November, 
1874, to Jennie Iloskings, of Platteville, 
whose parents were pioneers of the State. 
In 1892 she died, leaving to his care two 
children: Julius De Lessel and Edithe May 
Ette. 

Socially, Mr. Beebe affiliates with the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, in which order he has attained 
the Thirty-second degree. 

As a business man and citizen, Mr. Beebe 
stands deservedly high in his community, 
being widely and favorably known as a per- 
son of unswerving integrity, indefatigable 
energy and excellent judgment. 

EORGE DURKEE, Postmaster of 
De Forest, Dane county, Wisconsin, 
was born in Malone, Franklin county, 
New York, July 17, 1830, a son of Martin 
K. Durkee, a native of Burlington, Vermont. 
The latter's father, Harvey Durkee, was a 
mechanic by profession, and also conducted a 
hotel in Burlington for many years. He 
was twice married, had six sons and three 
daughters, and his death occurred in his na- 
tive State in 1860. Martin Durkee, the 
third son and fifth child by his fatlier's first 
marriage, was married in New York, to Abi- 
gail Miller, a native of that State. He died 
at his home in Franklin county, New 
York, in 1857, at the age of fifty years, leav- 



ing his widow with twelve children, three 
of whom died when young. The nine that 
grew to years of maturity are: Laura, widow 
of A. Huntington, and a resident of Charles 
City, Iowa; Louisa, now wife of David Hoag, 
a land agent of Charles City, Iowa; Charles, 
who died in 1878, aged fifty years; George, 
our subject; Joseph, who was killed during 
the late war; James, deceased at Hastings, 
Nebraska, when a young man; Harvey, a 
teacher in a commercial school at Charles 
City, Iowa; Lavina, now Mrs. George W. 
Furness, of that city; and Ellen, wife of 
Henry Church, engaged in the Pension De- 
partment, at Washington, District of Colum- 
bia. He carries seven scars, received in the 
late war. Joseph and James Durkee were 
also volunteers in that struggle, serving in 
Company G of the Berdan sharpshooters. 
Joseph was killed at Yorktown while on 
picket or scout duty, in March, 1862, in his 
twenty-ninth year. He left a wife and three 
children. James was taken prisoner at the 
battle of the Wilderness, and served as Hos- 
pital Steward in the Andersonville prison for 
eleven months. 

George Durkee, the subject of this sketch, 
came to Wisconsin in the fall of 1851, at the 
age of twenty-four years, and went immedi- 
ately to the home of his uncle, Cliarles Dur- 
kee, a large land owner of Southport. The 
latter served in the Territorial Legislature 
from Milwaukee District for four years, was 
a member of the Senate in 1855, and after- 
ward was appointed Governor of Utah, by 
Lincoln. After workinof at farm labor in the 
summer and in the pine woods during the 
winter for four years, Mr. Durkee purchased 
ninety acres of land of his uncle, where he 
remained until 1871. In that year he bought 
a store building and opened a general mer- 
chandise business in De Forest, where he has 



168 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



engaged in trade about five years, and during 
that time also served as Postmaster. Since 
tliat time he has given his attenion entirely 
to tlie post office, and now has three routes. 
He served as J ustice of the Peace four years 
in Leeds, Wisconsin, and two years at De 
Forest, and married four couples during his 
time in office. While in the former city he 
also served as Postmater ten years. 

Mr. Durkee was married in 1859, to Lydia 
Lord, a native of Leeds, Wisconsin, and they 
have had fourteen children, two now de- 
ceased. Their living children are: James, a 
telegraph operator of Jamestown, Dakota; 
Edgar, of Carpenter, Iowa; Mira, now Mrs. 
Hiram Smith, of De Forest, Wisconsin; E. 
M., engaged in railroad work in Iowa; Frank, 
of Stoughton, Wisconsin; Lulu E., at home; 
Mabel E., attending the high school in 
Stoughton, Wisconsin; and John C, Albert 
J., Sarah L., Hattie and Geneva, attending 
school. Mr. Durkee is a stanch Republican 
in his political views; and religiously is a 
member of the Second Adventist Church. 



(OLONEL WILLIAM H. ANGELL, a 
popular lumber dealer, is a resident of 
Sun Prairie, Dane county, Wisconsin. 
His great-grandfather, Henry Angell, was 
one of three brothers, who emigrated from 
Germany, and became one of the early set- 
tlers of Massachusetts, where his son, the 
grandfather of subject, Augustus Angell, 
was born, October 14, 1757. He served 
through the Revolutionary war, and then set- 
tled in Washington county. New York, where 
he married a daughter of Colonel Asa Mar- 
tin, and afterward removed to Rutland county, 
Vermont. The father of our subject. Cap- 
tain Newel Angell, was born in Washington 



county. New York, December 20, 1789, and 

served through the war of 1812, with his 
father, grandfather of our subject, and sub- 
sequently removed to the eastern part of New 
York. Augustus Angell afterward removed to 
Ticonderoga county. New York, where he 
died, at the age of niiiety-si.\ years. His son, 
father of subject, died iu Wisconsin, March 
9, 1863, aged seventy-three years. The 
father of our subject was married twice, the 
first time to Charity Blackmail, March 10, 
1810, and the mother died June 23, 1822. By 
thismarriage Captain Angell had six children. 
April 4, 1823, Captain Angell married Mary 
Hollis Ransom, who died November 5, 1872. 
By this marriage there were nine children. 

William Harrison Angell, the subject of 
this sketch, was the second child of the first 
marriage, and was born June 20, 1813, in 
Rutland county, Vermont. His youth was 
spent in that State, where he attended the 
common schools of that State in the winter 
months, and in the summer worked on his 
grandfather's farm. He resided with the lat- 
ter from his ninth year, when the death of 
his mother occurred, until he was eight- 
een years of age, when he returned to 
the State of his nativity, and worked on a 
farm. Subsequently he learned the carpenter 
trade and followed it about thirty years. In 
1842 he came to the territory comprising the 
State of Wisconsin, and settled in Walworth 
county, but only remained there two years, 
when he removed to Dane county in 1844, 
and has since made it his home. At that 
time the county was sparsely settled, there 
not being more than 500 people in the entire 
city of Madison. His work here was on the 
Territorial capitol house. 

As soon as Mr. Angell had accumulated 
sufficient money he bought eighty acres of 
land from tlic Govern inctit, nuw located 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



1G9 



within the village of Sun Prairie, paying ten 
shillings per acre for it. About two years 
later he bought forty acres ffom the Govern- 
ment, which is also witliin the limits of Sun 
Prairie, and upon a portion of it the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul depot is now located. 
He subsequently sold the eighty acres and a 
portion of the forty, and at the present time 
is the owner of 160 acres in the vicinity. 

Mr. Angell has served in several capacities 
since coming to the State, among which were 
a six years' term of service as Deputy Sheriff, 
first president of the Village Board of Sun 
Prairie, which position he tilled acceptably as 
long as the people could induce him to do so, 
and twice Chairman of the County Board of 
Supervisors. He has always been prominent 
in all political enterprises and those tending 
to benefit the general good, and althouo-h 
eighty years of age still retains his interest in 
political matters to a wonderful degree, and 
now is and always has been a stanch Democrat. 
He is very active for his age, and carries on 
his business with the aid of his oldest son. 
He and his wife are the oldest settlers of Sun 
Prairie, and both enjoy the well-earned re- 
spect and esteem of the entire community. 
They have been married fifty-three years. 

Colonel Angell was married, January 16, 
1840, to Electa L. Abernethy, at New Haven, 
Vermont, and they have six children, of 
whom two are still living, namely: William 
E. and Darwin C. The former was born in 
Vermont, and has always been, as he is now, 
engaged in business with his father, except- 
ing the interval of army service, which ex- 
tended from the beginniug till near the 
close. He enlisted in the Twentieth Regi- 
ment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and 
served about three years, participating in 
various battles, commencing with Prairie 
(^rove. He was honorably discharged on ac- 



count of broken healtii and returned home, 
where lie has since remained. He married 
Maria Ayres, and eight children have been 
born to his wife and him, six of whom are 
still living. 

Darwin C, the younger son, left home at 
the age of twenty-two and went to what is 
now South Dakota, remaining two years, 
when he went to Leavenworth, Ivansas, where 
he is now engaged in business for the Leaven- 
worth Coal Company. He was married to 
Ruth Moak, and two children, both livino-, 
have been added to the family. 

When our subject was fifteen years of age, 
he chanced to write his name "Angell," and 
liking the appearance of it spelled it in this 
way ever since. At some remote date in the 
history the family changed the spelling from 
'•Engel," to that of "Angel." 

— ,ROFESSOR STORM BULL, of the 
University of Wisconsin, was born in 
Bergen, Norway, October 20, 1856, son 
of Jens and Johana (Horugup) Bull. His 
parents were both born and reared in Bergen. 
His father, a Colonel in the regular army, 
was retired on a pension in the summer of 
1892. His mother died in 1888. Their five 
children are still living, and all in P]urope 
except the subject of this article. 

Professor Bull received liis preparatory 
education at Bergen, and spent about six 
years in an engineering and drawing school, 
at the same time taking private lessons in 
mathematics and language. In 1873 he en- 
tered tlie Polytechnic Institute at Zurich, 
Switzerland, where he graduated with the 
degree of M. E. in 1877. He traveled ex- 
tensi\-ely in Finance, Belgium, Germany and 
Switzerland, visiting various shops and insti- 



170 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OP 



tutes, and in the fall of 1877, returned to 
Norway. Tliere he was for two years head 
dranghtsinan in shipbuilding in the naval 
yards. 

In 1879 he received a call from the Board 
of Regents of the University of Wisconsin, 
and through the influence of his uncle, Ole 
Bull, his father's oldest brother, came to 
Madison, Wisconsin. He has since been 
connected with the University. He was in- 
structor in engineering from 1879 to 1885; 
assistant professor of Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, 1885 to 1886; professor of Mechanical 
Engineering, 1880 to 1891; and professor of 
Steam Engineering since 1891. In the sum- 
mer of 1892 he returned to Europe and 
visited the Polytechnic Institutes of Norway, 
Germany and France, and the summer be- 
fore he spent in visiting institutions of a like 
character in America. 

Professor Bull was married in Madison, 
October 8, 1881, to Maria Steineger, a native 
of Bergen. She died October 5, 1883, leav- 
ing one son, Eivind. August IS, 1886, he 
wedded Dina Munster, also of Bergen, Nor- 
way. Politically, the Professor is a Demo- 
crat; religiously, a member of the Unitarian 
Cliurch. He has made various contributions 
to scientific and literary magazines, both in 
this country and in Norway, his works show- 
ing marked talent and careful study. He is 
a mem1)er of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. 

JLE NELSON FALK, of Stonghton, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, was born in 
Amble, Bergens Stift, Norway, August 
26, 1841, and emigrated with his parents to 
Wisconsin in 1852 and located in the town 
of Cottage Grove, Wisconsin, where his 



father died in 1854. In 1858 Mr. Falk 
moved to Whitewater, Wisconsin, attending 
the public schools there. 

In August, 1862, he enlisted as Private in 
Company H, Twenty-seventh Regiment of 
Wisconsin Infantry, and was promoted to 
Orderly Sergeant, and later, to Secoml and 
First Lieutenant. Was present at the fol- 
lowing engagements: Siege of Vicksburg, 
Mississippi; Sartartia, Mississippi; Capture 
of Little Rock, Arkansas; Spanish Fort and 
Blakely, Alabama, and in many severe and 
fatiguing marches and countermarches and 
expeditions usual in war; was at the sur- 
render of the Confederate fleet at Macin- 
tosh BluflF, Alabama, in May, 1865. In the 
latter part of this month he, with the com- 
pany, was sent across the (iulf of Mexico to 
the Rio Grande, under the command of Gen- 
eral Sheridan and was mustered out at 
Brownsvillle, Texas, in Septeml)er, 1865, af- 
ter serving three years. 

After returning to Wisconsin our subject 
opened a drug store, which business he still 
holds. It is now conducted under the name 
of Falk Brothers. In 1884, in company with 
O. M. Turner, Mr. Falk organized the Dane 
County Bank, of which he holds the position 
of flrst cashier. The business is carried on 
with a banking capital of $60,000. His resi- 
dence is situated on one of the most choice lo- 
cations in the city and is surrounded by 
more than an acre of ground. 

Mr. Falk was married in the winter of 
1866, to Mary J. Gjerde, a resident of Pleas- 
ant Springs, Dane county. They liave si.\ 
children: Clara J., Ilattie Adelle, Nelson II., 
Fredrica M., Elmer and liolf. Miss Clara 
has made a special study of music, taking a 
course at Rockford SemiiiHry, Rockford, Illi- 
nois, and in 1890 graduated at the celebrated 
Chicago Musical College, receiving the an- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



171 



mial Marshal Field diamond medal for ex- 
cellence in the work. Since that time she 
has met with great success in teaching 
music. Hattie Adelle has also made a spe- 
cial study of music, graduating from the 
teachers' class of the Lyric School of Chicago. 
Mr. Falk is socially a member of the (1. A. 
R. Post, and belongs to the Lutheran Church. 

fUDGE DAVID TAYLOR.— This arti- 
cle places before the public a record of 
one of the prominent men of Madison, 
Wisconsin, who has passed away, having died 
at his home April 3, 1891. He was born in 
Carlisle, Schoharie county, New York, 
March 11, 1818. He came of Scotch-Irish 
ancestry and was the son of Joseph Taylor, 
who was born in the north of Ireland and 
there was reared and received good educa- 
tional advantages. His family were almost 
all professional men and so continue in Ire- 
land to this day. 

Joseph Taylor came to America and set- 
tled in the State of New Yoi-k when he was 
quite a young man and became a farmer in 
Schoharie county. 

Our subject grew up under the good, 
Christian training of pious people and was 
one of a family of eight children, the most 
of whom are now dead. He obtained an 
academical education in his native country 
and graduated from Union College, New 
York, with the class of 1841. He at once 
turned his attention to the practice of law 
and was in the office of Attorney Henry 
Smith, of Catskill, New York, and after two 
or three years of study, he practiced some 
three years in his native place. In 1846 he 
decided to try his fortune in the West and 
came to Chicago and proceeded to Milwaukee. 



From there ho made his way on the back of 
a pony to Green Bay, Wisconsin, and thus 
traveled over tlie sparsely settled country 
where there were but few houses scattered 
over the wide prairie. Seeking a location 
that bore the appearance of future growth, 
our subject selected Slielioygan, as presenting 
more signs of greatness than either Chicago 
on her muddy swamp, or tiian Milwaukee 
with her incipient breweries, and at the little 
village he entered into partnership with 
Cyrus P. Hiller (since deceased) and this 
partnership proved a pleasant and successful 
one for fifteen years. 

While in the city of Sheboygan, Judge 
Taylor, in 1863, became a member of the 
Assembly and in 1855-56 he was made a mem- 
ber of the Wisconsin Senate. In the contest 
for a seat in the United States Senate, in 1857, 
he was mentioned as one deserving of tliat 
honor, and in the election of the Legislature 
he received the vote of the venerable Wyman 
Spooner, notwithstanding the choice of the 
Republican caucus had fallen upon James R. 
Doolittle. The following year he was chosen 
as Judge of the Fourth Circuit and served iu 
that position until January 1, 1869. 

Three times was Judge Taylor a Repre- 
sentative and twice a Senator; prior to 1853 
he had been a Circuit Judge, and lie had 
twice revised the State Statutes of Wisconsin 
and was known as a most competent cudifier 
and law counselor and the last revision of the 
State Statutes was started about 1874 and re- 
quired the close application of three revisers 
for about four years, sometimes requiring 
the assistance of two others. 

Judge Taylor was elected Circuit Judge in 
1858 and filled that office for eleven years. 
He was later elected to the State Supreme 
Pencil and held that office from 1878 to his 
death. He came to Madison in lS7Sandde- 



172 



BIOORAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



voted his whole soul to the work of his pro- 
fession. He left a host of friends in Wiscon- 
sin and was among the well-known men of 
the State and was considered one of the hest 
judges of the State. 

Judge Taylor was no office seeker, but his 
talents as a scholar and as a jurist could not 
be hidden and he was elected to office without 
regard to party lines. In politics he was al- 
ways a sound Republican and for many years 
a consistent member of the Congregational 
Church. 

fiiOMAS HEATTIE, a coal merchant 
of Stoughton, Dane county, Wisconsin, 
was born in Northumberland county, 
England, December G, 1830, a sod of Henry 
and Margaret (Muitt) Reattie, also natives of 
that country. The father was a stonemason 
and builder by occupation. Thomas, the 
second child in a family of three sons and 
two dauehters, attended the common schools 
of England until fourteen years of age. He 
then learned the millers' trade, after which 
he followed that occupation with his uncle 
for years. At the age of nineteen years he 
came to America, locating in Wisconsin, 
but shortly afterward removed to Chicago. 
In 1850 he came again to this State, and the 
country was then oidy sparsely settled, there 
having been but a few homes between Beloit 
and Janesville. Mr. Reattie was engaged at 
liis trade at Lockport, Illinois, live years; then 
went to Chicago; next rented a mill at 
Dayton, Green county, this State, two 
years; owned an interest in a steam-mill in 
Green county, Wisconsin, one year; and 
then rented a mill at Albany, in the same 
CDimty. 

In 18G2 Mr. Reattie enlisted in Company 



R, Thirty-First Wisconsin Volunteer In- 
fantry, of which he was commissioned Lieu- 
tenant by Governor Solomon. The regi- 
ment left the State March 1, 1863, landing at 
(^olumbus, Kentucky, ^farch 8, and was as- 
signed to the Sixth Division, Sixteenth Army 
Corps, and ordered into camp at Fort Hal- 
leck. April 14, 1864, the regiment was 
assigned to the Fourth Division, Twentieth 
Army Corps, and on the 3d of July, was 
transferred to the Third Brigade, First Divi- 
sion, Twentieth Army Corps, Joe Hooker's 
corps, with which it was identified from this 
time until after the grand review at Wash- 
ington. Lieutenant Thomas Reattie was de- 
tailed in June, 1863, as Superintendent of 
the Military Prison at Columbus, Kentucky, 
in which capacity he served until about the 
last of September, when the regiment was 
ordered to Nashville, Tennessee. During 
the winter of 1863 and '64, he was in com- 
mand of a detachment of mounted Infantry, 
and scouted in middle Tennessee. On June 
10, he was again detached and appointed 
second in command of the Military Prison at 
Nashville, Tennessee, in which capacity he 
served until April, 1865, he was then relieved 
and ordered to report to his regiment, which 
he did at or near Raleigh, North Carolina, 
on the day of Johnston's surrender to Gen- 
eral Sherman. From Raleigh, he marched 
with the regiment to Washington, and took 
part in the grand review, and was mustered 
out of service with his regiment June 20. 
1S65. 

After the war he rented a small mill in 
Green county, Wisconsin, but later conducted 
the same business at Loveland, near Council 
Blutls, Iowa. He then rented a mill at 
Dayton, Wisconsin, one year, and in 1867, 
in company with James Norris, bought the 
Stoughton Mills, which they conducted about 



VANE COUNTY, WrsCONJSlN. 



173 



eleven years, under tlje firm mime of Norris 
& Beattie. In 1878 Mr. I'.eattie sold his 
interest to George Dow, since which time he 
has been engaged in selling coal. 

lie was united in marriage, in New York, 
in 1858, with Ann Tailor, a native of Eng- 
land. Tiiey have had four children; Marga- 
ret Ann, wife of W. Atkinson, of Stough- 
ton; Henry, at home; and two deceased in 
infancy. Mr. Beattie is a llepublicaii in his 
political views, has served as president of the 
village Board for four years, and Mayor one 
year, and in 1879, was elected to represent 
liis district in the Legislature of Wisconsin. 



4^ 



^ 



|LAUI)IUS ELLI8 was born in Schuyler 
county, New York, August 3, 1822. 
lie was the son of iJenjamin Ellis, a 
native of Dutchess county. New York, born 
about 177<5, and died in Schuyler county in 
1859. The grandfather of our subject was 
also named Benjamin, and was a farmer, 
which occupation the family has followed 
since. He died in Dutchess county when 
about seventy-tive years old. Ilis wife was a 
Miss Carpenter, and they had two childi'en; 
one died young, and the son became the 
father of our subject. (Ttrandfatluu- Ellis 
was one of six brothers who came to America 
from Wales, and served in the war of the 
Bevolution, although si>nie of his brothers 
took part in the same struggle in tiie British 
navy. 

The father of our subject was reared to the 
life of a farmer, and married Martha Town- 
send, a lady of (lerman o.xtraction, and she 
bore liim eleven children, of whom our sub- 
ject is the youngest, and the only survivor. 
They moved west to what is now Schuyler 
county, near Seneca lake, in 1816. The ro- 

13 



ni(>\-al was made with teams of their own, 
and they bought a squattiu-'s claim of 200 
acn^s of heavily timbered land. They moved 
into the rough log cabin until they ccmld 
build a better. The means of the subject 
were limited, but wheat was a necessity for 
family use for food and for seed, and he paid 
$200 for 1(10 bushels of it. His first crop 
was marketed at Gimeva, which he took 
down the lake in a boat of his own builditig. 
He irave twelve bushels of wheat for one 
barrel of salt, and (iight bush<^ls for one 
j)ound of cotton yarn. The first ten acres 
was cleared by himself and two grown sons 
in the first year. They sold this farm, which 
was all well improvetl many years later, and 
bought another in Townsend, Steuben county. 
The mother of these children died in middle 
life, and the father was again married. The 
cause of his death was a smoke cancer. 

Our subject was brought up op the fai-m, 
but learned tlit^ trade of carpenter and joiner, 
Ixiginning at the ago of sixteen, and by the 
time he was twenty-one he was a contractor 
and builder. 

()ur subject was married before^ he was 
nineteen years of age, and his wife was 
nearly tW(Mity. Her name was Janet Rood, 
of Reading, Schuyli^r county, now Steuben 
county. Her father was Rockwell Rood, and 
her mother was Sally Davis, born in Sara- 
toga, New York. Mrs. Ellis had a good 
education and had taught school for three 
terms in that section. The young couple 
caine West in 1853, and soon settled on their 
present farm. They came by water to Tole- 
do, and by rail to Chicago, and landed in 
Verona, Dane county, October 14. They 
brought their own teams and drove out frotn 
(Jhicao-o. They had sold their old farm in 
New York for $<)5 per acre, and bought 204 
acres here for $1,650, and the first year his 



174 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



wheat crop repaid him his money. The price 
that year was from SI to $1.50, and within 
three years he sold 1,400 bushels at 48 cents. 
They first bought a farm in Middleton town- 
ship, and sold it at an advanced price of 
^1,000, and that was one of the financial 
bariraiiis of his life. 

Our subject has always done a mixed farm- 
ing. Their three children were born in 
Schuyler county, and their names were: 
B. R. Ellis, now a farmer in Windsor town- 
ship, and he married Olyette Smith, of New 
York, and they have a son and daughter; 
E. li. Ellis married Martha Leland, who was 
born in this county, of New England par- 
ents. They have four sons and three daugh- 
ters, and still reside on the farm. These 
sons were in the civil war. The eldest was 
the first to go from the Madison University, 
at the age of twenty years, and enlisted as a 
private in the cavalry, but was made a Ser- 
geant, and served three years, and was never 
wounded, although he liad two horses fall 
beneath him. The one that he brought home 
had a iiall through its jaws. The second son 
went into the army the last year of the war, 
and entered the Second Cavalry as a private. 
He was with Custer in Te.xas, and came 
home sound. 

Mr. Ellis was chairman of the Board of 
Suj)ervisor.s for two years, and served three 
years during the war. He was a Justice of 
the Peace for many years, and has been a 
Democrat all his life. The quota of soldiers 
in this town was filled largely through his 
efforts, and he paid out $18,000 in bounty 
during lii.s administration, for his town of 
Westport. 

In 1859 Mr. Ellis went to Tike's Peak, 
and was in that country for two years, pros- 
pecting, and he took a ranch near Denver, 
which he improved by building upon it. [Ic 



owned some village property there. He went 
across the plains with a company of forty 
others, of whom he was the captain. His 
team was two yoke of oxen and one yoke of 
cows. The party was three months on the 
way. Mr. and Mrs. Ellis had but one daugh- 
ter, Alice, who married David Davis, of 
Windsor. They settled on their fine farm in 
Windsor, and have one son, Robert E., and 
one daughter, Nettie A. Mrs. Davis died 
May 15, 1889, aged thirty-seven years. She 
was an accomplished teacher, and had taught 
eighteen terms before marriage. She is 
sadly missed, as her many lovable traits 
made her very dear to husband and children. 



rf J. NASETT, of Christiana township, 
III Rockdale post office, Dane county. Wis- 
•V* cousin, was born in Sogen, Norway, De- 
cember 80, 1833, a son of Johannes and 
Ella J. Nasett. His parents came to Amer- 
ica in 1845, locating on section 25, Christiana 
township, Dane county. Wisconsin. For the 
last ten years of his life his father was 
troubled with a diseased leg, which was 
afterward amputated, and both he and his 
wife are now dead. They had seven eliil- 
dren, four daughters and three sons, of whom 
our subject was the fifth in order of birth. 

He came to this country at the age of 
twelve years, where he received a limited 
education, and has always been engaged in 
farmintr. He still resides on the old home- 
stead of 160 acres, where he makes a 
specialty of raising tobacco. Mr. Nasett is 
a Democrat in his political views, and has 
held many of the minor offices of liis town- 
ship. Religiously he is a member of the 
Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran congrega- 
tiun of Dane county, Wisconsin, belonging 



DANE COUNTT, WTSCONkTN. 



175 



to the society called the JSorwegian Lutheran 
Synod of America. 

Mr. Nasett was united in marriage, No- 
vember 13, 1855, to Anne S. Larson, then of 
Christiana township, Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin, hut who came from Norway, her native 
State, to America, in 1843. Tliey had six 
children, of whom five are now living: Lars, 
now a general merchant at Robbinsdale, 
Minnesota, of the firm of Nasett & Linde; 
Gustav, a farmer at Utica, Wisconsin ; Adolpli, 
a farmer; Hannah, now the wife of Neis 
EUingson, a farmer at Utica, Wisconsin; and 
Josephine, who resides at home. The de- 
voted wife and mother died September 8, 
1875, leaving many to mourn her loss. Au- 
gust 2, 1879, Mr. Nasett married Maria 
Johnson, who left Norway for America May 
6, 1878. They have six children: Abel, 
John, Otto, Ella, Anna (deceased) and Anna. 



^^ 



ILLIAM B. ATKINSON, a farmer 
of Dane county, Wisconsin, was born 



^^^^ ill the city of Leeds, i orkshire, Eng- 
land, May 30, 1839, a son of John and Sarah 
Atkinson, the former a native of Leeds, and 
the latter of Yarmouth, England. The parents 
were married in their native country, and 
reared a family of nine children, six boys and 
tiiree girls. They came to America when 
our subject was nine years of age, locating in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the following year 
went to Rock county, and the next year came 
to Dane county. 

William B. Atkinson attended school in 
England, also in I)unn township, Wisconsin, 
and was a student at the Stoughton Academy 
one year. In the fall of 1862 he enlisted in 
Company K, Thirty-third Wisconsin Infan- 
try, under J. B. More, in the Seventeenth 



Army Corps. He served in the Army of the 
West, was one and a half years under Sher- 
man and Grant, and participated in all the 
battles and skirmishes of his regiment. His 
brother, E. J., was killed near a spring be- 
tween Jackson and Vicksburg, by a stroke of 
lightning. Mr. Atkinson was mustered out 
of service at Madison, in 1805, after which 
he remained at his father's home in Pleasant 
Springs township until thirty-three years of 
age. In 1873 his father gave him his farm, 
160 acres on section 31, where he has since 
been engaged in general tanning, making a 
specialty of the raising of tobacco. In 1887 
Mr. Atkinson erected a tine two-story brick 
residence, one of the best in the county. 
Politically he affiliates with the Republican 
party, has served as Supervisor of Pleasant 
Springs township, and a member of the 
Board several terms. Socially he has lieen 
a member of the Philo C Buckman Post, 
No. 153, of Stoughton, for the past five years. 
Mr. Atkinson was united in marriage, in 
1875, with Lncretia E. Devoe, a native of 
Oakland, Jefferson county. They have had 
five children, namely: George E., Willie W., 
deceased, at the age of four years nine months 
and nine days; Forest A., Lorenzo D., and 
Clare J. II Atkinson. 



LA A. SOLHEIM, the able superinten- 
dent of the Martin Luther Orphans' 
Home of Madison, Wisconsin, was born 
in the parish of Foerde in Soendfjord, Nor- 
way, October 19, 1858. His parents were 
Nels O. and Oleana J. Solheim. His father 
was a farmer who emigrated with his wife 
and children to America in 1870, and went 
to Grand Haven, Michigan. Here the father 
immediately secured employment on a rail- 



170 



mOORAPHWAl. HE VIEW OF 



road then under construction, but died within 
two inontlis time, leaving his family desti- 
tute. 

The subject of this sketch was about twelve 
years of age when his parents emigrated to 
this country, his previous lite having been 
passed on his father's farm, during which 
time he was able to attend school only eight 
weeks annually, beginning with the ninth 
year. 

Arriving in Grand Haven ho found em- 
ployment in a shingle mill. After his father's 
death the support of the family, for some 
time, devolved on himself and a nineteen 
year old brother, who had come to this coun- 
try four years previously. lUit it was not 
long before his strong and energetic mother, 
always anxious to give lier childi-en the best 
possible opportunities for advancement, by 
the hard and assiduous toil of her hands, was 
enabled to contribute cotisiderable toward 
maintaining the family, until she, from the 
early spring of 1874, became the sole sup- 
porter of herself and the three youngest chil- 
dren. In 1S75 the family removed to Lee 
county, Illinois. 

Having by this time become imbued with 
an ambition for an education, young Ola was 
not long in finding a way to attain the de- 
sired object. Soon after going to Illinois he 
entered Luther (college at Decorah, Iowa, at 
which he graduated in 1881, with the degree 
of A. B. He continued there one year as 
instructor in music, and then entered the 
Lutheran Theological Seminary at Madison, 
Wisconsin. This school then occupied the 
buildings now used by the Norwegian Synod, 
as an or])hans' iiome. From here Mr. Sol- 
heim went to Willmar, jMinnesota, where he 
for two years was connected with the Will- 
mar Seminary, the first year as a teacher and 
the second year as a traveling agent. We 



next find liini in Norway as a student of 
theology at the University of Christiania, 
where he remained two years and a half. In 
1888 he returned to America and, since the 
fall of 1889 has held his present ])osition at 
the head ot tlio <)rj)hans' Home in Madison. 
He is eminently (jualitied for his work, both 
by experience and natural adaptability. He 
has taught dififerent private schools and, at 
times, has filled the pulpit of his church. 
His interest is now solely centered in his 
charge, to which he lends every effort to make 
it a success, lie has forty-two little home- 
less waifs, who are made ha[)py and com- 
fortable through the charitable and noble 
efforts of the Synod, and no one has done 
more to promote the welfare of the home 
than the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Solheim was married in October, 1889, 
to Guro L. Ullensvang, a native of Norway, 
who came to America when six year of age. 
Ijefore her marriage, she was for nine years 
an efficient teacher in the public schools of 
Illinois. They have two children: Olea S. 
and Laura. Mr. Solheim's mother is living 
with him, cheered in her declining years by 
the thoughtful care of her noble son. 

Mr. Solheim is engaged in a noble work 
and is justly entitled to the best wishes and 
esteem of his fellnw-men. 



-h^^i 



-^ 



>0,N. WILLETTS. MAIN, Deputy 
United States iMarshal for the western 
district of Wisconsin, was burn in Ed- 
meston, Otsego county. New York, August 
15, 1828. His father, Alfred Main, was bor^ 
in North Stonington, Connecticut, and his 
father, Laban Main, was born in the same 
place. Tile great-grandfather of our subject 
was also a native of the same place, but the 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



177 



great, great-grandfather was a native of Eng- 
land and came to America in colonial times. 
The grandfather of uur subject emigrated to 
Otsego county in 1814, and followed agricult- 
ural pursuits there for many years. lie then 
removed to Allegany county, where he spent 
the remainder of his days. The maiden name 
of his wife was I'olly Brown. The father of 
our subject was nine years old when his par- 
ents removed to Otsego county. There he 
was married at tlie age of eiirhteen, his wife 
being in her fifteenth year. In 1833, with his 
wife and three children, Mr. Main emigrated 
to Allegany county. They made the removal 
with teams, taking all their earthly posses- 
sions with tiiem. He purchased a tract of 
timber land and at once began to improve a 
farm. There was water power on the place 
and Mr. Main utilized it by building a saw- 
mill, which he operated in addition to his 
farming interests until 1846, when he sold 
and came to Wisconsin, making the renjoval 
by team to liSuffalo, thence by lake to Mil- 
waukee, thence with a team to Waukesha, 
where he remained until April, 1847, and 
then came to Madison. In 1850 he was elected 
Sheriff of Dane county, and served two years. 
During the war he was Clerk in the Quarter- 
master's Department, and after the war was 
over settled on his farm, four miles from the 
city, where he resided until his death, which 
occurred when he was seventy-seven years of 
age. The maiden name of his wife was Se- 
mantha Stillman, born in Otsego county. New 
York, daughter ot llev. Willett and Soviah 
(Noyes) Stillman. She died on the home farm, 
at the age of sixty-nine, after rearing five 
children as follows: Alexander H., Willett 
S., Amelia A., Fannie and Annie. 

Our subject was seventeen vears of age 
when he came to AVisconsin with his parents, 
in February, 1847, became to Madison, mak- 



ing his advent into the city on foot. At that 
time the capital city was a small village of 
about 500 people. He soon found employ- 
ment of various kinds, most of the time clerk- 
ing, until January 1, 1851, when he was ap- 
pointed Under Sheriff' and served in that ca- 
pacity for two years. In 1852 he was elected 
Shei'itF, and also served two years in that po- 
sition. At the expiration of his term of office 
he and his brother engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits and continued in the same until 1860, 
when he was again appointed Under Sheriff, 
and served two years, ami in 1862 was elected 
Sheriff in which capacity he sei'ved two years. 
The next two years he served as Under Sheriff" 
when again, in 1866, he was elected Sheriff 
for the third time. At the end of his term 
of office he was again made under Sheriff" and 
on January 1, 1871, he was appointed Chief 
Deputy United States Marshal, in which po- 
sition he served sixteen years. He then re- 
tired to his farm, where he engaged in agri- 
cultural pursuits. But he was not permitted 
to remain in obscurity, for in 189t) he was 
again called into public life to fill the position 
he had held four years before, that of Deputy 
United States Marshal, which position he still 
holds. Mr. Main has been a Republican since 
the formation of the party. He has served as 
a delegate to the different county, district and 
State conventions, and was elected to the State 
Senate, in 1888, representing Dane county 
for a period of four years. He is now presi- 
dent of the Monona Lake Assembly. 

<Jur subject was married in 1855, to Miss 
Eliza A. Jenison, a native of Indianapolis, 
daughter of Hon. Samuel and Melvina (Win- 
gate) Jenison. Mrs. Main died January 15, 
1866, and in June of the following year Mr. 
Main married Sophia L. Smith, born in Ro- 
chester, Windsor county, Vermont, daughter 
ofSamuelN. Smith and Lois Dickinson Will- 



178 



BIOGRAPHIOAL REVIEW OF 




iarus. Mr. Main has two sons by bis first 
marriage: riaiiiiiton W. and Frank J., who 
are engaged in business in Hastings, Ne- 
braska. By the second marriage there are 
four children: Susie, Annie, John and Lois. 
Mr. Main has been a member of the Baptist 
Church since he was twenty-one and has been 
a Trustee since 1852. 



SAJORCHAKLES GEORGE MAY- 
ERS, a popular citizen of Madison, 
Wisconsin, was born in Manches- 
ter, England, August 31, 1826, and grew 
np there and received iiis education in bis 
native place at both public and private schools. 
lie served his articles of apprenticeship in an 
accountant's office^ which was also the office of 
the secretary of the Royal Institution of 
Alanchester. AV^hile there he attended all of 
the lectures of the Institution. He then de- 
cidt!(i to come to this country, and took pas- 
sage early in the spring of 1848 from Liver- 
pool on the sailing ship Ivanlio, which landed 
him after some weeks' voyage in New York, 
and from there he came on up to Albany and 
then came across to the city of Buffalo and 
then around the lakes to Milwaukee. He 
canK^ thence overland in prairie schooner 
style and settled on eighty acres of land near 
Waunakee, in Dane county, a tract which ho 
had bought in England for twenty pounds 
without ever seeing it. He spent two years 
on this place and then came to what was then 
but a small village, but has now grown to the 
great metropolis. Soon after tliis he became 
the State Librarian and made the first cata- 
logue of the library. Later he was made as- 
sistant superintendent of Public Instruction 
of Wisconsin, and afterward Assistant Secre- 
tary of State under Charles D. Robinson. 



Later he became interested in buying and 
selling land and in 1857 he was elected City 
Clerk and held that office until 1861, when he 
enlisted in the Union army. He became 
Lieutenant and Quartermaster of the Eleventh 
Wisconsin Regiment Volunteer Infantry and 
did service for some time, being on the staff 
of General Canby. Ho was thus connected 
at the close of the war and was retained in 
that department until September 30, 1865, 
having been breveted Captain and Major 
March 24, 1865. Hisservice was in the Army 
of the Tennessee. 

Major Mayers witnessed many of the seri- 
ous engagements of the war, as Port Gibson, 
Vicksburg, Black River Bridge, Champion 
Hills and many others. He was neither hurt 
nor imprisone<l and was one of the staff of 
General Canby, at the capture of Spanish 
Fort and Fort Blakely and Mobile. Our sub- 
ject returned to his home in Madison, bought 
out a grocery house and was thus engaged for 
some time. During the reunion of the Army 
of the Tennessee at Toledo, in 1874, he wrote 
in particular a forty-three verse poem that 
was heartily received by all who lieard it, as 
it was tilled with loyal enthusiasm. He has 
published many poems, in various Chicago, 
Madison and eastern newspapers, also a small 
volume, entitled, "The Songs of Taychobera 
or, Romances of The Four Lakes,'' in which 
he tells the story of the origin of tiie names 
of the several lakes. He has written several 
dramas, the principal of which were, " Waves " 
and " The Three Crosses, " the former, pro- 
duced at Wallack's. was highly complimented 
by the* Tribune and other papers of New York 
city. He is not only an art critic, but a 
Shakesperian critic and has won laurels as an 
amateur actor and in such characters as Richi- 
lieu, Shylock, Werner, Sir Anthony Absolute 
and De Mauprat. He is director and one of 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



179 



the promoters of the Shakesperean club of 
Madison. He has been Assessor of the city 
of Madison for seventeen years and has been 
in the insurance and real-estate business for 
the same length of time. Mr. Mayers is a 
member of a numl)er of orders, was one of 
the organizers of the G. A. R. Post here, 
which was the first post organized in the 
United States, the date being June, 1866. 
He is Past Commander of the post, known 
now as C C Washburn, No. 11. lie is a 
member of the Wisconsin Commandery, 
Loyal Legion and is the oldest member and 
the oldest Past Master of the Madison Lodge, 
No. 5, A. F. & A. M. He has been for some 
years, and is at present Eminent Commander 
of the Commandery, Knights Templars, and is 
a sound Democrat in his politics. 

Mr. Mayers was married, in Manchester, 
England, to Miss Catherine Fitzgerald, a lady 
who has proven a true helpmate to him. The 
family residence is on Jenifer street, in view 
of Lake Monona. He attends the Unitarian 
Church. Six children have been added to the 
family, as follows: Maggie, who was educated 
in the University is the principal of the Sixth 
Ward school; Andrew A. is a grocery mer- 
chant at Madison; Emily A. was educated 
in the university, and is an artist, married; 
Julia F. is a well educated lady, married; 
Minnie, married and lives in Minneapolis; 
and Charles is in the Hartford Insurance 
business, with office in Chicago. 

Major Mayers has been many years com- 
modore of the Yacht Club. He is a member 
of the executive committee of the State His- 
torical society and is one of the oldest mem- 
bers of the far-famed Madison Literary Club. 
He is a companionable gentleman and one 
whom his friends delight to honor. 



-^^lyi/UO- 



<>~ 



q/irm^^ 



fOSEPH C. CANNON, of Dunkirk 
township, Dane county, Wisconsin, was 
"1^ born in Delaware township, Tompkins 
county, New York, December 12, 1828, a son 
of Joseph and Rachel (Huyck) Cannon, the 
former a native of Connecticut, and the lat- 
ter was born on the banks of the Susque- 
hanna river. When our subject was seven 
years of age, the parents came West, first 
locating in Chicago, in July, 1836, but re- 
mained there only a short time. In February, 
1837, they removed to Racine county, Wis- 
consin, and in the fall of 1843 Mr. Cannon 
and his brother came to Dane county, the re- 
mainder of the family coming the following 
year. They settled on section 24, Dunkirk 
township,while Wisconsin was yet a Territory. 
The father died September 28, 1850, and the 
mother July 23, 1846. They were the par- 
ents of seven children, of whom three are 
livincf: Mrs. E. E. Roberts, E. D. Cannon, a 
farmer now living in Cherokee!, Cherokee 
county, Iowa; and the subject of this sketch, 
who was the youngest child. 

Joseph C. Cannon was reared to farm life, 
and received only a limited education. He 
came to this county in early life, took the 
first load of books to the capital when the 
State was organized, and only a few of the 
settlers still survive who were then in the 
county. He immediately began improving 
a farm, and in February, 1859, went overland 
to California. He returned to this State the 
following year, resumingagricultural pursuits, 
and now owns two farms, (me of 238 acres, 
on sections 23 and 24, and ninety-eight acres, 
on sections 26 and 23. In his political views, 
Mr. Cannon affiliates with the Republican 
party, and his first vote was cast for Lincoln. 
He has held the office of Supervisor one year, 
was elected Postmaster of Hanerville, in 
1876, and has held other offices. 



180 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Mr. Cannon was married March 9, 1856, 
to Hannah M. Dickson, who was born in 
Franlvlin county, Oliio, February 25, 1832. a 
daugliter of Hiram and Elizabeth M. (Hay- 
ward) Dickson. Mrs. Cannon came to Wis- 
consin in June, 18-45. To this ntiion has 
been born five children, viz.: Charles H., of 
Los Angeles, California; Joseph H., of Dunn 
township, Dane county, Wisconsin; Alice E. 
and Mary E., both married and reside in 
Chicago; and Eva M., at home. Mrs. Can- 
non is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

(NDREW S. BROWN, is .Sheriff of Dane 
county, Wisconsin, where lie is widely 
and favorably known, having been born 
in Verona township, that county, April 3, 
1855. His parents were Alexander and 
Margaret (Smith) Brown, both natives of 
Fifeshire, Scotland, where they were married. 
His father was a rope- maker by trade, and 
emigrated with his family to America, in 
1842, making the voyage in a sailing vessel, 
which was eleven weeks on the way. Six 
months after their arrival in New York city, 
his father became superintendent of a rope- 
making establishment, which position he re- 
tained six years. In 1848 the family removed 
to Wisconsin, then the extreme frontier, and 
settled in Verona township, Dane county, 
where his father commenced farming. By 
industry and perseverance, he acquired a com- 
petence for his family, and enjoyed the es- 
teem of his community, because of his 
thorough integrity and uniform good nature. 
The subject of this sketch was reared on 
the home farm and attended the common 
schools of his locality. At the age of eighteen 
he came to Madison, where he was employed 



for some time by Mr. John La Mont, in sell- 
ing farming machinery. After this, he was 
head salesman ten years, for Mr. S. L. Shel- 
don. In January, 1892, he entered the em- 
ploy of the Fuller cfe Johnson Manufacturing 
Company, for whom he has continued to sell 
goods ever since. September 21, 1892, he 
was nominated Sheriff on the Democratic 
ticket, and was elected by a very large major- 
ity, emphasizing most thoroughly his popu- 
larity among his fellow-citizens. 

Mr. Brown was marrieii November 13, 
1877, to Katharine Mausbach, an intelligent 
lady and a native of Madison. They have 
three daughters: Iva, Agnes Edna and Mar- 
garet Alexandra. They reside in their at- 
tractive and comfortable home at the corner 
of east Johnson and Fen streets, where they 
are the center of a large circle of friends. 

Possessing intelligence and enterprise, 
thoroughly upright and holding the welfare 
of the community at heart, there is every 
reason to believe that Mr. Brown will make 
an efficient sheriff, discharging his duties 
with exemplary fidelity and judgment. 

EliMANN PFUND, a lawyer of Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, was liorn in llallau, 
canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland, Octo- 
ber 28, 1842. His parents were Conrad and 
Margaret (Berger) Pfund, also natives of 
Hallau, where the father was for several years 
principal of the public school, thereafter oc- 
cui)ying the same position at Schleitheim 
from 1843 to 1857. In March, 1857, this 
family left the latter place and emigrated to 
America. They came to La Crosse, AViscon- 
sin, near which place the father bought a farm, 
which he sold several years afterward, and 
removed to La Crosse, where he took up his 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



181 



former vocation again and coiitiaiied teaching 
there until his death, Novenber 11, 1891, the 
worthy wife and mother still living there. 
They had thirteen children, seven boys and 
six girls, of whom four sons and two daugh- 
ters died in infancy, and adult son dying sev- 
eral years ago. 

Hermann Pfund was the fourth cliild, and 
passed the tirst fourteen years of his life in 
his native land. He attended the elementary 
schools there, until he was eleven years of 
age, after which he entered the high school, 
where he remained three years longer, dur- 
ing wliich time he had private instructors in 
Latin and English, in addition to his other 
studies. He accompanied his parents to La 
Crosse, and worlied on the home farm during 
his minority. Being sufficiently well versed in 
the English language lie then secured a posi- 
tion as teacher in the county schools. He 
afterward conducted a school at Nauvoo, Illi- 
nois, wheie he went in 1866, remaining there 
three years, when, on account of ill health, 
he returned to his home in La Crosse. In 
1869 he was called to take charge, as princi- 
pal, of the schools at Alma, Uuflalo county, 
Wisconsin, where he continued teaching for 
five years, when his health again failed, and 
after a short rest, he commenced, in the spring 
of 1875, the study of law in Eau Claire, with 
Judge Ellis. In 1876 he entered the law 
department of the State University, at which 
he graduated the following year, 1877. Mr. 
Pfund shortly afterward, at Madison, Wis- 
consin, formed a partnership with F. E. Par- 
kinson, in the practice of law. Sometime 
later this union was dissolved, and H. M. 
Lewis, then United States District Attorney, 
became Mr. Pfund's partner, both continuing 
as partners about live years, when, in the 
spring of 1891, this partnership was also dis- 
solved l)y mutual consent, and ]\[r. Pfund 



now practices alone. He enjoys a good law 
practice, and is the only attorney in Dane 
county who attends to the settlement of es- 
tates and collection of claims in German 
speaking countries, as he is equally well 
versed in English and German. His busi- 
ness is divided between this and local prac- 
tice. 

Mr. Pfund was married P'ebruary 23, 1879, 
to Annie Scheibel, an intelligent lady, the 
only child of Fred Scheibel, of Madison, Wis- 
consin. The father died in the spring of 
1892, while the mother died when Mrs. Pfund 
was still in her girlhood. To this union have 
been born live children: August Herman, 
Helen, Adolf, Carl and Annie. 

Politically, Mr. Pfund has usually affiliated 
with the Republican party. In 1886 he was 
appointed Circuit Court Commissioner by 
Judge Alva Stewart, which office he still 
holds, having been reappointed by Judge Sie- 
becker upon the death of Judge Stewart. 
Religiously he is a member of the German 
Lutheran Church, and is one of the Trustees 
(_>f the congregation at Madison. 

fOHN A. ROSS, one of the pioneers of 
1845, is one of the prominent and sub- 
stantial farmers of Montrose township, 
residing on section 32. He was born in the 
town of Jerusalem, Yates county, ISew York, 
June 8, 1818, a son of John and Christie 
Ann Ross. The father was born in Edinboro, 
Scotland, and his parents were Hugh and 
Margaret (Allen) Ross. The family came to 
the United States in 1700 and settled in He- 
bron, Washington county, New York. Mr. 
Ross had been a merchant in Edinboro, there 
became wealthy and came to the United 
States in order to purchase farms for his sons. 



182 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



With tliis idea in view lie purchased con- 
siderable land in Wa.-^hington county. New 
Vork, although he himself removed to Gal- 
way, Saratoga county, New York, where both 
he and his wife died at the age of sixty-six. 
The grandparents of our sulyect had six chil- 
dren, as follows: James, a farmer, who died 
at Covington, New York; John, father of 
our subject; William, a merchant of New 
York city, who died at that place; Charles, 
engaged in farming on the old homestead in 
Saratoga, until the last years of his life, 
when he went to Illinois and died near Spoon 
river; Euphemia. married Gilbert Mitchel 
and resided in Johnstown, Montgomery 
county. New York, until her death; and 
Margaret, who married John McMillan, a 
merchant of New York city, where she died. 
All of the above reared families of their own 
and were in comfortable circumstances. The 
father of our subj'ect was born on New Year's 
day, 1769, a few months before the family 
came to the United States. He was reared 
on a farm and like his brothers was given a 
good education, and when he grew to man- 
hood his father presented him with a good 
farm in Saratoga county. New York. He 
was married in 1806, to ("hristie Ann Mitchel, 
a daughter of James and Mary Mitchel, born 
in Albany, New York, although her parents 
were natives of Scotland and had come to the 
United Slates on the same ship as Mr. Ross. 
Mr. Mitchel was also a wealthy merchant of 
Scotland and came to the United States to 
invest in land. The father of our subject, ten 
years after marriage, sold his property in 
Saratoga county and purchased 356 acres of 
land in Yates county, where he cleared 100 
acres of heavy timber. He was a hard work- 
ing man, very economical, and as time went 
on had one of the best farms in the township. 
It is locateil five miles froni Prnii Yan,atthe 



foot of Crooked lake, and to-day is valued at 
§300 an acre. He sold his farm in 1825, 
and improved a farm in Chautauqua county, 
but ten years later removed to Livingston 
county. New York, whence, in 1845, became 
west and died at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. At 
this time he was seventy-six years of age. 
The mother of our subject died in Dane 
county, October 17, 1871, aged ninety-two. 
The whole family were taken sick with ship 
fever on the journey to Wisconsin from New 
York, and it was from this disease that the 
father died in Milwaukee. The family con- 
sisted of six children, as follows: Margaret, 
married John Webb and resided in Dane 
county, but died in Minnesota; Charles, was 
a farmer of Dane county until his death; 
Daniel, became quite a traveler and finally 
died in Caliiornia; James, was a boot and 
shoe merchant in York, Livingston county. 
New York, and finally died there; our sub- 
ject; William, died young; and Elizabeth, 
died in early life, soon after the family came 
West. The parents of our subject were mem- 
bers of the Reformed Presbyterian Church. 
Our subject resided with his parents until 
he grew to manhood, and then engaged in 
the boot and shoe business with his brother 
James before coming West, and there made 
considerable money. After coming to Wis- 
consin he improved a good farm in Verona 
township. In 1858 he was married to Miss 
Catherine Martin, a daughter of Peter and 
Janette (Davidson) Martin. She was born 
in Perthshire, Scotland, November 1, 1832. 
The family came to the United States in 
1841 and settled on a fai-m in Dane county, 
where Mr. Martin purchased 240 acres of 
land and carried on farming as he had done 
in Scotland. Both Mr. and Mrs. Martin died 
in Dane county, aged seventy-six and sixty 
years, respectively. They had a family of 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



183 



three children, namely: Catherine; Jessie A., 
who died in early lite; and Patrick, who was 
a farmer of Verona township, where he died. 
In religion they were all Presliyterians. 
After marriage onr subject continued to re- 
side in Verona township until 1859, when he 
traded for the property where he now resides. 
He owns 500 acres of land and engages in 
stock-raising, also deals in live-stock, keep- 
ing up a superior grade. lie erected a 
stone residence and several good barns, and 
his beautiful erounds are tilled with orna- 
mental trees. He has made of this place no 
only an excellent stock farm, but one of the 
most attractive homes in Dane county. Mr. 
and Mrs. Ross have had seven children, as 
follows: John M., who died in chihlhood; 
AVilliam L., a traveling salesman; James, 
Henry, Emily and Cora, at home; and Ed- 
win, who is working on a farm in Minnesota. 
In religion, Mr. Ross still clings to the 
views of the Covenanter. He was reared in 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and on 
account of these views he has not united with 
the General Assembly Church, but as some 
members of his family are Presbyterians he is 
a liberal supporter of the church at Belleville, 
nad was the principal contributor toward the 
church edifice. Mrs. Ross is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church, and is a lady of taste and 
refinement, most highly esteemed in the 
community. Probably on her account Mr. 
Ross has taken such a prominent part in 
assisting the church at Belleville, although, as 
above stated, he cannot consistently unite 
with it. He is an honest, upright man, but 
has never been willing to accept public office, 
as he felt that he could not bear blame when 
he knew that he was doing right. For this 
reason, although his party, the Republican, 
has elected him to local office, he has never 
consented to qualify. 



fORGRIM OLSON, one' of the lea.ling 
merchants of Madison, is located at No. 
23 South Pickney street, under the firm 
name of ( )lson & Veerhusen and carries on a 
large and flourishing business. This firm 
deals in gentlemen's furnishing goo«ls, hats, 
caps and also do a general tailoring business. 
Mr. Olson has been a resident of the capital 
city since 1861 and has made his way up from 
a bench tailor to his present position. After 
his arrival in Madison Mr. Olson was engaged 
at his trade until 18(55, when at that time lie 
engaged in business for himself, un<ler the 
firm name of Jones & Olson, wliich continued 
about a year when Mr. Jones sold his interest 
to a Mr. Sauthoff", the firm being Sauthofl" & 
Olson. Tliis firm continued until about 1875 
when Mr. Olson sold his interest to his ]>art- 
ner and became the manager of the merchant 
tailor establishment of Mr. Friend, of Madi- 
son, remaining with him for eighteen months, 
when Messrs. Olson, Winden & Co. bought 
the business of Mr. Friend, and have since 
been interested together, the company being 
Veerhusen, and for seventeen years the firm 
has been one of the leading tailoring estab- 
lishments of the entire city. They have es- 
tablished a reputation for good work and their 
trade is so large that a couple of clerks and 
two cutters are needed all the time. 

Our subject was born near Christiania, 
Norway, January 9, 1838. He lost his mother 
when ten years of age and grew to manhood 
in his native place without her tender care. 
Mr. Olson was not the first of the family to 
cross the ocean, as a brother, Knudt, crossed 
the water in the early '50s. He is now a 
successful farmer in Minnesota. Mr. Olson, 
our subject, early learned the trade that was 
to prove of so much benefit to him, and wished 
to have a broader field to exercise it in, so 
when his father, brotiier and sister decided to 



184 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



join the brotlier in tiie new world, Torgrim 
came along and the family landeil on tlie St. 
Lawrence, sixty-one miles from Quebec, from 
which place they made their way to Wisconsin. 
Knudt had settled in Vermont, Dane county, 
Wisconsin, and with this son the father made 
his home for many years and then came to 
Madison, where he remained with our subject 
until his death, which occurred November, 
1892, when he was aged eighty-four. He 
bore the name of Ole Torgriinson and was a 
good and worthy pioneer of Wisconsin. He 
and his wife were life-long members of the 
Lutheran Church. The other two children, 
Ole and Mary, who came to the United States 
witii the father, are yet living and both are 
farmers of Griggs county. North Dakota. 

Our subject was married in Madison to 
Miss Karen Hendrickson, born in Norway. 
Her parents died when she was young and 
she was brought to this country with a sister 
and brother, the young people coming direct 
to Dane county, Wisconsin. The l)rutlier la- 
ter died in Mitchell county, Iowa, where the 
sister still resides, being married and sur- 
rounded by a family. Mr. and Mrs. Olson 
are among the leading people of their county 
and city. For many years they have l)een 
firm members of the Lutheran Church. Mr. 
Olson is a sound Republican in jjolitics, but 
does not lower his political intluence in seek- 
ing for office. He and his wife are the par- 
ents of two children, both now deceased, 
Henry dying when fifteen years of age, a 
bright, promising lad and Gijda was taken 
away by death when only four years of age. 



kROF. JULIUS E. OLSON. — lulius 
Emil Olson was born in Cambridge, 
Dane county, AVisconsin, November 9, 
1858. His parents are Norwegians, who 



came to Cambridge, August 12, 1852. His 
father, Hans Olson, was born on a farm in 
the parish of Norby, a few miles south of 
Christiania, Norway, on the 20th of March, 
1817. Both of the latter's parents were born 
in the same jiarish. During his youth the 
father worked on a farm and at intervals 
learned the shoemakers' trade, in which he 
perfected himself in Christiania. On the 3d 
of November, he married Karen Mikkelsdat- 
ter Fjeld, who was born February 2, 181(5, 
in the East Liniii annex of the parish land, 
near the head of the Rauds Fjord, about 100 
miles northwest of Christiania. Her father 
was a country tailor. When about eighteen 
years of age she went to Christiania to serve, 
where she found a pleasant and comfortable 
home with the widow of a university pro- 
fessor. Madam Steenersen. This lady spent 
her summers on a large estate (Orager) near 
the city, which had once belonged to the 
famous Count Wedel Jarlsberg. This estate 
was worked by Professor Olson's grandfather, 
and it was here that his parents first met. 
On this estate they lived the first two and u 
half years of their married life. After this 
they lived on various farms in the vicinity 
of Christiania, until in the spring of 1852, 
when they sold their small stock of cattle and 
household goods and prepared to emigrate to 
America, the land of promise, whither thou- 
sands of their countrymen had gone before. 
They had six children and the undertaking 
was no small one. They left Christiania 
about May 10, on a sailing vessel, landing in 
Quebec after a voyage of fifty-three days. 
From Quebec they proceeded to Milwaukee, 
where they engaged a team and wagon to 
take them to Cam bridge, at which place the 
father soon obtained work as a shoemaker. 
He was an excellent workman and in the 
course of a few months began business for 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN, 



185 



himself. He was very successful, but in 
1874 he was forced to give np his work on 
account of ill iiealth. At this time his ten 
children were all ahle to provide for them- 
selves. In 1881 his health was completely 
restored and he is now (1892) enjoying the 
fruits of his days of toil. On the 5th of Oc- 
tober Prof. Olson's parents celelirated their 
golden weddincr, on which occasion the ten 
children were present. Prof. Olson has eitrht 
sisters and one brother, whose names are as 
follows: Mina, the widow of John Hanson, 
still resides in Cambridge; Olina, the wife of 
Sever Rasmusson, of Stougiiton, Wisconsin; 
Cecilia, the wife of Rev. M. F. Wiese, of 
Utica, Wisconsin; Bertha Karina, the wife 
of Prof. Rasums B. Anderson, of Madison, 
Wisconsin; Herman V., of Rushford, Min- 
nesota; Annette, the wife of Rev. E. P. Jen- 
sen, of Spring Grove, Minnesota: Mary, tlie 
wife of Rev. Abel Anderson, of Montevideo, 
Minnesota; Clara, the wife of Ur. Albert C. 
Amundson, of Cambridge, Wisconsin; and 
Tilla Josephine, who lives at home with her 
parents. 

Before his fourteenth year Prof. Olson at- 
tended school regularly, working on a farm 
durintr the harvest season. Duriiic thesuni- 
mer of 1873 he worked in the drug store of 
Mr. Thomas C. Siagg, of Cambridge. The 
following fall and winter was spent at the 
village school, and in preparing for his con- 
firmation in the Norwegian Lutheran Church, 
which took place May 22, 1873. 

Prof. Olson's father had given him all tiie 
advantages that the public and private schools 
of Cambridge offered, but he could not afford 
to give him a college education, and so the 
young man started out to make iiis own way 
through college, having been encouraged to 
do so by his brother-in-law. Professor Ander- 
son, who was at that time an instructor in 



the University of Wisconsin. I?ut some 
fuTids were necessary, and so he left home 
in August, 1873, having obtained a situation 
in the general store of Isham & Hale, of 
Stoughton, Wisconsin, where he spent ten 
months, saving about $100 of his earnings. 
On September 7, 1874, he entered the Mad- 
ison High School, where he continued until 
Noveml)er 8, 1875, when he began teaching 
a district school near Madison. He spent 
the following spring term at the high school, 
and in the fall term of 187(3 he was admitted 
to the second year of the preparatory depart- 
ment of the (Jniversity of Wisconsin. Five 
months of this school year were spent teach- 
ing in the country, during which time he 
also kept u|) his university studies. In the 
fall of 1877 he entered the Freshman class, 
modern classical course, of the same institu- 
tion. i\fter having completed his Freshman 
year he was principal of the school of liis 
native village for three years, at the end of 
which time he returned to the University 
and graduated with honors in 1884. Durino- 
his senior year, after the resignation of Prof. 
Rasmus B. Anderson, he taught a class in 
Old Norse. The same year he studied Old 
Norse with a native Icelandic scholar. Wliile 
a student in the high school and in the 
university. Prof. Olson lived with Prof. 
Anderson, enjoying the advantages of his 
excellent Scandinavian library and the liter- 
ary atmosphere of his home. Here he iiad 
learned to love Scandinavian literature, and 
while in college he lost no op|»ortiinity to 
speak to his fellow-students on Scandinavian 
subjects. In June, 1884, upon the recom- 
mendation of President John Bascom, lie was 
appointed instructor in the Scandinavian 
lanifuages and German. In 1887 he was 
niade assistant professor, and in .lune. 1892, 
the Board of liegents elected him professor 



186 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



of Scandinavian languages and literature. 
For liis profession as a teacher Mr. Olson is 
peculiarly well equipped. lie possesses a 
thorough knowledge of his suliject and pre- 
sents it to his students with enthusiasm and 
clearness. His zeal is itispiring and he also 
has the faculty of giving all necessary atten- 
tion to details. His own devotion and in- 
dustry begets a similar spirit among his stu- 
dents. From the very outset ho took rank 
as one of the successful teachers in the uni- 
versity. 

Prof. Olson has also done a great deal of 
valuable literary work, particularly in his 
chosen field of Scandinavian literature. Be- 
sides a number of valuable original essays, 
written for the press and for literary soci- 
eties, he is known throughout the country for 
his excellent translation of Lauridsen's His- 
tory of Vitus Bering and his great geograph- 
ical expedition, a book which has already 
taken rank as the standard work on the dis- 
coverer of Bering strait. 

As a speaker and lecturer Prof. Olson is 
clear, entertaining, instructive and forcible. 
In his university extension lectures he has 
discussed early Scandinavian subjects and 
given particular attention to the question of 
the original home of the Aryan race, showing 
by an array of scientific arguments that it 
must be looked for on the shores of the 
i>altic. rather than in Asia. His lectures 
in Milwaukee during the winter of 1891-'92 
were especially successful. His orations on 
the 4th of July and 17th of May arc brilliant 
and he speaks with equal fluency in English 
and in Norse. As a teacher, writer ami 
e])eaker he has already achieved a reputation 
of which older men ought to be proud. 



^ENRY D. HANSON, editor of the 
Oregon Observer, at Oregon, Wiscon- 
sin, was born in Dunkirk township, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, April 18, I8t)2, son 
of Henry D. and Sarah (P^illinghani) Han- 
son, residents of the town of Dunkirk. Our 
subject was reared on the farm and received 
his education in the district schools and Mil- 
ton College. At the age of twenty-one he left 
the farm and engaged in clerkirj;; in a store in 
Stoughton until March, 188-i, when he came 
to Oregon and purchased an interest in the 
Oregon Observer, and learned the business 
from " devil " to editor. In July, 1885, 
he became sole proprietor of the paper, since 
conducting it as an independent paper devoted 
to the interests of Oregon and vicinity. It 
is an eight-column folio, and is now in the 
twelfth year of its existence. The office is 
well equipped with good presses and steam 
power. He is a member of the M. W. A. 
and I. O. O. F., being an active member of 
each. In politics he is a Republican, and is 
actively interested in the welfare of the 
party. He has served as clerk of the Village 
Board, and is now Treasurer of that same 
body. 

Our subject comes of a good stock, his 
father being a native of Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, where he was born, May 21, 1830. He 
was reared a farmer, and remained at liome 
until he attained his majority, when he started 
for the United States, landing in New York 
upon the day he was twenty-one. From that 
city he proceeded to Buffalo, New York, 
where he was joined by his parents, Richard 
and Sophie Hanson, and the following 
brothers and sisters, eight in numiier: John, 
who died in Chicago; Phcebe, wife of John 
Barnum, died in New York; William, who 
resides in Wellington, Ohio; Joseph, who re- 
sides in Dane county; Eliza, wife of George 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



187 



Spike, of Dane county; Richard, who resides 
at Fort Wayne, Indiana; Edward, who re- 
sides in Cliicago, and Elizabetli, who resides 
in Chicago, having married a Mr. Sanners. 
Tlie grandfather of our subject died in Buf- 
falo, New York, of cholera. In 1852 the 
father of our subject came to Wisconsin, 
settling in Beloit, where he married Miss 
Sarah Fillingham, who was born in Cam- 
bridgeshire, England, May 11, 1834. They 
resided near Beloit until about 1856, and then 
settled in the town of Dunkirk, Dane county, 
where he is still engaged in farming, being 
reckoned as one of the old settlers. The 
parents of our subject had eight children: 
Helen, wife of Jewett Sherman, of Lyle, 
Minnesota; Eliza, married Frank Walker, 
and died in Fulton, Kock county, Wisconsin; 
Belle, married L. D. Webb, and resides near 
Stoughton; Sarah, wife of Edward Stanley, 
of Lyle, Minnesota; Emma, Edward and 
William. The parents of our subject are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Mr. Hanson is a live business man, fully 
alive to the interests of his town, where he 
enjoys the respect and esteem of all who 
know him. He is a good editorial writer 
and local reporter, and his little sheet is 
newsy and entertaining, and its circulation 
is steadily increasing. 



|||ALPH C. VERNON, of Madison, Wis- 
consin, was born in Middleton, Dane 
county, this State, January 3(.), 1859. 
His parents were Daniel and Mary Ann 
(Goodwin) Vernon, natives, respectively, of 
Lancashire and Derbyshire, England. The 
father died before the subject of this sketch 
was twenty years of age, l>nt the devoted 
nlother still resides in Madison where she ig 



an object of tender solicitude by her surviving 
children. This worthy couple were the par- 
ents of fourteen children, ten sons and four 
daughters, two of the former being now de- 
ceased. 

Ralph C. Vernon was the eighth child, and 
received a limited education, he and his brother 
Joseph attending school only during each 
alternate vvinter. This meager foundation 
was supplemented by a term in business col- 
lege at Madison when he was seventeen vears 
of age; and further augmented by two 
terms in the high school in 1877. 

Wliile yet under twenty years of age, he en- 
gaged in buying live stock, in which business 
he has been more oi" less extensively engaged 
ever since. He was for a long time alone, 
but in March, 1879, he formed a partnership 
with Richard Green, with whom he was suc- 
cessfully and largely engaged. In 1883 Mr. 
Vernon formed a partnership with M. F. Van 
Norman, of Middleton township, with whom 
he continued until December, 1886, during 
which time he probably bought and sold moie 
live stock than any other person in his 
vicinity. 

It was then that his public career com- 
menced, being appointed Deputy Sheriff by 
Hon. John M. Estes, in 1887, which position 
he lield one term. In 1888 he was elected 
Sheriff by the Republican party, at which 
time he received a majority of 917 votes, 
that being 500 ahead of his ticket. He dis- 
charged the duties of this position for one 
term, and since that time has been engaged 
in the real-estate business; at tirst alone, but 
in 1891 he formed a partnership with Hon. 
II. C. Adams, with whom he has since con- 
tinued. Mr. Vernon was, and still is, a mem- 
ber of the Drainage Commission, having 
charge of the draining of the lakes around 
Madison. Socially he belongs to tlie An- 



188 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



dent Order of United 'Workmen, of the Red- 
men, the Woodmen, and is actively identified 
with the Freemasons. 

He was married February 5, 1880, to 
Emma E. Gordon, an estimable lady, born 
and reared in Middleton township, Dane 
county, this State, and daughter of James O. 
Gordon, a well-known citizen of Madison. 
They have one child, Jennie E., aged seven 
years. The devoted wife and mother de- 
parted this life November 16, 1890, leaving 
an aching void which time can never repair. 



t,()N. WILLAKD II. CHANDLEK.— 

The subject of the present sketch is 
one of the most prominent men in this 
part of the State of Wisconsin. He is now 
a resident of Burke township, where he has 
repeatedly served his fellow-citizens in offices 
of responsibility and trust. 

Mr. Chandler was born in Brattleboro, 
Vermont, November 1, 1830. His father, 
Kayn)ond Chandler, was born in New Eng- 
land. (See genealogy of the Chandler family.) 

The father of our subject learned the trade 
of carpenter, and followed that trade and 
also that of cabinet-maker in Brattleboro, 
where he resided until 1862. At that date 
lie came to Wisconsin, and died at the home 
of our subject. The maiden name of the 
mother of our subject was Harriet Wellman. 
She was born in Hinsdale, New Hainjishire, 
and spent her last years at the home of Mr. 
Chandler. 

Our subject was reared and educated in 
his native city, where he attended the first 
graded school started in that State. In his 
fifteenth year he entered the office of the 
Vermont PIulmux, and learned the art pre- 
eervative, where he served an apprentice.siiip 



for four years. He filled every position in 
that office from printer's -'devil " to editor, 
and remained there, with the exception of a 
short interval when he was in ill health, 
until 1854, when he came to Wisconsin. He 
stopped near Delavan for the space of one 
year, then came to Dane county, and ])ur- 
chased a tract of wild land in the town of 
Windsor, and at once began the task of im- 
proving the farm. xVt this place he resided 
until 1868, when he sold out and removed to 
Sun I'rairie, and resided there until 1880, 
when he removed to the farm where he now 
resides, in Burke township. 

The marriage of our subject took place 
February 14, 1854, to Miss Lucinda J. Well- 
man. She was born in Hinsdale, New 
Hampshire, and was the daughter of Harry 
and Betsey Wellman, and they have one 
daughter, Frances A., who is the wife of 
George E. Thomjison. 

Mr. Chandler has filled with honor, many 
offices of trust; has sei'ved as Supervisor and 
Town Superintendent of Schools, and he 
served five years as County Superintendent 
of Schools. For twenty-two years he was a 
member of the Board of Regents of the 
normal school. In 1860 he was elected a 
member of the Assembly, re-elected in 1861, 
elected to the Senate in 1862-'64, re-elected to 
tiie Senate for 1865-'66, and was President 
pro ten) of that body for the last two years 
mentioned; ami to the Assembly again in 
1870. As a member of the House he voted 
for two United States Senators, Howe and 
Doolittle. For nine years, 1882-'91, he held 
the office of Assistant State Superintendent, 
and in 1892 was the candidate of his party 
tor State Superintendent, but was defeated 
with the general ticket. 

He is a man of real force of character, and 
has the confidence of the entire people. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



IHO 



Both he and his wife are consistent members 
of tlie Congregational Chnrch, liighly et;- 
teemed by the community. 

Mr. Chandler has not yet finished his pub- 
lic career. The people of his section cannot 
afford to part with such a useful and able 
representative. 

ALLE STEENSLAND is one of the 
foremost representatives in this coun- 
try of the Norse citizens who ha\'e 
played such a conspicuous part in the 
upbuilding of the noble commonwealth of 
Wisconsin. He has been for many years one of 
the leading business men of the capital city, 
and has contributed largely to its material 
prosperity by his energy and financial ability. 
Mr. Steensland was born June 4, 1832, his 
birthplace being Sandeid, near Stavanger, 
Norway. His father, Halle H. Steensland, 
was a farmer, and served as a non-commis- 
sioned officer in the regular army of that 
country for more than a quarter of a century. 
He died in the land of his nativity, when past 
sixty years of age. His mother's name was 
Ingeborg Knudsdatter, who came of a long- 
lived family, one of her sisters is now (1892) 
living at the age of ninety-nine years. She 
came to this country after her husband's 
death, together with lier two other and 
younger sons, Knud and Thor, and had her 
home most of the time with her son Halle, 
until her death some twenty years ago. 

The means of his parents being quite lim- 
ited, Mr. Steensland left the parental roof 
when about twelve years of age to shift for 
himself, and earned his living at first by farm 
work, but being averse to that kind of occu- 
pation and tiiere being but little promise of 
betterment, he obtained a situation as clerk 



for a tnerchant in Stavanger. Ambitious^ 
however, to make something of his life, he 
wisely thought that the great Republic across 
the sea, whose waves beat against the shores 
of his native land, offered him a wider 
field of action than his own country, and he 
determined to brave the unknown trials and 
hardships of emigration that he might find 
for himself a home in the United States of 
America. Accordingly in 1854, when a lit- 
tle past his majority, he set sail for the land 
of promise, and arrived in Chicago with less 
than ten dollars in his pocket, the remainder 
of a gift from his last employer in Norway. 

He came to Wisconsin in the fall of 1854 
and has been a resident of Madison since the 
spring of 1855. After clerking in a store 
for some years he, with a partner, engaged in 
business for himself. After five years he 
became sole owner and continued in mer- 
cantile business until 1871, when he wag 
induced to enter upon a new enterprise, the 
organization of the Hekla Fire Insurance Co. 
He was elected its first secretary and acted 
in that capacity for over ten years. He was 
also treasurer of the concern during the 
whole period of over eighteen years that he 
was connected with it, and was its president 
for the last few years. The company was 
started with a nominal paid-up capital of 
$25,000, and its affairs were so well managed 
by Mr. Steensland, and his fellow-officers 
tliEit in 1889 the con^pany's assests amounted 
to nearly half a million dollars, but on ac- 
count of sijme differences of opinion, as to its 
future management, it was transferred to 
other parties at a good jireniium. 

Immediately after this transfer of the 
"Hekla," Mr. Steensland organized the Sav- 
ings Loan and Trust Company of Mailison, 
with a paid-up capital of $100,000, and in 
less than three years the assests have increased 



1!)0 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



to over $375,000. Mr. Steensland is presi- 
dent and treasurer, liis son, E. B. Steensland, 
secretary, and X. 13. Van Slyke, pre.sident of 
tiie First National Bank, is the company's 
vice-president. 

Mr. Steensland brought to his new ])Osi- 
tion a splendid ei^uipnient as a trained busi- 
ness man of clear brain and keen foresight, 
of wide experience in finances and of marked 
executive ability, and under his guiding hand 
tlie company is doing a large and constantly 
increasing business, and occupies a high i)lace 
in monetary circles, its reputation for sta- 
bility and sound conservative business 
methods making it a potent factor in devel- 
oping the interests of the city and State 

Mr. Steensland was married in Madison 
to Miss Soj)hia Halvorsdater in 1857, and 
theirs is one of the attractive homes of the 
city, wherein are found true comfort and 
a gracious, never-failing hospitality. Mrs. 
Steensland was born in tlie central part of 
Norway an<i came to this country when eight 
years old. With her housewifely quali- 
ties she has been a worthy helpmeet to her 
husband in acquiring a competence. 

Mr. and Mrs. Steensland are the parents of 
six children, five sons and a daughter, Helen 
A. living at home. The sons are: Ilenry 
H., at home; Edward P.., above mentioned, 
married to Sophia, daughter of Hon. L. K. 
Waker, of Minnesota; Mortem M., a student 
at the Lutheran Theological Seminary at 
Philadelphia, member of the class of '93; 
Ilalbert S., student at the State University, 
class '95; and Emil A., thirteen years old; 
Edward B. and Helen are graduates of the 
State University and Mortem M. of the Luth- 
eran College, Decorah, Iowa. 

Politically, Mr. Steensland lias always been 
identified witii the Republican party, inter- 
ested himself particularly in the campaign of 



Fremont and Lincoln, and took an active 
part in the Blaine campaign of 1884. He 
has had some political aspii-ations, and has 
several times been mentioned in connec- 
tion with the nomination for one of the 
higher state offices, but has apparently been 
more successful in business than in politics, 
due perhaps to the fact that he has never be- 
come affiliated with the political managers of 
his party and has considered it incompatible 
witii good citizenship to engage in political 
manipulation. 

In 1872 Mr. Steensland was appointed to 
the ofiSce of Vice-Consul in Wisconsin for 
Sweden and Norway, and he has filled the posi- 
tion vvith tact and to the entire satisfaction of 
the governments he represents. Mr. Steens- 
land has traveled extensively in this country 
and in Europe. He has twice re visited 
his native country, the last time in 1889. 
AVHiile in Norway at that time he had a long 
and pleasant interview with King Oscar, who 
gave him a very cordial reception, and whom 
lie found to be very genial and agreeable. 
The king, as a special mark of esteem, pre- 
sented him with his picture and autograjjh. 

Mr. Steensland and family are members of 
the Lutheran Church. He takes an active 
prominent part in Church and school matters. 

From the above it will be seen that Mr. 
Steensland, notwithstanding the limited 
advantatres he had in his early life as to edii- 
cation and opportunities for advancement, 
has succeeded, not only in acquiring a com- 
petency, l>ut has built up for liimself a rep- 
utation as a business man second to none. 
As a busine.-s man his brusqueness may 
sometimes be misunderstood, but those who 
know him best and gain his confidence find 
in him a true friend and valuable coimselor. 



DA^E COLT NTT, WISCONSIN. 



191 



!REDERIC KING CONOVER, son of 
0. M. Conover and Julia (Darst) Con- 
over, was born in Madison, Wisconsin, 
Feliruary 17, 1857. The fatlier was a pro- 
fessor in the university at tliat time, and as 
was then the custom, lived with his family in 
that one of the university buildings which 
is now known as South Hall, so that the son 
had the advantage of entering the world and 
university at tlie same time. After receiving 
his preliminary training in both the public 
and private schools of the city, he again en- 
tered the university and was graduated in 
the class of 1878, with the degree of A. B. 
He won at that time the Lewis prize for the 
best commencement oration. He was ofJ'ered 
the position of instructor in Latin in the 
university, but declined it liecause he wished 
to begin at once his professional studies. He 
entered the law ofHce of Judge J. H. Carpen- 
ter, in Madison, and was employed upon the 
work of the publication of the Revised Stat- 
utes of 1878. In the autumn of that year 
he entered the law department of the uni- 
versity, from wliich he was gi'aduated in 1880 
with the degree of LL.B. He had previously, 
in November, 1879, been admitted to the bar, 
upon examination. From 1880 to 1884 Mr. 
Conover jiracticeil law in Madison. During 
the absence of his father, in Europe, begin- 
ning in September, 1882, and until the death 
of the latter in London, in 1884, he performed 
the duties of Supreme Court Reporter, edit- 
ing volumes 55 to 58, inclusive, of the Wis- 
consin Reports. 

In April, 1884, he was appointed Supreme 
Court Reporter, and has held that office ever 
since. Since his appointment volumes 59 
to 82, inclusive, have appeared, and it is 
said by competent judges, that in com- 
pleteness, accuracy and promptness of is- 
sue, the Wisconsin Reports are unexcelled. 



Since 1885 Mr. Conover has been one of tlie 
directors of the Madison free library, which 
contains 13,000 volumes and has an annual 
circulation of about 40,000. He is a life- 
meinl>er of the State Historical Society; was 
one of the incorporators, and afterward, at 
different times secretary and vice-president 
of the Madison Club, now called the Madi- 
son Business Club; has been treasurer of the 
Madison Civil Service Reform Association 
since its organization in 1882, and is a mem- 
ber of the Madison Literary Club, which has 
monthly meetings, and also of other local 
organizations. He is Counselor of the 
American Institute of Civics, and a member 
of the Holland Society of New York, which 
is composed of direct descendants in the niale 
line of Dutchmen, who were natives or resi- 
dents of the American colonies, prior to the 
year 1675. 

Mr. Conover was married, in June 1891, 
to Miss C race Clark, daughter of Darwin and 
Frances (Adams) Clark. Mrs. Coiiover grad- 
uated from the university in 1885, and from 
1885 to 1888, and again from 1890 to 1891, 
after a year of study in the College de France, 
Faris, was Instructoress of French in the 
university. Mr. and Mrs. Conover have one 
son, Frederic Lo Roy, born in July, 1892. 



^ 



^ 



f(3HN LAPPLEY, one of the leading 
farmers of Dane county, Wisconsin, was 
born in Germany in 1825, a son of Law- 
rence and Ileinreika (Shrade) Lappley, na- 
tives also of that country. The father fol- 
lowed the shoemakers' trade all his life in 
Germany, where he died A])ril 22, 188S, at 
the age of eighty-eight years. The mother 
also died there in her seventy-fourth year. 
They were the parents of fourteen children, 



192 



BWGRAPniCAL REVIEW OF 



four of whom grew to years of maturity, one 
son and three daughters. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject, Melchior Lappley. was 
also a native of Germany, a baker by trade, 
was twice married and the father of seven 
sons and five daughters. He lived to the age 
of eighty years, and at his death left a fine 
estate. 

John J^appley, the subject of this sketch, 
received a eood education in his native coun- 
try. From the age of twenty-one to twenty- 
seven years he was in the employ of the Ger- 
man service, receiving three cents per day, and 
three centsfor rations. During this six years he 
was three years at home, witiiout pay, and 
this was compulsory by the German law. In 
the spring of 1852, at the age of twenty-seven 
years, he sailed from flavre, France, on the 
St. Georire, landinsj in New York after a 
voyage of thirty-four days, and with eight 
French dollars. He soon found eni])loynient 
at his trade, for $4 per month, but failed to 
receive his wages, and afterward began work 
at $9 per month. After spending one year 
in New York, Mr. Lappley worked in the 
lumber regions of Tioga county, Pennsylva- 
nia, three months; was employed in the piner- 
ies fourteen months, at $16 per month, and 
then worked at his trade in New York city 
for A 12 per month. He was a tine workman, 
and could make one pair of boots a day, often 
working sixteen hours per day. In April, 
1855, he came to Wisconsin, where he was 
employed in the construction of a railroad in 
Madison a sliort time, farmed on the Indian 
reservation in Roxbury township ten years, 
erected a log house, which was ilestroyed by 
fire one mdiitli afterward, with all their house- 
hold effects, and no insurance. He then 
erected anotlierdwelling, and purchased eighty 
acres of land, fifty acres of which was culti- 
vated. .Mr. l.appley then had $200 in money 



and his stock, and out of this he was obliged 
to pay §100 court expenses, which was a roli- 
bing scheme. He next rented sixty acres of 
land in Berry township, one year, then pur- 
chased 100 acres, for which he paid $1,500, 
a few years later added twenty acres more, 
paying §190 for the latter, and still later 
bought forty acres more for $450, making 
him 160 acres of land. In 1881 he sold that 
place and purchased his present home of 340 
acres, paying $3,500. In 1885 he erected his 
line large barn, 40x62 feet, with twenty- 
four foot posts, and a basement of solid stone 
masonry, where he can stable forty head of 
cattle and fourteen horses. This building 
was erected at a cost of $1,200, and in which 
can be stored more than 150 tons of hay. 
Mr. Lappley is engaged in general farming 
and stock-growing. He keeps from twenty 
to forty head of horned cattle, about twelve 
horses, and a small flock of sheep, and raises 
about forty hogs. 

He was married in New York city, .lune 
15, 1854, to Miss Anna M. S. Schmidt, who 
came from Germany, her native land, to 
America the same year. They have ten liv- 
ing children, as follows: Louisa, wife of 
George W. Hall, a miiierof California; John, 
a mechanic of ^liddleton, Wisconsin; Henry, 
a jeweler and watchmaker of Mazomanie; 
aviary, wife of James H. Froggart, a farmer 
of this township, and they have one daugh- 
ter; William, at home; Charles, a eontra(!ti>r 
and builder ot South Milwaukee; Christian, 
aged twenty-five years, works on the home 
farm; Caroline, at home; Frederick at home; 
and Alice, who resides with her sister, Mrs. 
Froggart. One daughter, Annie, died May 
26, 1873, at the age of eight montiis. .Mr. 
Laj)pley is a Republican in his political 
views, and religiously the family are mem- 
bers of the Lutheran Church. 



DANE CUUNTT, W1.SGVNS1N. 



193 



ir^f- C. LUTHER. — During the past twenty- 
six years our subject has been in the 
^® employ of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad, and for twenty-two years of that 
time has tilled that most responsible and too 
little appreciated position of engineer of pas- 
senger trains. In this period he has liorne 
tens and tens of thousands of people in safety 
on their journeys to and fro; scarcely one 
thinking of him or knowing his name, yet 
upon him has been the burden of them all. 
Those who do know him feel secure when on 
his train, knowing how skilled, careful and 
conscientious he is. Yet he has had some 
narrow escapes since the beginning of his 
service as fireman, that being his first position 
with the company, two of which are memor- 
able, namely: that of July 30, 1878, and the 
one of May 8, 1883, being a serious collision 
near Wales, and the former between Oregon, 
Wisconsin, and Brooklyn, Wisconsin. These 
were among the most serious accidents of the 
system; yet in neither of these was Mr. Lu- 
ther censured, nor has he ever been repri- 
manded for any cause by the company. On 
the contrary, he enjoys their fullest confidence 
and is generally selected to draw prominent 
otiicials and distinguished men over the road, 
among those who have been under his care 
being ex- President Hayes, President Cleve- 
land and many others, including the late 
Commodore Vanderbilt, who once presented 
him with a ^'10 bill as a testimonial to his 
skill, accompanied witli words of confidence. 
The esteem and confidence of the company is 
shown in the manner named. He is an iion- 
ored member of the Brotherhood of Railroad 
Engineers, Division No. 176, of Baraboo, 
Wisconsin, and has served upon a number of 
its important committees. 

Mr. Luther was born in Franklin county, 
New York, June 30, 1843, grew up there. 



where he received a common school educa- 
tion, and from which he enlisted in 18G2, 
when but eighteen years old; l)ut his lather 
refused to assent, and he was compelled to 
wait until August 27, 1863, when he joined 
Company I, Sixteenth New York Volunteer 
Infantry, Colonel Seaver commanding, the 
reginiLMit forming part of the Army of the 
Potomac; remained with it until the expira- 
tion of the two years' term of enlistment of 
the regiment; then later, Mr. Luther with 
many others, was transferred to Company I, 
Twenty-first New York Volunteer Infantry, 
Captain Kidder in comntand of the company. 
Mr. Luther remained with this company and 
regiment until the close of the war, when he 
was honorably discharged. He took part in 
the battle of Gettysburg, as a detached mem- 
ber of the regiment, and also participated in 
the terrible battle of the Wilderness and in 
the many conflicts around Petersburg, yet he 
was never taken prisoner and was wounded 
but once, and then but slightly. Our subject 
meets his old comrades frequently and re- 
vives those days of peril, in the Grand Army 
meetings, he being a member of Cadwallader 
C. Washburn Post, No. 11. He is a mem- 
ber of the lodge of Master Masons and of 
the chapter of Royal Arch Masons, both at 
Madison. 

Our subject was married at Kenosha, Wis- 
consin, to Miss Jessie Nelson, a native of 
Philadelphia, who came to that place when 
quite young with her parents; was educated 
at Kenosha, and afterward was a teacher in 
its public schools for eight years. She is of 
Scotch parentage, being the daughter of 
Thomas and Rosaline (Cook) Nelson, who 
were married in Scotland, and after their 
emigration to this country, Mr. Nelson 
worked at his trade of designer and engraver 
for calico prints at Philadelphia. Mr. Nel- 



194 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



8011 came West with his family in 1856, set- 
tlinu; at the work of gold and silver engraving 
at Kenosiia; also, being a skilled machinist, 
did clock and watch work. He was a just 
and upright man, being a devout member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and lived at peace 
with the whole world, respected by all who 
knew him. Death came to him at Racine, 
at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Margaret 
Ralyea, November 21, 1882, at the age of 
eighty-two, he having been born in 1800. 
His wife died at Kenosha, March 17, 1878, 
at the age of seventy-five. She was a most 
estimable Christian woman, descended from 
worthy Scottish stock. Her brother, George 
Cook was for many years a leading merchant 
of Glasgow, and her father, Captain Robert 
Cook, was the captain of a merchant vessel. 
During the war between France and Great 
Britain he was captured on the high seas and 
held a prisoner of war in France for many 
years; but was finally restored to his family, 
who supposed him dead. Mrs. Luther, the 
wife of our subject, is one of ten children, 
eight of whom are living and all of them 
married. 

The parents of our subject were Charles S. 
and Betsy J. (Ellis) Luther, both born in 
1811, natives of North Adams, Franklin 
county, New York; were married there, spent 
their days and finally died there, the father 
May 28, 1886, and the mother December 4, 
1884. Charles S. Luther was a man of ster- 
ling character, well-read and well-informed, 
who had many warm friends, including a 
number of distinguished men, among whom 
was the late Vice-Fresident William A. 
Wheeler, a close and intimate friend. He 
was a devoted Christian, liberal toward 
others, considerate and unselfish. The Bap- 
tist Church best reflected his views, and he 
lived and died in that faith. His wife, the 



mother of our subject, was a member of the 
Methodist Church, whose gentle nature un- 
selfishly and uncomplainingly took on the 
pain of lingering consumption; no words of 
complaint or repining fell from her lips in all 
the long days of her illness; and from her bed 
of sickness was the light of a redeemed saint, 
whose rays still point others to the loving 
Christ. 

Mr. and Mrs. Luther have no children; but 
they have adopted Florence E. Wellaud, a 
bright, sweet miss of fourteen, now attending 
school. They are consistent members of the 
Congregational Church, and prominent in the 
social life of that church as well, as in Madi- 
son generally. 



->^v^->>i^^i:^:7^^ 




r'f ILLIAM WALLACE CROCKER 
1 of section 30, Montrose township 
'~^S'^~~*- is a member of one of the pioneer 
families who settled in Dane county, Decem- 
ber 1(5, 1842, at which date the family settled 
on a claim of 820 acres of land in section 30. 
Josiah Crocker was born in liarnstable, Mas- 
sachusetts and married Sarah Toby who was 
also i)orn in Barnstable, of English ancestry. 
The Crocker famil}- originated in America 
from three brothers, who came from England 
in 1630 and settled in Massachusetts and 
the descendants still live at Barnstable. The 
grandfather of our subject was a farmer and 
also a shoemoker by trade. He w*8 an indus- 
trious man and he worked on the farm by 
day and at his trade at night. He cleared up 
a large farm. He removed to Pawlet, Ver- 
mont, in 1789 and while passing through New 
York city witnessed the inauguration of Wash- 
ington. The family settled at Fawlet in Rut- 
land county, Vermont, and there the grand- 
father passed his remaining years. Five of his 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



195 



children crrew to maturity: Jjenjainiii, the 
fathei'of our .subject; James liecame a lawyer 
in Buffalo, New York, where he died, a 
trustee of the city; Ezra moved to Ohio at 
an early day and the family lost sight of him ; 
Sarah married Robert Wilson and settled at 
New Ripon, in Wisconsin; and Thomas is a 
resident at the old home in Vermont. 

The father of our subject, Benjamin Crock- 
er, was born in Pawlet, Vermont, July 5, 
1789, was reared on the farm and like his 
father learned the trade of shoemaker, lie was 
first married in Rutland county and after 
the death of his tirst wife be removed to Sa- 
lem, Washington county. New York, where 
May 12, 1819, he married Rebecca Estee, a 
daughter of Stephen and Altigail Estee. She 
was of English descent, her progenitor, Asa 
Estee, coming to America in the Mayflower. 
The parents of our subject resided at Salem, 
New York, until 1842, then started to find a 
home in the far West. The journey was made 
over the Erie canal to Buffalo, thence by the 
great steamer, the Great Western, to Mil- 
waukee, which steamer on its return trip was 
burned on Lake Erie. The family hired teams 
to bring them to Dane county, where they 
took up a claim. They lived in Green 
county, until a log cabin could be built on 
their claim, where they lived and the parents 
died, the father January 30, 1848, and the 
mother October 30, 1845. They had had a 
family of live children, three of whom grew 
to maturity: these were: Russell, born 
October 3, 1820, married Jane Lister and 
resided in Montrose township after 1842, his 
death takingplace at Alexandria, Minnesota, 
June 28, 1892, while visiting a daughter; 
HoUis was the next and our snl)ject the 
third. 

The latter was born in Salem, Washington 
county. New I'ork, June 6, 1831. lie was 



only eleven years of age when the family 
caine to Wisconsin. On account of the 
accumulation of farm work at this time he 
had only tifteen days of schooling after 
coming to this State. After the death of his 
father he engaged to work as a farm hand, 
receiving from six to eleven dollars per 
month, excepting the two months of harvest 
in one year, when he received thirteen dollars. 
He was married, July 20, 1854, to Miss 
Mary Ann Sharman, daughter of Richard 
and Ann (Limb) Sharman. She was born in 
Derbyshire, England, October 26, 1884. The 
family came to the United States in 1849, 
settling in the town of Albion, Dane county. 
The Sharman family lived on an estate in 
England, which had been in the family for 
431 years. They settled on a farm in Dane 
county and there the parents of Mrs. Shar- 
man passed their declining years, the father, 
who was born April 2, 1808, died December 
13, 1867) his death resulting from an accident 
from a runaway team. The mother was born 
November 28, 1812, and died May 7, 1857. 
They had a family of five children, these 
being as follows: William, a farmer who died 
in Crawford county, near Seneca; Mary Ann, 
wife of subject; Amy, married James Jall- 
ings and resides in Fillmore county, Minne- 
sota; Isaac, resides in Montrose township; and 
Eliza, married William W. Morse and resides 
in Gage county, Nebraska. After marriage 
our subject settled on the farm, wliere he now 
resides, having previously purchased eighty 
acres and built a home on the same. He has 
made many im])rovements on the farm, where 
he now owns 150 acres. Li all these years 
tlie country has changed very much and it 
seems dilBcult to believe that at the time of 
the settlement of the family here our subject's 
brother, Ilollis, had to drive 117 miles in 
(irder to obtain flour for family use. Mr. and 



196 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Mrs. Crocker have liad nine children, as 
follows: Amy, born November 28, 1856, 
died January 26, 1856; Eliza, born Decem- 
ber 6, 1856, married Andrew Elder and 
resides in Montrose township; Isaac, born 
September 19, 1858, died Jnne 0, 1875; 
Abraham, born July 16, 1860, died July 3, 
186d; Abraham, the second, born August 17, 
1863, resides at homo; Richard, born July 
29, 1865, died May 28, 1875; Wallace, born 
May 5, 1868; Benjamin, born April 3, 1870, 
died July 5, 1872 and Minnie, born October 
26, 1873. Mr. and Mrs Crocker and their 
children are prominent member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. In politics he is a 
Prohibitionist although formerly he was a 
Republican, but since 1884, he has been 
identified with the former party. He is a 
stockholder in the Montrose cheese factory 
No. 1, which was the first factory of its kind 
in the township. Mr. Crocker has interested 
himself in everything that has tended toward 
the improvement and growth of his section 
of country and is a man much esteemed by all. 



ilLLIAM J. SMITH, one of the lead- 
ing citizens of Westport township, 
[*-^?T5 was born in Canada in 1832. His 
father was Hugh iSmith, of Onondaga county. 
New York, a mechanic, carpenter and joiner 
by trade, which he followed to the age of 
thirty-two years. He married Margaret 
Johnson, of the same county, and they 
moved to Smith Falls, Canada, on the liideau 
canal, about thirty-two miles west from Otta- 
wa. At this place he bought a farm, and 
lived and died there. He was the father of 
eight children, four sons and four daughters, 
of whom two daughters, Mary and Nancy, 
and one son, James, are now dead. .Fames, 




the third child, died at the age of twenty- 
four years, and Mary, the second child, at the 
age of twelve. Nancy, the fifth child, died 
at the age of twenty-seven. Our subject is 
the fourth child and third son of his parents. 
The mother died in 1872, at the age of sixty- 
seven, and the father survived her some 
eight years, and died in his eighty-seventh 
year, and he was strong, both mentally and 
physically, up to near his end. 

Our subject was reared on a farm and to 
farm labor, and received a good common - 
' school education for ihose times. lie left 
his home at the age of twenty-one yetjrs, and 
went to Baldwinsville, Onondaga county. 
New York, where he remained for three 
years. He worked on a farm for two years, 
by the month, at from §14 to 818 per month, 
and at the carpenters' trade for §14 a month. 
In the spring of 1857 he came to Uurand, 
Winnebago county, Illinois, and there worked 
at his trade, and at this place he met his fate 
in the person of Miss Louisa Huff, to whom 
he was joined in wedlock. She was the 
dauifhtcr of James R. Huff and his wife, 
Lydia Austin, both of whom were natives of 
Lyons, Wayne county. New York. They 
were early settlers of Rierpont, Ashtabula 
county, Ohio, where Mrs. Smith was born in 
1840. She has two brothers and six sisters. 
The brothers were named Moses A. and Ly- 
sander (i. Huff, and the former was a resi- 
dent of Lyons, where he was Postmaster and 
a well-known and liberal man. The latter is 
a resident of Union county, Ohio, and served 
three years in the late Union army and was 
severely wounded at Gettysburg. The mother 
of this family of nine children died in Ohio, 
at the age of thirty-seven, but the father 
lived to a ripe old age, dying at the age of 
seventy-four years, in 1875. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith came from Durango, 



DANE C0UNT7, WISGONSli',. 



197 



Illinois, in 1859, and in the spring to Wis- 
consin, to the hospital there, whicli was in 
course of construction, and he worked upon 
this grand structure some thirty-two years, 
until September, 1891. They lived in a 
house near the Mendota depot. They have a 
farm of 130 acres, four miles north of Madi- 
son, which they bought in 1880. They have 
never lived upon the place, but have rented 
it. Mr. Smith has been the Postmaster of 
Mendota for seventeen years, receiving his 
first commission from President Grant, July 
20, 1875. He has been Notary Public for 
si.xteen years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith buried one little son, 
John Moffatt Smith, at the age of sixteen 
months, and they have live children: Jerome 
W. Smith; Emma M., who became the wife 
of Oliver Hale, of Oraig, Nebraska; James 
R. ; Clara L., married Joseph Speckner, and 
now resides at Brooklyn, Wisconsin, who 
have one daughter, Muriel E. ; and Isabel, a 
young lady, at home. Jerome W. married 
Amanda Gran, and they reside at St. Paul, 
Minnesota. He is the traveling auditor of 
the Great Northern Railroad, a position 
which he has held for the past three years on 
this road, and for three years prior on the 
Omaha Railroad. He has one son, Ray- 
mond R. The other son holds a like position 
with the same railroad. The latter married 
Rasha Walters, of Eyota, Minnesota, and 
they live at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Mr. 
and Mrs. Smith have given their children 
good educational advantages at Madison. 
Their daughter Em ma. now Mrs. Hale, has been 
a teacher for the past twelve years, and is now 
principal of a graded school at Craig, Ne- 
braska, at a salary of |60 per month. Isabel 
is a young lady, who has developed musical 
taste and talent, and has a class in music. 
For twenty years Mr. Smith has been a 



Knight Templar and a loyal Republican. 
They belong to no church, i)nt their leaning 
is toward the Methodist Episcopal denomi- 
nation. 



HAIR G. LAMONT, a resident farmer 
of Vienna township for twenty-three 
years, is a resident of section 7. He 
was born in Schoharie county. New York, 
in 1827, and his father was Benjamin La- 
ment, born in the same county in 1797, and 
in turn his father was William Lamont of 
the same section. He was a life- long farmer, 
who died in Chautauqua county, New York, 
an octogenarian, and has been the father of 
some ten children, two daughters and eight 
sons, all of whom came to mature years and 
became heads of families. 

Benjamin Lamont married Sallie Howe, of 
New York, whose father had died before she 
was born, and she had one brother who died 
young. Our subject is the sixth child of 
eleven children, and the fourth son. The 
parents were farmers, and l)rought their chil- 
dren up to hal)its of industry and economy. 
The fatlier died in Livingston county, New 
York, September, 1847, in the prime of life, 
leaving his widow and this large family with 
no property. 

Our subject was married in Livingston 
county at the age of twenty-nine years to 
Miss Julia Ann Cook, of that county. They 
came west in September, 1865, coming to 
Dane county where they remained one year, 
and then went to I^odi for one year, at which 
time they settled upon their place of nearly 
300 acres for which he paid $40 per acre, 
paying one-half down, and iiad time on the 
balance. After fourteen years he sold this 
and bought 140 acres, his present farm for 



198 



BIOORAPHIOAL REVIEW OF 



$30 per acre. Tliis farm had been cleared 
and tilled, but was in very poor repair, hav- 
ing; neither biiildiiiijs nor fences. He soon 
built and settled upon it, and now lias a line 
well-tilled farm, being a neat agriculturalist, 
growing the ordinary crops of this section, 
e.xcept tobacco, although he lias the best of 
land for this crop. Our subject has forty 
acres of timlier, 100 acres of land under the 
plow. 

Mr. Lamont has taken a prominent posi- 
tion in the township, having served as Super- 
visor for two terms. In his politics he is a 
Democrat. 

Mr. Laniont buried his first wife in March, 
186f), at the age of twenty-tive years. She 
left him two sons and one daughter as fol- 
lows: Byron, a resident of Aberdeen, Dakota, 
where he is a lawyer, has a wife and son; 
AVilliam is a farmer upon a place adjoining 
his father; Liiella, is the wife of (ieorge 
Ayer, of Verona, Wisconsin, and has one son 
and one liaughter. Mr. Lamont was married 
a second time, his choice being Miss Susie, 
the daughter of Silas and Adeline (Boynton) 
Bunker, of the State of Maine, who settled 
in Lodi, Wisconsin, in 1850. By this niar- 
riase two children have been born: lluch T. 
now in his twenty-second year, a school 
teacher, and Lillian, a young lady of nine- 
teen years, bright and pleasing. All of the 
chiMren of our subject have received good 
educations, and all have proven good teachers, 
and are highly esteemed. 

Mr. Lamont has taken a great interest in 
school matters, having been a member of the 
School Board for twenty-two years, and to 
liis duties on the Board, he has given much 
attention, so that the school of his district 
has the reputation of being one of the best 
in the State. The mother of Mr. Lamont is 
residing in Lodi with her son Alfred. She is 



ninety-one years of age and is still active for 
one of her years, and has her mental facul- 
ties. She was married at the age of four- 
teen years, bore eleven children, toiled liard 
all of her life, and still lives to see her great, 
great-grandchildren beloved and cared for by 
all. Of her children there are six still liv- 
ing: Louisa is the wife of John Wilkins, of 
Lodi, Wisconsin; Albert, resides in Lodi, 
where he is a retired farmer; our subject; 
Benjamin, resides at Ogden, Utah, where he 
is a farmer; Harriet is Mrs. Linford Nar- 
regang, of South Dakota. 

Mrs. Lamont lost her father when she was 
but three years old, in 1852, at the age of 
twenty-eight years, leaving two children and 
a comfortable home. His wife married again 
and is still living at Lodi, Mrs. Adaline Dow- 
den, the widow of T. J. Dowden, who died in 
the civil war. 



fOllN C. LCJl'LU, a farmer of Dane 
county, Wisconsin, was born in Mecklen- 
burg, Germany, in 1840, a son of Fred 
Loper, a native of the same place, and a weaver 
by trade. He came with his wife and three 
sons to America in 1852, and, on account of 
a severe storm, was shxty days on the ocean, 
having been in great danger of being lost. 
They located in Rochester, New York, where 
the father found employment at $13 per 
month during the summer months, and en- 
gaged in cutting cord wood for thirt^'-six 
cents per cord during the winters. In 1855 
the family came to Dane county, Wisconsin, 
and their cash capital then consisted of $10. 
ilr. Loper worked by the day for the first 
year, and then bought sixty-eight acres of 
wild land, for which he paid SllO, having 
borrowed the money. Their dug-out, covered 



DANE COUNTY, WISGOl^SIN 



199 



with king grass from the marsh, was burned 
one year later, with no insurance, and in which 
they lost good clotliing brought from Ger- 
many. In the winter of 1857, with the assist- 
ance of his neighbors, Mr. Loper erected a 
log cabin, 14 x 18 feet. John C, our sub- 
ject, was then eleven years of age, and was 
working at farm labor for $3 per month, and 
his father was receiving fifty cents per day. 
The latter added to his original purchase 
until at the time of his death, which occurred 
in 1862, at the age of sixty-tive years, he 
owned 160 acres. lie left four sons and four 
daughters, seven of whom still survive: 
Charles, our subject; Fred, a farmer of Lodi; 
William, a farmer of West Point; Carrie, 
wife of Frank Thompson, a farmer of Rox- 
bury township, Dane county; Louise, wife of 
Fred Lorch, a cigar manufacturer of Madison; 
August, a farmer on the old homestead in 
Roxbury township, who is also ruiming a large 
creamery; and Minnie, wife of Hamilton 
Padley, a farmer of West Point; Amelia, 
deceased, was formerly the wife of Hamilton 
Padley, and they had one son and a daugliter. 
John C. Loper received but few educational 
advantages, and at tlie age of fifteen years 
enlisted in the Second Wisconsin Infantry. 
He received a gunshot wound in the arm at 
Gainesville, in August, 1862, which cut 
the nerve passing through the arm, from 
which he was disabled about nine months. 
He was also again accidentally wounded in 
the left hand. After marriage Mr. Loper 
purchased eighty acres of land from his father 
in Roxbury township, where they remained 
ten years, and during this time he erected a 
good log house and cleared about fifty-six 
acres. He sold this land to his mother for 
$1,200, then bought 106 acres of his present 
farm, and four years afterward 120 acres 
more, making his present farm of 226 acres. 



and for which he paid .$6,000. lie has 173 
acres of his place under a fine state of cultiva- 
tion, is engaged in general farming and stock- 
raising, and makes a specialty in the raising 
of hogs, of which he keeps from forty to sixty 
head. Mr. Loper has always taken an active 
interest in the growth of his county, and has 
served as school clerk. 

He was married at the age of twenty-four 
years, to Catherine Loetfler, a daughter of 
Henry and Catherine (Lumbartey) LoetHer, 
tiie former a native of Heilbronn, (Tcrmany, 
and the latter of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 
The father was a weaver of laces in Germany, 
and came with his brother to this country 
when a young man, with no capital. Mr. 
and Mrs. Loetfler came to AVisconsin in a very 
early day, where they v;ere afterward married. 
The father is still living in this State, in his 
eightieth year, and the mother died in Wau- 
kesha, Wisconsin, September 24, 1848, in the 
prime of life. She left seven children : Charles, 
a farmer of Montana; Henry, an engineer of 
Nevada; Harriet, deceased ; Louisa, deceased; 
Catherine, wife of our subject; Mary, deceased ; 
and Clara, deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Loper 
have buried one son, Irvin H., aged five years. 
They have seven living children, namely: 
Orren E., aged twenty years; Abbey, who 
was educated at the State Normal, will soon 
teach the district school near her home; Ernest 
R., aged seventeen, is engaged in farming on 
the home place; Viola, aged fifteen years; 
Earl, twelve years; Walter, six years; and 
Amy, two years. Mr. Loper is a Republican 
in his political views; and religiously the 
family are members of the Methodist Church. 



300 



BIorrfiAI'iriCAL REVIEW OF 



tTTO C. H. AND CARL L. SCHELER 
of the firm of Sclieler JJrothers, dealers 
and packers of all kinds of fresh and 
salt meats, are located at No. 24 Jenisen street, 
the place in which they began business, Jan 
uary 1, 1891, and have developed a good 
trade. They both grew up to the business 
in their father's market, located at No. 621, 
University avenue, where he still carries on 
the business that was established by him more 
than twenty-five years ago. 

The two brothers of this notice were born 
in Madison, and here reared and educated. 
Otto C. 11. was born August 6, 1868, and 
Carl L., was born January 30, 1871. They 
are practical workmen, and after doing busi- 
ness with their father until January 1, 1891, 
they succeeded the business of J. L. Miller, 
now deceased. The parents of these brothers 
were old inhabitants of Madison, having 
lived here for many years. The father, Henry, 
was born in the province of Saxony, Germany, 
and came to the United States when a youn;^ 
man. After spending some years in differ- 
ent places he made his way to Madison, and 
established himself as a meat dealer in 
this city. He has been very successful in 
all his enterprises, and is yet carrying on an 
active business. He is now about iifty- seven 
years of age, and has always been an upright, 
enterprising citizen ail his life. Mr. Scheler 
came of good old German stock, and all his 
life has adhered to the German Methodist 
Church. lie has been twice n)arried. the 
first time to Miss Sofia Schmidt, born in 
Germany, and came to the United States, lo- 
cating in Wisconsin when a young woman. 
She died at her home when in middle life, 
leaving four sons and a daughter, namely: 
Otto C. H., of this notice; Carl L., of this 
notice; George F., now attending the public 
school; Rose E., at home, after having 



learned the trade of seamstress; and Amead 
A., at home, attending private school. Mr. 
Scheler was married a second time, to Mrs. 
Rolof}', nee Schmideman. She also was born 
in Germany, but her first marriage occurred 
in this country. Uer first husband is now 
deceased. By this last marriage Mr. Scheler 
has no issue. 

The two brothers of this notice are still 
single young men, and are among the enter- 
prising merchants of the city. Their pleasant, 
genial manners have made them many 
friends. They are connected in a social way 
with the local orders of the German faith. 
Both the boys and their father are Democrats 
in their political opinions. 



J.ARK B. WlLLSEY,of Windsor, Dane 
county, Wisconsin, was born in Royal- 
ton township, Niagara county. New 
York, October 16, 1828, a son of Jacob Will- 
sey, a native of Cattaraugus county, that State. 
He was there married to Martha Crandall, 
also a native of New York, and in 1833, 
with their eleven children, they moved to 
De.xter, Washtenaw county, Michigan, pur- 
chased 160 acres of Government land, and 
erected a log cabin as a temporary dwelling. 
They went by canal and the lakes to Detroit, 
Michigan, and then by teams to Dexter, a 
distance of fifty-five miles. The father added 
to his original purchase until at the time of 
death he owned 220 acres, with good frame 
buildings, and other improvements. There 
the parents spent the remainder of their days, 
the mother dvingr first, at about the age of 
sixty years, leaving nine children. 

Clark B. Willsey was reared to farm life, 
and received but few educational advantages. 
At the age of seventeen years he left iiome 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



201 



for Indiana, where he worked in a sawmill 
one year, for $20 per moiitli. In tlie fall of 
1846, and in company witli his employer, he 
came with teams to Baraboo, Wisconsin, and 
was engrag'ed at work in a sawmill the first 
winter. After serving as an apprentice at 
the blacksmiths'' trade in that city three 
years, he opened a shc>p of his own. In De- 
cember, 1861, Mr. Willsey left the shop and 
anvil for the battle-field, joining the Tliird 
Wisconsin Cavalry, Company F, under Cap- 
tain D. S. Vittnm, was first sent to St. Louis, 
and then to Kansas, wliere he was under 
General Blount. In the spring of 18G2, he 
was appointed Second Lieutenant of his 
company, and the following fall was pro- 
moted to First Lieutenant. After two years 
and nine months of service he was taken sick 
with camp dysentery, and returned home. 
On account of exposure in the army, Mr. 
Willsey has suffered with rheumatism for 
more than twenty years. After the close of 
the strucrgle in 1869, he again opened his 
shop in Baraboo, where he remained until 
the spring of 186'J. In that year he opened 
a shop at Hudson, Dane county, Wisconsin, 
two years later opened the first blacksmith 
shop in Windsor, also purchased a lot on 
which he erected liis comfortable home, and 
in 1884 rented his shop and retired from 
business, his health having become impaired. 
In 1884, by Grover Cleveland, he was ap- 
pointed Postmaster of Windsor, which posi- 
tion he still fills. Ml-. Willsey's first presi- 
dential vote was cast for S. A. Douglas, the 
next for Lincoln, and since that time has al- 
ways voted the Republican ticket. 

He was married in June, 1851, to II. J. 
Haines, a native of New York, ami who had 
also lived in Michigan, l)ut they met for the 
first time in Baraboo, Wisconsin, where they 
were married. They buried two sons in in- 



fancy, and also William, who was killed in 
the pinery of Chippewa, by a falling tree, 
lie left a widow and two children. Mr. and 
Mrs. Willsey have five living children: Dan- 
iel, Jolui, Clara, Blanche, and Clark. All 
are at home except Blanche, the wife of Ben- 
ton F. Woodford, a merchant of Morrison- 
ville, and they have one son and a daughter. 
Clara is the widow of Verdine Dorinan, and 
is engaged in teaching in this county. She 
was educated at the State Normal and high 
school of Madison, and lias one son. Mr. 
Willsey is a member of no cluirch or organ- 
ization. 

fll () MAS G. TAYLOR, a fanner of 
Dane county, Wisconsin, was burn in 
Chautauqua county. New York, May 
20, 1830, a son of Israel and Eliza M. (Webb) 
Taylor, the former a native of Massachusetts, 
and the latter of Connecticut. They were 
the parents of three children, the eldest of 
whom is the subject of our sketch, and he 
has one brother in Kansas. In 1842 they 
removed to Porter, Rock county, Wiscunsin, 
and in 1847 purchased 160 acres in section 
32, Dunkirk township, Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin. Both the father and mother are now 
deceased. 

Thomas G. Taylor attended school daring 
the winter months, and after reaching a sui- 
table age purchased the <ild homestead. In 
1868 he sold that place ami purchased 150 
acres on section 20, which had been improved 
by C. Stoughton. lie is engaged in general 
farming and stock raising. Mr. Taylor is a 
Prohibitionist in his political views, and re- 
ligiously, is a member of the Universalist 
Church. 

He was united in marriage, in Dunkirk 



202 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



township, to Miss Lucy D. Upton, who was 
horn and educated in New Salem, Franklin 
county, Massachusetts. They have had seven 
chiidi-en, five now living: J. Everett, Will- 
iam G., Edward A., Carrie L., and Nellie E. 
Taylor Ilawley. The daughters are all mar- 
ried. 



fOHN M. HIBBARD, Postmaster of 
Stoughton, Dane county, was born in 
La Fayette, Walworth county, Wiscon 
sin, January I'J, 18-49, a son of Kichard M. 
and Mary (iMason) Ilibbard, the former a na- 
tive of Uadley, Massachusetts, and the latter 
of Porupey, Onondaga county, New York. 
The paternal grandfather came to Wisconsin 
when it was remarkably new, and was in 
Milwaukee when that city had only two or 
three houses. His eon, now deceased, the 
father of our subject, accompanied him, and 
was ever afterward identified witii Walworth 
county. In i^arly life he followed farming, 
but later was engaged as a merchant at Troy, 
Wisconsin. The maternal grandfatlier of 
our subject now resides in Waukesha county, 
tills state, a<red ninety-five years. 

John M. Ilibbard, the second of five chil- 
dren, one son and four daughters, received 
his education in the country schools, and at 
the age of si.\teen years graduated at the 
Stou<fhton Hijrh School. He was then em- 
ployed as a grocery clerk in Milwaukee three 
years, and later as a bookkee|)er in the same 
establishment. In September, 1869, he was 
appointed Assistant Postmaster, under A. C. 
Croft, of Stoughton, five and a half years 
later was appointed Postmaster, under Post- 
master General, Marshall Jewell, and has 
held this position under Grant, Hayes, Gar- 
field, Arthur, Cleveland, and Harrison. 



Mr. Hibbard was married November 16, 
1870, to Jennie E. Warren, a native of New 
York, l)ut who came to this State in child- 
hood, where she was educated in the Stough- 
ton High School. She is a daughter of E. 
E. Warren, a carpenter by occupation. Our 
subject and wife have four children: viz.; 
Fleta B., wife of W. C. Hegelmeyer, a sten- 
ographer at the Stoughton Wagon Works; 
Waldo W., clerk of the Stoughton post-office; 
Loretta D., and Walter E. Mr. Ilibbard 
affiliates with the Republican party; socially, 
is a member of the Odd Fellows order; and 
religiously favors the Universalist Church. 

Five generations are now living and the 
five recently held a reunion at tlie home of 
our subject, a most rare and remarkable oc- 
curance. 



-®®' 



-^ 



li^OLLIS CROCKER, a prominent farmer 

t residing on section 30, in Montrose 
township, in Dane county, Wisconsin, 
dates his residence here from 18-12. His pa- 
ternal ancestors were from England, and set- 
tled in Massachusetts colony soon after the 
settlement at Plymouth, but no dates are at 
hand with which to authenticate the history. 
Josiah Crocker, the grandfather of our sub- 
ject, was born in Barnstable, Massachusetts, 
in 1759, and married Sarah Tobey, who was 
also a native of Barnstable, born there in 
1761. He was a farmer by occupation, and 
resided in Massachusetts colony during the 
Revolutioiuiry war. About this date he de- 
cided to go west, accordingly he embarked 
on a coasting vessel for New York, and while 
there witnessed the inaugaration of Wash- 
ington as President. The date of this was 
April 30, 1789, and after this event our sub- 
ject's grandfather proceeded up the Hudson 



VANE COONTY, WIsaONl^lN. 



203 



and settled in Rutland county, Vermont, near 
the New York line, wiiere he rL'are<l a fiunily 
of no less than six children, ami passed his 
remaining years. 

The oldest of the children of Josiah and 
Sarah (Tobey) Crocker was Benjamin, and ho 
was horn in the town of Pawlet, Rutland 
county, Vermont, July 5, 1789, and passed 
his early life on a farm, later leaniint^ the 
trade of shoemaker. He married Iiel)ecca 
Wilcox, who bore him two children, one dy- 
ing in infancy, and a dauc^hter at the age of 
nineteen years. His wife died in Vermont, 
and he then removed to Salem, Washington 
county, New York, where in ISl'J \w. married 
Rebecca Estee. She was born in tliis phice 
July 29, 1798, being a daughter of Stephen 
Estee, a native of Brooktield, Massachusetts, 
born about 1707, and Abigail (Thompson) 
Estee, born in Brooktield November 20, 
1769. 

In 1842 Benjamin ('rocker emigrated to 
Wisconsin, making the journey via the Erie 
canal to Buffalo, New York, thonco by 
steamer Great Western to Milwaukee, 
where he hired teams to take his family and 
bousehold goods to Exeter, Green county, 
where his brothor-in law was living. He 
Soon Settled in Montrose township, Dane 
county, where his son, iiussell (-rocker, had 
a short time previously made a claim. The 
family built a log cabin and commenced 
pioneer life. Neighbors were few, only throe 
or four families lieing within a radius of 
three or four miles. At that time pork was 
11.25 per cwt. (5ows were $9 per head, and 
a good yoke of four-year-old oxen were worth 
$30. It was necessary to haul grain to Mil- 
waukee market, a very long and tedious trip. 

Mrs. Grocker died October 30, 184:5, and 
January 30, 1848, Mr. Cmcker passed away. 
Tliey had been parents of five children, three 



of whom grew to maturity, and these were: 
Russell, who died in Alexamlria, Minnesota, 
June 28, 1S92, having been born October 23, 
1820. Our subject was the second; and 
William, born duno 6, 1831, resides in Mon- 
ti'ose township. 

Our subject was born in the town of Salem, 
Washington county, New York, November 
13. 1827. He attended 8(diool in the Em- 
pire State until 1842, when he accompanied 
the other members of the family to Wiscon- 
sin. He assisted in making the home in the 
frontier. In early maidiood lit! worked eiiriit, 
months for a farmer in (Treen county, being 
com|)ensated with $^75, and he used .'>'50 to 
])ay for a forty acre tract (jf laml which he 
entered. In 1849 he purchased a land war- 
rant from a soldier of the Mexican war, and 
thus became the owner of 160 acres of land. 
For one year he worked as a farm hand in 
order to earn money with which to l)ny a 
team. 

In 1850 our subject marricMJ Miss Caro- 
line Easterday, born at (iratiot, Wisconsin, 
being the first white child born in La Fay- 
ette county, the date of her birth being duly 
16, 1828. H(!r parents came from Swil/.er- 
land, and were Dr. Lewis and Barbara (Rin- 
derbacker) Easterday. Tiiey came to Amer- 
ica with the Manitoba colony, nuiking their 
way to the Red river country by way of 
Hudson's Bay, and resided tliere until the 
great flood in 1827, when they went to Ga- 
lena, Illinois, near the lead region, whvve they 
resided until 1832, when they removed to 
St. Louis, where Dr. Easterday died tliat year. 
His wife, the mother of Mrs. Crocker, mar- 
rierl again, and iIIcmI in Wisconsin. 

()nr subject and wife were v(!ry poor in 
this world's goods at the time of marriao-e. 
They lived in a log cabin, and for two years 
they had not even a chair, but their liajipiuess 



204 



BIOORAPHIGAL REVIEW OP 



did not consist in these things. They worked 
with willing hands, determined to conquer cir- 
cumstances, and they did. Mr. Crocker has 
now 200 acres of land, and is a man of means 
and in ver}- comfortable circumstances. They 
have liad eleven children, nine of wliom are 
living, as follows: Margaret, who resides at 
liome; Charles, who resides in Modena 
county, Minnesota; Rebecca, deceased, who 
married James Fritz, and died in Ilolton, 
Jackson county, Kansas; Mary, married 
Samuel Sharman, and resides in Green 
county; Matilda, married William Sharman 
of Belleville; Sarah, married Charles Cronn 
of Green county; Emma, who is at home; 
Peter, born February 14, 1867, who resides 
at home; Thomas, who died young; Barbara, 
who is at home, and John Fremont Crocker, 
named after the great pathfinder, was born 
October 21, 1850, also at home. 

At an early da}' Mr. Crocker was a mem- 
ber of tlie Freewill Baptist Clmrch, but that 
organization did not flourish in tliis neigh- 
borhood, and he tlien joined tlie Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and of this he is still a 
member. Since 1804 he has been a Class 
Leader, and always a liberal supporter of the 
cliurch, and also a worker in the Sabbath 
school. In politics iiis first vote was given to 
AVinfielil Scott, and voted tlic Ivepublican 
ticket until 1881, since which time he has 
been a Prohibitionist, but has never desired 
an office. As may be inferred, he is a 
stanch temperance man, and mucli of his 
success in life may be attri!)uted to iiis tem- 
perance principles. 

The sketch of our subject lias been neces- 
sarily brief, but tiie history of Green county, 
AVisconsiii, as well as the history of Dane 
county, Wisconsin, will give much interest- 
ing matter concernin<i; the Crocker family. 
In the liistory of the Manitoba colony there 



are many facts concerning ancestors of the 
family. Our subject is a very intelligent 
gentleman, an able representative of the 
pioneer family of his name. 



iETER SENDT. an old. well-known and 
prosperous passenger engineer of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee ife St. Paul Rail- 
road is the subject of this sketch. His loca- 
tion is on the western end aiul is known as 
the Madison & Prairie Du Chien division and 
he has been so connected for the past eleven 
years, having been an engineer on this road 
since 1864, and is now able to assert that he 
has never, in all that time, had an accident 
that proved either serious to hiniself or to 
the company. Mr. Sendt is a tnember of 
the Madison Division of the Brotherhood, 
No. 73, having been so connected since 1803, 
and is now treasui-er of tliat order, and is a 
charter member of this division. The confi- 
dence of the order in our subject has been 
shown by his election as a delegate to two 
Tiational conventions, one in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, and the other in San Francisco. For 
four years he acted as engineer on the Illi- 
nois Central railroad, from Ciiicago to 
Champaign, Illinois, and it was on this rail- 
road that he bei^an work as a fireman when 
but ninteen years of age, becoming an en- 
gineer when but twenty-one. 

Our subject was born in Lutzenburg, Ger- 
many, May 27, 1837. lie was but ten years 
of age when he accompanied his parents to 
America, sailing from Antwerp to Boston in 
1847, in a sailing ship, thence to Washing- 
ton county, Wisconsin, where the father en- 
tered 100 acres of Government land near 
Hartford, where the family were among the 
first settlers of the place. Henry Sendt im- 



BANE COUNTY, WLSOONSIN. 



205 



proved a good farm and later sold the old 
home and retired to the village of Hartford, 
and died there in 1884. He had been born 
in 1800, vpas a hardworkino; and successful 
farmer and a substantial citizen. He was a 
u'ember of the llonian Catholic Church and 
had always been a consistent Christian 
and a good neighbor. In liis political life he 
had been a Democrat. 

The mother of our subject had died on the 
old farm, in 1856. She had been born in 
1797, was fifty-nine years of age when she 
died, a good wife, a kind mother, neighbor 
and friend, and was a member of the same 
religious denomination as her husband. Her 
maiden name was Susan Wilhelm, and she 
had been the mother of three children, who 
grew to maturity and are still living. A 
l»rother of our subject, Quiren, is a black- 
smith foreman in the shops of the Chicago, 
Alton & St. Louis Railroad, at Chicago. He 
is married and pleasantly located. The sis- 
ter of Mr. Sendt is Mrs. Lena Schmidt, the 
widow of Mr. Rinewold, who was killed by 
the premature explosion of a cannon on July 
4, 1854 or '55, and also of Jacob Schmidt, 
who died twenty years ago. She now lives 
in Kenosha, Wisconsin. 

The marriage of our subject took place in 
Chicago, Hlinois, December 9, 1859, to Miss 
Mary Hoffman, born in Bavaria, Germany, 
March 29, 1837, a daughter of William and 
Lena (Engel) Hoffman, natives of Bavaria, 
who came to America after the bii-tli of all 
their children. Mrs. Sendt had come to Chi- 
cago all alone in 1859, and the parents joined 
her in Madison, in 1868. Until her mar- 
riage she had lived in Chicago, and her aged 
parents are now living in comfort in Middle- 
ton, the father aged eighty-seven and the 
mother eightv-tive, the father beino; a mem- 
ber of the Congregational Church and the 

16 



mother of the Catholic. Mrs. Sendt is one 
of tlii-ee sisters, the others being, IJarbara, 
the widow of Peter Hedler, who died after 
his return from the war, from some army 
trouble. The younger sister, Catherine, is 
now the wife of William Hoffman, a miller 
of Middleton, Dane county, Wisconsin. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sendt are the parents of two 
children: Lena, who is at home; and Anna, 
who is the wife of James Cavenaugh, a rail- 
road passenger conductor on the St. Paul, 
who resides in Madison, and she has two 
chililren, Leslie P. and .James. 



1^^-' 



yl^EOBGE THEIN, Postmaster and gen- 
'uW '"■''■^ merciiant of East Bristol, Dane 
^S^ county, was born in this township, June, 
1848, a son of George Thein, a native of I5a- 
varia, Germany. The latter was a son of 
Andrew and Elizabeth Thein, who lived and 
died iii that country. George Thein, Sr., 
came to this country in 1847, having been 
the first of his family to make the journey. 
Lie was then unmarried, but brought his in- 
teniled bride with him. After a voyage of 
several weeks they landed in Quebec, Canada, 
but soon afterward went to Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, and thence to Dane county, where 
they were married. The father took np Gov- 
ernment land on section 13, Bristol township, 
where he remained until his death, in 1875, 
at the age of sixty-throe years. Politically 
he was identified with the Democratic party, 
and religiously was a member of the Catho 
lie Church. The mother is still living, and 
makes her home with her son, our suiject, 
aged eighty-three years. They were the par- 
ents of two sons and two daughters, of whom 
George was the eldest child. The daughters 
died when young, and the son, John, is a farm- 



20(i 



BIOORAPUICAL REVIEW OF 



er of section 36, Bristol township, Dane 
county. 

George Thein, the subject of tliis sketch, 
was eiif^agcd in farming after reacliing his 
majority until 18S8. In tliat year he em- 
barked in tiic general mercantile trade in tliis 
town with liif brother, John, with whom he 
continued three years. Since November 1, 
1886, he has conducted the business alone, 
lie affiliates with the Democratic party, and 
is a member of tlie Catholic Church. 

iNDREW TUSCHEN, deceased, was 
born in Germany, in 1825, a son of 
John Tuschen, whose death occurred in 
this country. Andrew Tuschen received a 
fair education in Germany, where lie also 
learned and worked at tiie masons' trade. At 
the age of sixteen years lie came by sail ves- 
sel to America, landing in New York after a 
voyage of forty-two days, and was then a poor 
boy. He worked at his trade in that city for 
a time, and then settled in Bristol towii.sliip, 
Columbia county, Wisconsin, where he was 
among the pioneer settlers. After renting 
land there four years he bought the farm ol 
123 acres his family still own of John Nel- 
son, for which he paid $3,000. The place 
then contained a log liouse, and forty acres 
under cultivation. Mr. Tuschen afterward 
improved the place, and his death occurred 
there March 5, 1882. 

In 1802 he married Josephine Frifjch, a 
native of Germany, who came with her 
parents to tliis country at the age of fifteen 
years, settling in Bristol township, Dane 
county, Wisconsin. Her mother died in 1870, 
and the father in 1877, both having been 
members of the Catholic Church. Mr. and 
Mrs. Tuschen had eleven children, viz.: John, 



who died at the age of eight years and eight 
months, was buried in the Catholic cemetery 
in North Bristol; Annie, wife of John Kes- 
sler, of North Bristol; Joseph, deceased in 
infancy; Mary now Mrs. Michael Schroud; 
Andrew, and Frank; Henry and Barbara 
(twins); Carolina; Catherine and William at 
home. With the assistance other sons .Urs. 
Tuschen has continued the management of 
the farm since her husband's death, has erected 
a good frame residence, fine barns, and many 
other necessary improvements. Mr. Tuschen 
was a man of strong convictions, but was kind 
of heart, and greatly beloved. 



fA M E S F>. S T O N E, one of Fitchburg 
township's most influential citizens, was 
born on the Isle of Wight, March 27, 
1826. His father, Jonathan Stone, was a 
native of the same place, where he was reared, 
married and resided until 1851, when he em- 
igrated to the States, remaining in New 
York for a short time, but finally emigrating to 
Wisconsin, where he located in Fitchburg 
township. Here the good man spent the re- 
mainder of his days in jjcace and comfort. 
The maiden i\ame of his wife was Harriet 
Dore, also a native of the Isle of AVight. She 
died in Fitchburg township, after rearing a 
family of eight children, namely: Maria, Ja- 
cob, Charlotte, Eliza, James, Ann, John and 
George. 

Our subject was reared on a farm and re- 
mained with his parents until his sixteenth 
year, when he resolved to leave the land of 
his birth and .<(ek wider fields, accordingly 
in February, 18-12, he set sail from Ports- 
mouth on a sailing vessel and landed in New 
York after a voyiige of six weeks and live 
days. It was a lonely time for the boy, alone 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



207 



ill a strange land. He made iifs way to On- 
tario county, and there hired out on a farm 
for $20 for six moiitlis, but his employer 
cheated him out of the most of his wages. 
Pie remained in Ontario county, nearly a year, 
and then went to Seneca, where he was ein- 
ployed in a soap and candle factory in the 
village of Waterloo. He remained there un- 
til 1846 and then went to Wisconsin, going 
via railroad to Rochester, via lakes to Racine 
and then engaged on a farm for the summer 
and chopped wood in winter, remaining in 
Racine until 1852, when he removed to Dane 
county. He had made preparations for loca- 
ting there by buying forty acres of land and 
remained there until February, 1853, when he 
went to Fitchburg township, where he bought 
si.xty acres of land, which is included in his 
present farm. This was university land and 
he paid §7 an acre for it. He immediately 
began iinproving it, built a house, has since 
bought other land, and now has 237 acres, 
twelve of which is in timber. 

In 1859 he was married to Miss Einina 
Dore, a native of New Haven, Connecticut, 
a daughter of David Dore, a native of the Isle 
of Wight. To this union two children have 
been born, Homer A. and James D. Mr. 
Stone is independent in politics. 

^DWARD FARRELL RILEY, a well- 
known and popular citizen of Madison, 
Wisconsin, was born at Livonia, Living- 
ston county, New York, (October 3, 1847. 
His father. Rev. B. G. Riley (Presbyterian), 
was born in Otsego county. New York, in 
1810, and graduated at Williams College in 
183-4, and at Union Theological Seminary in 
1837. He married Anna Farrell, born in De- 
troit, Michigan, and they had five children: 
Laura E., Mary F., Ellen G., Edward F. and 



Charles P. In 1857 the parents removed 
to Wisconsin, then on the frontier of civil- 
ization, and settled in Lodi, Columbia county. 

E. F. Riley passed his boyhood until the 
age of sixteen in Lodi, at which age he en- 
listed in Company C, Forty-second Regi- 
ment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry (Cap- 
tain, George M. Humphrey, Colonel, Ezra T. 
Sprague), being a Corporal in that company. 
He served until the close of the war and was 
mustered out in the spring of 1865, at the 
age of about seventeen and a half years. He 
returned to Lodi, pursuing studies in the 
academy there for some time, after which he 
entered a store in the village as clerk. 
March 1, 1869, he removed to Sun Prairie, 
Dane county, where he acted as clerk and 
bookkeeper for Henry Gilman and Dexter 
Curtis. 

Mr. Riley was married at Sun Prairie April 
29, 1873, to Miss Eliza C. LaBore, born at 
Sun Praire, July 4, 1850. Three sons have 
been born to them, viz.: George C, Charles 
G., and Frank M. 

In 1874 Mr. Riley removed to Madison, 
Wisconsin, at which place he has resided 
since, being engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness, for some years associated with E. F. 
Riley & Company, (L. P.IIinde8),and Riley & 
Bowen (W. H. Bowen), and for some time 
proprietor of the Hickory Hill dairy farm. 
In 1881 Mr. Riley entered the employ of Mr. 
AYayne Ramsay, cashier First National Bank, 
as secretary in his private business and in the 
care of the estate of Dr. J. B. Bowen, de- 
ceased, and in looking after lands in which 
Mr. Ramsay had interests. Mr. Riley re- 
mained in the enipk)y of these land associa- 
tions until January 1, 1888, at which time 
he was elected secretary of the Board of Re-. 
gents of the University of Wisconsin, which 
position he still holds, January 1, 1893. 



208 



BIOGRAPniCAL REVIEW OF 



Mr. Itiley joined the Masonic fraternity 
soen after his majority and united with the 
First Presbyterian Churcli of Madison, upon 
profession of faith, May 3, 1875. 

iENRY SCHELER, of Madison, Wis- 
consin, the successful proprietor of the 
University Meat Marivet, located at 
621 University avenue, established his busi- 
ness there in 1866. Ever since he started in 
tliis locality Mr. Scheler has been very suc- 
cessful and his market has become one of the 
best kept and arranged markets, as well as 
one of the best known in tlic entire city. 
Ever since coming to Madison, in 1858, Mr. 
Scheler has been engaged in his life work, 
that of butchering, lie can)e to this city di- 
rect from New York, where lie had settled 
upon coming to America from Germany, in 
1852. Wiiile in New York he pursued 
farming in Montgomery county. 

Our subject was born in Saxony, Germany, 
September 7, 1836. lie comes of a good old 
German family, of healtiiy rugged ancestors, 
who were long-lived. His father, Paul Sche- 
ler, was a native of Saxony, where the father 
of subject grew to manhood and spent his ac- 
tive life engaged in following his trade of 
butcher, until his death, which occurred 
when he was seventy-eiglit years of age, hav- 
ing lived all his life in the province that gave 
him birth. lie married a Saxon woman, 
Elizabeth Meyer, who died at about the same 
ace as her husband. In religion the family 
were old Protestants. 

Mr. Scheler. our subject, was the youngest 
of thirteen ciiihlren and grew to manhood un- 
der his father's instruction, where lie learned 
his useful trade of butcher. He was the 
third one of the family to leave the <,i!<l world 



for the new. Another followed him and all 
four are yet living and all are married and 
are surrounded with families. While yet a 
boy, only seventeen, our sul)ject set out to 
seek his fortune in America, sailing from 
Bremen on a sailing vessel and landed in 
New York after some se\ en or eight weeks' 
voyage on the briny sea. After landing he 
found employment as a farm laliorcr in Mont- 
gomery county. New York. He was still a 
a single man when he came to Madison, but 
was tnarried in that city to Miss Sophia 
Schmidt, who was born in Westphalia, Prus- 
sia, Germany. She camo of (rerman par- 
ents, who died in their native land. Prior 
to their death the daughter, Sophia, had 
come to America, about 1866 and some few 
years afterward was married to Mr. Scheler, 
in Madison. She died in this city, in 1882, 
when but a little past middle life. She was 
a good Christian woman and kind wife and 
motlier. She bore her husband six children, 
namely: Ellen, died after her marriage to 
Lepold Rush and left no issue; Otto A., 
bookkeeper for his father; Carl, with his 
father; George, a student in the business col- 
lege; Rose, at home; Emil, at home and in 
school. The second marriage of our subject 
occurred in this city to Mrs. Fredrica Rolotf, 
nee Schmideman, born in Mecklenburg, Ger- 
many, and came to the United States with 
her parents when quite young. Her first 
marriage occurred in Pheasant Branch, Wis- 
consin, to August Roloflf, who also came from 
Mecklenburg, Germany, to America, when a 
young man and settled in Pheasant Branch, 
Dane county, where he operated a public ho- 
tel until his death, which occurred when ho 
was forty- two years of age. He left twp 
children, namely: Albert, now assisting Mr. 
Scheler in his busines, is married to Dora 
Zimmerschiet and resides in Madison; Ed- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



209 



as- 
II e 



ward L. is the other son, and he is also 
sisting his stepfather in his market. 
married Amelia Zo])her, of Middletown. 

Mr. and Mrs. Schelcr have no children by 
their marriage. They, with all their children, 
are members of the Uerinan Lutheran Ciiurch. 
Although our suliject and his sons are now 
strong Democrats they were formerly strong 
Republicans. Mr. Sclieler is a member of 
the C. C. Wa8hl)nni Post, CI. A. R., No. 11. 
When the war broke out our subject became 
interested in the cause of his adopted coun- 
try and enlisted, August 14, 1862, in Com- 
pany D, Twenty-third Wisconsin Volunteer 
Infantry and served in his company as a 
private until the close of the war, being dis- 
charged July 4, 1865. During his term of 
service he saw some iuird fighting, without 
being in many engagements with his regi- 
ment. He participated in the battle of 
Arkansas Rost, Greenville, Mississippi, at 
Vicksburg and Champion Hills and Black 
river. He also went through the Red River 
campaign, where he was captured, but suc- 
ceeded in making his escape and joined his 
regiment, after which he participated in the 
battles of I'ort Morgan, Fort Spanish and 
Fort Blakely. In all these engagements he 
passed without receivinga wound, although his 
comrades fell all around him. He was, also, 
detailed as regimental baker when in camp, 
and did much good service for his regiment 
in this department. He was a favorite with 
all his comrades and officers. His popularity 
then acquired has justly continued, and he 
now enjoys the favorable regard of all who 
know him. 

— •"•"^ SuS ' S " " " 

PILLIAM F. riERSTORFF, engaged 
in the luinlier business in Middleton, 
Dane county, was born in Fenewitt 
township, Germany, June 30, 1848, a son of 




Carl and Catherine (Bramer) Pierstorff. The 
father was born in Bridenbuck, Germany, 
August 36, 1810, was a blacksmith and 
farmer l)y trade, and came to the United 
States in 1857, on the sailing vessel Hum- 
boldt. He remained in New York about two 
weeks, where he lost a son, and then purchased 
forty acres of improved laiul in Dane county, 
Wisconsin. Five years later he sold that 
place, bought forty acres in Spring Dale, 
this county, five years after sold that land 
and purchased 150 acres in Verona township, 
but two years ago retired from active labor 
and ^settled where our suliject now lives, and 
where he died October 0, 1889. He was a 
prominent politician, and voted tiie Repub- 
lican ticket since Lincoln's nomination. His 
father, Carl Pierstorff, was engaged in black- 
smithing all his life, and his death occurred 
at the age of seventy-seven years. The mother 
of our subject was born in the same place as 
her husband, in October, 1810, and died in 
Spring Dale, Dane county, Fel)ruary 3, 1857. 
Her parents were born in tiie same locality 
in Germany, and the father was a miller by 
occupation. The mother died at about the age 
ot fifty-two years, and the father in the same 
year. Mr. and Mrs. Pierstorff reared a family 
of fourteen children, eight of whom still 
survive, three sous and five daughters, and 
the former are nearly all engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits. One son, August, was a soldier 
in the late war, a memlier of Company B, 
Eleventh Wisconsin Regiment, for which he 
now draws a pension. 

William F., the subject of this sketch, was 
reared to farm life, and educated in the dis- 
trict schools, and also six weeks in a select 
school. At the age of twenty-two years he 
went to Montana, where, September 10, 
1871, he engaged in a gristmill with his 
brother. One and a half years later he fol- 



210 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



lowed raining one season; went to Salt Lake 
on horseback, a distance of 800 miles, in 
company with six others; from there went to 
Toelle city, enf);aged in mining; and in 1874 
returned as far as Nebraska, where he clerked 
for his brother-in-law in Kiverton, and also 
worked in the hay fields during the summer. 
In 1875 Mr. fierstorff returned to Paoli, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, where he found 
employment in a gristmill, and the follow- 
ini' year rented his father's farm. He next 
purchased a hotel and saloon in Verona, 
which ho conducted five years, and while 
there served as Town Clerk and Justice of 
the I'eace, also conducted a general store. 
In the spring of 1884 he sold all his property; 
the following fall was elected to the position 
of Sheriff, in the spring of 1887 bought 200 
acres of fine land in Middleton, and also 
bought the lumber business of Kuptke 
Brothers, which he has since conducted. 
Since his residence in this city Mr. Pierstorff 
has been chosen Chairman of the Township 
Eoard, Justice of the Peace, treasurer of the 
School Board, and as treasurer of the Mid- 
dleton Fire & Lightning Insurance Company. 
In his social relations, he is Senior Warden 
of the Masonic order. No. 80, and Treasurer 
of the I. O. O. F., LodgeNo. 158. 

September 29, 1876, our subject was 
united in marriage with Miss ]\[ary Prien, a 
native of this county, and a daughter of John 
Prien. To this union has been born the 
following children: William H., born in 
Verona, December 22, 1877; George B., 
March 30, 1880; and Frank L., June 20, 
1888. Mr. and Mrs. Pierstorff are active 
members of the Lutheran Church. 



TT-rT.MlREN GAMMONS, a farmer of 
\\ \l' '*ane county, Wisconsin, was born 
'■^^"j in Middleborough, Massachusetts, 
October 27, 1822, a son of Jairus and Mary 
(Tillotson) Gammons, natives also of that 
county. The grandfather of our subject, 
Ebenezer Gammons, was an old Revolutionary 
soldier, and his death occurred in Middlebor- 
ough, Massachusetts. The maternal grand- 
father was also an old Revolutionary soldier. 
Jairus Gammons was a forgeman and farmer 
by occupation, and he died at his okl home 
March 13, 1840. Ilis wife, the mother of 
our subject, died when the latter was an in- 
fant. The parents had a family of fourteen 
children, twelve of whom lived to be over 
fifty years of age, and three still survive. 

Warren Gammons, the subject of our 
sketch, remained at home until twenty-one 
years of age, engaged as a sailor and farmer, 
then followed the puddlers' trade five years. 
In 1849 he came with his wife and one 
child to Wisconsin, going by railroad to 
Fall River, Massachusetts, by boat to New 
York, up the river to Albany, by lakes to 
Milwaukee, and were then i)rought by a 
farmer to within one and one-half miles of 
where they now reside. Mr. (jammons pur- 
chased 160 acres of wild land, erected a frame 
house in the western part of Dane county, 
18 x20 feet, and twelve years later built their 
present fine dwelling. He has always voted 
the Democratic ticket, his first presidential 
vote havinfj been cast for James K. Polk. 
He has served as Chairman of the Town 
Board eight years. Township Clerk a numl)er 
of years, as Town Superintendent of Schools, 
and as Justice of the Peace several years. In 
his social relations tie is a member of the 
Masonic order, A. F. & A. M. 

Mr. Gammons was married September 15, 
1846, to Miss Sarah (Turney, who was born 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



311 



at Rochester, Massachnsetts, June 5, 1824, a 
daugliter of Samuel and Sarah (Shurtlelf) 
Gurney, also natives of that State. The 
father followed the sea many years, and also 
owned a very large farm. His death occurred 
in his native State, February 23, 1862, at the 
age of seventy-seven years. Mr. and Mi's. 
Gammons had live children, namely: Emily, 
born May 20, 1848, is the wife of E. A. 
Mann, of Michigan; Lucinda, born Octolier 
23, 1850, married Dr. James Coolidf^e, of 
Charles City, Iowa; Leonard W., an attorney 
of Minneapolis, married Miss F. M. Barr, 
and has two children; Albert E., a farmer of 
Bridgewater, South Dakota, married Minnie 
Scott, and has one daughter; and Frank A. 
The wife and mother died in Middleton, 
Dane county, Wisconsin. May 23, 1877. 
September 15, 1878, Mr. Gammons married 
Mrs. Ellen S. (Keene) Allen, who was born 
in Plymouth county, Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 14, 1837, a daughter of George H. 
and Mahala (Cahoon) Keene. The father 
was also born in Massachusetts, March 15, 
1812, a son of Abraham Keene, who was re- 
lated to the first Governor of Plymouth Col- 
ony. George II., the father of Mrs. Gam- 
mons, followed the sea from early boyhood 
until his sixteenth year, and rose from the 
position of cabin boy to captain of merchant 
and passenger steamers. He died in Middle- 
borough, Massachusetts, August 30, 1874. 
His wife was born March 24, 181G, a daugh- 
ter of Stephen A. and Phoebe (Kendrick) 
Cahoon, natives also of Massachusetts. The 
father was born October 17, 1779, and died 
December 26, 1842; and the mother, born 
August 8, 1775, died October 11, 1848. The 
great-grandparents of Mrs. Gammons were 
Moses and Cynthia (Swift) Keene. Mrs. 
Gammons was tirst married to Peleg P. 
Allen, who was born in the town of Marion, 



then called Sepikan, Massachusetts, a son of 
Joseph and Polly (Briggs) Allen, albO natives 
of that State. They spent their entire lives 
there, dying at a very old age. P. P. Allen 
was engaged as superintendent of tiie At- 
lantic Guano Company, and was drowned at 
Atwood's Key, Bahama Islands, at the age of 
thirty-two years. Mrs. Gammons' eldest 
brother, George M., was a member of that 
company, and he died in Cuba, at the age of 
twenty-live years and nine days. Mrs. Gam- 
mons is a member of the Congregational 
Church. 

IHROF. RICHARD T. ELY, prominent 
in educational an<l literary circles, now 
director of the School of Economics, 
Political Science and History, in the Wiscon- 
sin University, was born in Ripley, New 
York, in 1854. His parents, Ezra S. and 
Harriet G. (Mason) Ely, were natives of 
Pennsylvania and New York, respectively. 
They still reside in the Empire State, where 
the father has followed civil engineering for 
many years. Prof. Ely's ancestors on his 
father's side, settled in Lyme, Connecticut, in 
1060, whence the paternal grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch removed to Buffalo, New 
York. The Professor's parents have three 
children, two sons and one daughter. 

Prof. Ely of this biography was early 
made acquainted with the practical side of 
life. He resided on a farm until he was 
eighteen years of age, having at ane time 
entire control of the place. He was also 
employed for a while as one of his father's 
engineering corps in laying out a railroad. 
In the meantime he completed the course of 
studies at the State Normal School at Fredonia. 
He then entered Dartmouth College, where 



212 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



lie passed his freshman year. Thence, he 
went to Columbia College, at which lie 
graduated in 1876, and then, as holder of 
the Fellowship of Letters of that institution, 
he continued his studies in the German uni- 
versities, receiving the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy from Heidelberg, in 1879. While 
a student in Berlin he prepared for United 
States Department of State a paper on Ger- 
man railroads, which was widely noticed in 
this country. 

On his return to America lie delivered 
courses of lectures at Cornell and other in- 
stitutions, but was soon called to the Johns 
Hopkins University, wdiere he occupied the 
ciiair of Political Economy until 1892, when 
he accepted a call to the University of Wis- 
consin. In June, 1892, the degree of LL.D. 
was conferred on him by Hobart College. 

His life has been that of the man of affairs, 
as well as that of the scholar, and in all 
things he is eminently practical. lie was a 
member of the City Tax Commission of Balti- 
more for a year, and for two years served as 
a member of the Maryland State Tax Com- 
mission, in which manner he came into con- 
tact with practical politics. The experience 
gained in those capacities caused him to form- 
ulate ideas, which have crystallized into his 
present views. He enjoys, to an unusual 
degree, the confidence of the laboring classes. 
On the other hand, he has many relatives and 
intimate friends who are connected with 
great corporations, and the numerous invita- 
tions lui has to aildress various organizations, 
is stifBcient evidence of the esteem in which 
he is held by business men throughout the 
country. His address before tlie Boston 
Merchants' Association has especially been 
favorably commented on. 

As secretary of the American Economic As- 
sociation lie had the management of its 



affairs, from its foundation in 1885 until 
1892, and although its business is not large, 
yet lie has succeeded where many would have 
failed. He has lectured at Chautauqua for 
several years, and is the director of its School 
of Political Economy. He is also secretary 
of the Christian Social Union. 

He has contributed largely to leading 
periodicals and written many books on social 
and economic science, nearly all of his works 
having gone through several large editions: 
" French and German Socialism," " Past and 
Present of Political Economy," " Labor 
Movement in America," '• Taxation in Ameri- 
can States and Cities," " Problems of To- 
day," " Political Economy" (of which over 
30,000 copies have i)een sold), and " Social 
As])ects of Christianity." There is a Japan- 
ese translation of " The Past and Present of 
Political Economy," and the " Political 
Economy." 



f GEORGE SOFLCH.— Among the suc- 
cessful business ventures of the city of 
" Madison, and one which has been ap- 
preciated by the citizens, is that of the 
meat market conducted by the gentleman, 
whose well-known name opens this sketch. 
This place of business was opened in 1853, 
and it was for years known by the name of 
the Old City Meat Market. Mr. Soelch took 
possession of it in I860, and is now the oldest 
dealer of the kind in the city who has been 
continually in the business. 

The birth of our subject took place in Ba- 
varia, Germany, March, 26, 1836, and there 
he grew up and was educated in the same 
place and was the first of his family to come 
to the United States. He took passage in 
the spring of 1853, from Bremer Havre, on 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONtilN. 



213 



a sailer called the Ocean, and finally landed 
in New York city, after a passage of thirty- 
four days. He came thence to Chicago. The 
father of our subject was a most worthy mer- 
chant in the meat line in Bavaria, and there 
he died in 1889, at the age of eighty-six 
years. At the same time he conducted a 
hotel in his nacive place, and when he died 
he was mourned by all, as he had been a good 
and consistent member of the Lutheran 
Church. The motlier of our subject is yet 
living in Bavaria. Iler maiden name was 
Miss Barbara Keaste. 

Our subject has a brother, Philip, and a 
sister, Mrs. Caroline iiaithel, who are yet 
living in their native country of Germany, 
the former the owner and conductor of his 
father's business. Another brother, Charles, 
is living in Madison and is in the employ of 
his brother, our subject. 

Mr. Soelcli was joined in matrimoy, to 
Miss Henrietta Keastner, who was born near 
her husband's birthplace in Germany, and 
came to this country in 1871, and settled in 
Madison. She is the only one of the family 
living in this country. Three l)rothers who 
came are now deceased. Her i)arents lived 
and died in Germany, and were good and 
worthy members of the Lutheran Church. 

Mr. and Mrs. Soelch of this notice are the 
parents of no children of their own. but that 
has not prevented their kind hearts from go- 
ing out to a nephew, whom they have made 
their own. This is the son of a brother of the 
wife of our suliject, and his name is John F., 
a bright and promising young man, who is 
engaged with Mr. Soelch in the business. 
They are members of the German Lutheran 
Church, to which Mr. Soelch has been a 
liberal supporter, and both he and his nephew 
are sound in Democratic principles. 

Mr. Soelch deals in live stock to some ex- 



tent also. He came t6 this city in 1857, and 
has been a resident here ever since. He learned 
the trade in Chicago, where he spent the four 
years after coming to the United States. He 
is a n)an who has won many friends by his 
honest business methods. 



-^ 



^(S)' 



^ 



tOUlSA M. (BRAYTON) SAWIN, the 
first teacher in Madison, now residing 
with her son-in-law, G. W. Bird, of 
Madison, was born in the town of Wilna, 
Jefferson county, New York, May 3, 1816. 
Her father, Jeremiah Brayton, was born in 
Otsego county, New York, and his father was 
Thomas Brayton, who settled in Wilna, 
bought land, engaged in farming, kept a 
puidic house and filled various ofticial posi- 
tions. He spent his last years in Wilna. 
The maiden name of his wife was Kuby 
Johnson. The father of Mrs. Sawin was reared 
on a farm, in Wilna, remained there until 
1835, then with his wife and four children, 
he removed to Ohio, traveling with a team to 
Sackett's Harbor and then, via lakes and 
Welland canal to Cleveland, and lived there 
until 1837, when became to the Territory of 
AViscousin, via lakes to Milwaukee, and then 
with ox teams to Aztalan, Jetierson county. 
At that time Wisconsin was very sparsely 
settled, and the greater part of the land was 
owned by the Go\-ernnient. Mr. Brayton 
claimed one quarter section of the Govern- 
ment land, on Crawfish river and erected a log 
honseon the banks. This was really a log house, 
as no sawed lumber entered into its construc- 
tion. The boards to cover the roof were rived 
by hand and the boards for the doors and 
fioor were hewn out. For years there was 
no road through that section, and Milwaukee 
was the principal market for grain and stock. 



214 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Mr. Brayton resided oti this farm until liis 
deatli, April 19, 18G9, aged seventy-five years. 
The maiden name of the mother of our sub- 
ject was Maria Manville, born in New York 
State, and died at the home of Mrs. Sawin, in 
Jefferson county, June 20, 1882, aged eighty- 
three years. 

Mrs. Sawin received a good education in 
her eastern home, and her services were 
sought as a teaclier, and in 1839 she was em- 
ployed by Mr. A. A. Bird to come to Madison, 
and in the spring of 1839 slie commenced 
the first school ever taught here. It was held 
in a log building, which had been erected]for 
a dwelling, and the furniture was of tiie most 
primitive kind. The seats were made of 
slabs, with underpins for legs. Holes were 
bored in the logs and pins inserted and a 
slab laid in served as a desk for the larger 
pupils to write on. Mrs. Sawin did not be- 
come a millionaire from her salary, as it was 
only 82 a week, and she paid $1 of it for 
board. Later she taught at^ Jefferson. There 
her sclioolhouse was one side and her board- 
ing place on the otlier side of the river, and 
she journeyed back and forth in a canoe. 

She was married .lanuary 25, 1843, to 
George Sawin, a native of New York State, 
a builder by trade, and at the time of his mar- 
riage he was engaged in business in Laporte, 
where he continued until 1847, when he 
moved to Watertown, and continued his busi- 
ness there until his death, in 1852. After 
his death Mrs. Sawin returned to her father's 
home and resumed teaching. This laily was 
engaged in the occupation of teaching until 
fifty years of age, but now resides with her 
daughter, Mrs. J5ird. Mrs. Sawin has two 
children, namely: Albert and Maria. The 
former died in the late war in Company l'\ 
Twenty-ninth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. 
Maria is the wife of (Jeorge W. Bird. 




^^ANLEY S. ROWLEY, prominent 



V 
Huiong the real-estate brokers and a 

"^.*iv=" man who has been closely associated 
witii the interests of Madison is the subject of 
this biographical sketch. In March, 1890, he 
became interested in his present business. 
His early associations of Madison date back 
to 1870. at which date he established a gen- 
tlemen's furnisliing house, including hats, 
caps and ready made clothing, and was thus 
engaged continously for twelve years, when 
he sold out and engaged as a commercial 
traveler with the well-known hatters, Clark 
Brothers of New York city, continuing with 
them until 1890. Most of his life has been 
spent as an active business man. Just pre- 
vious to his coining to Madison he spent 
five years as a clothing merchant in Ossian, 
Winneshiek county, Iowa. This was imme- 
diately after the close of the war, and 
he had come to Iowa from Niles, Berrien 
county, Michigan, that being the scene of his 
early life and boyhood days, although t)<)rii 
in the State of Vermont in 1842. He came 
West with his parents at the early age |of 
twelve. At the breaking out of the war he 
enlisted at the first call for three-year men, 
entering the Eleventh Michigan Infantry as 
Sergeant- Major of his regitnent and was thus 
connected until 1863, when he was transferred 
to the Twelfth Michigan Cavalry regiment, 
being made Adjutant of his regiment. He 
continued in active service for a period of 
abiitit thirty months from the date of his 
enlistment, participating in numerous engage- 
ments, incliidinjT the battle of Shiloh and 
the attack on Morgan during the latter's raid 
through Kentucky, besides other less impor- 
tant ones. Although escaping without a 
scratch the hardships of army life told upon 
his physical strength, and after several 
attempts at recuperating his impaired healtii 



DANE COUNTY WISCONSIN. 



215 



without leaving tlie field he was liiially coin- 
pelleil to resign, and receiving iiis honoral.)le 
disciiarge came back to Michigan. 

After liis retnrn home he engaged in Lis 
old occupation in JN'iies for some time before 
he decided to try his fortune in the far West. 
Since he came to Madison he lias been inden- 
tified to some extent with the local politics 
of the city, having held the office of City 
Treasurer. He is a decided Republican and 
looks after the best interests of his party in 
the city. Mr. Rowley is a member of the C. 
C. Washburn Rost, G. A. R., No. 17; is a 
Master Mason and affiliates with the Knights 
Templars in Iowa. 

At the bride's home, in the capital city, he 
was married to Julia M. Brooks, one of the 
worthy daughters of this city, who was born, 
reared and educated within its borders, and 
the daughter of one of the well-respected and 
old citizens of this place, Abiel E. Brooks, 
who had lived here for over forty years, and 
whose death occurred July, 1891, at the 
advanced age of ninety-one years. He was 
prominently known here as the pro|3rietor of 
the Brook's Addition to the city of Madison, 
a valuable piece of property. Mr. Brooks had 
been active in local matters, having held the 
office of City Alderman, being a stanch 
Republican in politics. He was born in the 
little State of Rhode Island in 1800, 
whence he removed to New Yoi-k, when that 
State was in its early development, figuring 
conspicuously in the building of different 
Government works there, finally being the 
contractor in the construction of the canal in 
Canada. Later he removed toMichigan, being 
one of the early and prominent citizens of 
Niles, which he aided in developing. In 
1847 he removed to Madison and two years 
later, in 1849, helped organize a company, of 
which he was made captain, to n\ake an 



overland trip to California. After searching 
for the glittering dust for about three years, 
with some success, he made the trip back to 
Madison, via the Isthmus of Panama, across 
the gulf, up the Mississippi river and thence 
to Madison. Here he invested the money he 
had gathered from Mother Earth in valuable 
real estate tliat in due time brough him rich 



returns. 



■^^/^'^4:^?/^/^^ 



^OIIN NADER, architect and civil engi- 
"i;j neer, is one of the oldest and most profi- 
•^Txi cient of his profession in the city of 
Madison. He came to Wisconsin in 1869, 
locating in Milwaukee, while engaged on 
United States lighthouse duty on Lake Michi- 
gan and Green bay for one year; he was then 
employed by the city to take the charge of the 
sewerage department, which he conducted un- 
til, in 1871, he was appointed Assistant United 
States Engineer in charge of the Wisconsin 
river improvement, with headquarters at Por- 
tage, where he established a shipyard, built 
his outfit and conducted the improvement 
with success until 1876, when the funds gave 
out. [n 1873 he moved headquarters to 
Madison in order to expedite his work. He 
then established an office in the city and was 
elected City Engineer by the Common Coun- 
cil, which office he held until 1883. During 
this time Mr. Nader pursued the calling of 
architect in addition to that of engineer. He 
now has a considerable practice in all kinds 
of architectural work in the city and about 
the State 

In 1885 he was again elected City Engineer 
and designed and superintended the building 
of the present system of sewerage of the city 
of Madison, which when completed according 
to his plans, will be ecjual to any in the coun- 
try. 



216 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Prior to coming to Wisconsin, Mr. Xader 
occupied positions o( prominence in the Uni- 
ted States Corps of Engineers as superinten- 
dent of Forts Hamilton, Tompkins, Wads- 
wortli and fort at Sandy Hook, under Gen- 
erals Delatield and Xewton. Colonels Prime 
and Roberts of the Engineer Corps. It was 
our subject who made the preliminary surveys 
of a portion of flellgate. New York city, in 
lS(3t3. from which the subsequent improve- 
ments were planned by General Newton. Lat- 
er he built an actual section of sea coast 
battery at West Point for the instruction of 
the cjidets. While engaged in New York 
harbor fortitications Mr. Nader made some 
submarine borings around Fort Lafayette and 
establisheil the theory of subsidence of Mr. 
Lewis, geologist of the Long Island Histori- 
cal Society, by finding an ancient meadow 
tifty-three feet below the bed of the bay. In 
all Mr. Nader spent over ten years in most 
useful work, and while young in years when 
he came to Wisconsin, he was old in e.xperi- 
ence of a useful nature. Owintr to the failure 
of his health, Mr. Nader spent from 18S7 to 
1S92 in the State of Virginia, there planning 
and laying out the towns of Big Stone Gap 
and Damascus, and a large addition to Bris- 
tol. Virginia, on the Tennessee line. AVhile 
there he made many local improvements in 
streets, bridges and buildings. He designed 
and superintended a fine opera house and 
many fine stores and private residences. 

While in Madison Mr. Nader designed the 
Dane county and Sauk county asylums, Bav- 
tield courlhouse, St. Patrick's Church, M.^di- 
son, and churches at Oregon, Muscoda and 
Roxbury and many other tine public and pri- 
vate buildings. The past season he designed 
a fine county house for St. Joseph's county. 
Michigan. Our subject was born December 
31, 1S3S, in Westchester county. State of 



New York. He received his education in the 
common schools of his native county and his 
academic course at Brooklyn, New York. He 
adopted his profession early in life, in fact, 
while he was yet a student and before he was 
eigliteen years of age he occupied the position 
of master mechanic at Fort Delaware, and 
from that time on he became proficient in 
his profession until he held the hijihest civil 
assistant position under the United States 
Engineer Corps. He had special charge of 
erecting the first fifteen-inch gun at Fort 
Tompkins in 1S()2. and the first twenty-inch 
gun at Fort Hamilton in 1865, and on account 
of proficiency has reached a position almost at 
the head of his callinor. 

Mr. Nader is a member of the Wisconsin 
Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, and 
has been vice-president of the department of 
Arts for several terms. He has been an ac- 
tive contributor to this institution at their 
semi-annual meetings. 

In 1876 he contributed a paper on the 
ocean tides, the work of several years, and 
with it produced a new co-tidal chart, possess- 
ing some entirely new and interesting features. 
He has always been in favor of all measures 
tending to the development and improvement 
of both city and county and has always en- 
deavored to contribute to the progress of the 
gooii and the useful. 

In religion he is an active member of the 
Catholic Church and expects to preserve his 
standing for the remainder of his days. In 
]>olitics he is a Democrat and loyally sup- 
ports all reasonable measures of tliat organi- 
zation. He has twice in his life held office; 
once as School Commissioner of Kings county, 
New York, and once as Supervisor of the 
Fourth Ward of Madison. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



217 



fOIlN THOMAS KLUBEKTANZ. de- 
ceased, was horn in HaiDpden, Columbia 
county, Wisconsin, March 17, 1847, a 
son of John S. Kluliertanz. The latter came 
by sailing vessel from Bayern to America, 
and after landing in New Yor]<, went im?nedi- 
ately to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, tiience on 
foot to Hampden, Columbia county, where 
he took up Government land, paying ten 
shillings per acre. John S. Kliibertanz had 
eleven children. 

John T. Klubertanz received a limited 
education, and remained at home until 
twenty-one years of age. lie then worked 
at dilferont places for a time, spent thirteen 
years on a farm at East liristol, and then 
bought and improved the place of 160 acres, 
liis wid(jw still owns. His death occurred 
on this farm April 18, 1892, and he was bur- 
ied in the Catholic cemetery. 

John T. Klubertanz was married on Octo- 
ber 12, 1875, to (Jatharina Wolfert, who was 
born in Kewaunee, Kewaunee county, Wis- 
consin, September 30, 1854. Her parents 
came from Wurtemburg, Germany, to 
America, in 1848, settling in Brown county, 
Wisconsin. Her father died December 2, 
1885, aged seventy years, eleven months, and 
seventeen days. Her mother, born May 
15, 1816, is still livinrr. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wolfert were the parents of three chihJren: 
Margareth, born June 13, 1851, wife of 
Joseph Metzler, of Brown county; Catharina, 
wife of our subject; and Andrew Wolfert, 
born November 28, 1858, married and living 
at Iron Mountain, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. 
John T. Klubertanz had nine children: 
Henry, born June 17, 1876, who died July 
26, 1876, aged five weeks; John Albert, born 
June 29, 1877; Joseph Martin, born March 
10, 1879; Anna Apollonia, born January 3, 
1881, at home; Anna Margareth, born Feb- 



ruary 8, 1883, deceased June 13, 1886; 
Frank Clemens, born April 1, 1885; Antoni 
Joseph, born March 18, 1887; Anna Catha- 
rina, born September 14, 1889; and Mary 
Florentina, born March 21. 1892. 

With the assistance of her sons Mrs. 
Klubertanz has continued the manaa-ement 
of tjie farm since her husband's death. He 
was an industrious, hard-working man. and 
was respected by all who knew him. 



^ICIKJLAS ANDERSON, a farmer of 
J™ Dane county, Wisconsin, was born on 
■^eyi section 4, Albion township, this county, 
October 22, 1856. a son of (Jle O. and Jufia 
(Beterson) Anderson, natives of Soo-en, Nor- 
way. They came to America at the atJ-e of 
twenty-three and twelve years, respectively, 
and were married in Albion township, Dane 
county, Wisconsin, October 31, 1851. Thev 
were the parents of twelve children, seven 
sons and five daughters, all of whom are now 
living, and the sons and two daughters are 
still nn married. The father, a farmer l)y 
occupation, died January 31, 1888, and tliu 
mother still resides on the old homestead, 
aged sixty years. 

Nicholas Anderson, the sulijert of this 
sketch, was educated in the district schools of 
his township, and also in the Albion Acad- 
emy. He was first employed as salesman in 
the Grange store, at Stoughton, and followed 
the same occupation with W. H. H. Coon, 
at Utica, nearly one year. He then engaged 
in general farming three years, after which 
he was employed by K. Mikelson, in the sale 
of groceries and clothing, and keeping books. 
He ne.xt formed a partnership with O. G. and 
C. H. Hansen, in the tobacco business. In 
1887 Mr. Anderson purchased his partner's 



218 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



interest, and conducted the business alone two 
years. After his father's death he and his 
brother Henry l)OUght out the heirs of the 
old homestead, consisting of 160 acres, where 
he has since been engaged in fanning. Po- 
litically he affiliates with the Kepublican 
party, and has been twice elected Supervisor 
of Albion township, lie is a member of 
the Lutheran Church, and during the litiga- 
tion, which divided the congregation, he was 
one of the few to take a leadinjr part. He 
succeeded in saving for his party the church 
property, and winning a victory in the Su- 
preme Court of Wisconsin. 



^. 



irgpjBILLIAM M. FORESMAN, general 

■ \/\;' fig*^'"^ f*"' the passenger and freight 
i '^^ji^'^j ',)usiness of the Chicago it North 
Western Railroad, at Madison, Wisconsin, is 
the subject of this sketch, lie was born in 
Circleville, Pickaway county, Ohio. March 
28, 1849, a son of C. M. and Susan M. 
(Nash) Foresman, the latter born in Roches- 
ter, New York, in June, 1828, and married 
in Granville, Ohio. The father was born in 
Circleville, and later moved to Lafayette, In- 
diana, where he remained for a period of five 
years. When our subject was ten years of age 
the family removed to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
tlien went on to Madison, reaching there in 
1801. Notwithstanding these changes the 
education of the family of seven children 
had not been neglected, our subject attending 
school steadily, wherever the family happened 
to be. 

At ^Lvlison William entered first the 
high school, later the university, but did not 
entirely finish the course at the latter institu- 
tion. After leaving school he gratitied his 
love of variety by traveling, visiting relatives 



much scattered, making trips to Utah and 
Colorado, and also to the South. After his 
return he went into business with the Mad- 
ison Fire Insurance Company, at Madison, 
and spent two years at that business. In 
1872 he entered the employ of the Chicago 
ct Northwestern Railroad, starting in the 
freight house, and since that time has been 
working his way steadily upward until he 
now is the general agent, an office of high 
responsibility. This position was given him 
March, 1882, and he has tilled it to the satis- 
faction of his employers. 

The marriage of Mr. F^iresman took place 
December 21, 1880, to Miss Ella Crane, of 
Portland, Michigan. She was born at Great 
Barrington, Massachusetts. The mother of 
our subject was removed by death at Madison, 
in IST-t. Both himself and wife are nn'in- 
bers of Grace Episcopal Church of this city. 
Socially he is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and also belongs to other orders 
in the city. In his political feelings he is a 
Republican, voting always with that party. 
He is well and favorably known through 
this city and vicinity. 



SRED W. DUFRENNE, of Dane county 
was born in Madison, Wisconsin, May 
It), 1864, a son of Fred W. and Adelaide 
(Nelles) Dufrenne. The father was born in 
Sotommelen, Germany, February 28, 1835, 
a son of Remme and Anna Dufrenne. Remme 
was a native of France, a soldier of the 
French war, and his death occurred at a very 
old age. The father of our subject was em- 
ployed as a mail carrier in Germany, when a 
young man, and at the age of eighteen years 
he began to learn the shoemakers' trade with 
John Bushman, with whom ho remaineti 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONHIN. 



319 



tliree years. In 1856 he caine to the United 
States, on tlie steainei' Biirussia, and after 
landing in New York, went iminediately to 
Chicago, where he followed his trade two 
months; followed the same occupation at Ija 
Crosse, Wisconsin, about seven months; was 
with F. A. Stoltz, of Madison, Wisconsin, 
for a time; was clerk and manager of a gen- 
eral store at Black Earth, from 1867 to 1869, 
and in the latter year opened a store in Mid- 
dleton, with S. Shuringer. Four years later 
Mr. Dufrenne bought the entire store, later 
sold a half interest to D. Lyle, and they con- 
tinued for many years under the firm name 
of Dufrenne & J^ylfe- Durinjj the late war 
he served in Company I, Battery D, for 
eleven months, and was a Democrat in ids 
political views, although his first presidential 
vote was cast for A. Lincoln. Religiously, 
he was a member of the Catholic Church. 
The mother of our subject was born in the 
same place as her husband, April 8, 1835, a 
daughter of Henry and Anna (Pesoh) Nelles, 
also natives of Germany. The mother died 
in her native place at the age of forty-two 
years. The father was born in 1807, was a 
market gardener and farmer by occupation, 
and came to the United States in 1857, in 
company with his seven children. After a 
voyage of sixteen days he landed in New 
York and then came to La Crosse, Wisconsin. 
A short time afterward he purchased 120 
acres of partly improverl land in Cross Plains 
township, r)ane county, where he remained 
until about 1872, and in that year went to 
Chicago and retired from active labor. He 
died at the home of his son, Winnand, in 
that city, at the age of sixty-nine years. Mr. 
and Mrs. F. W. Dufrenne were married in 
Madison, Wisconsin, July 23, 1858, and 
reared a family of nine children, five now liv- 
ing, namely: Anna, born June 28, 1859, 



married Philip Snyder, and they have one 
child, Willie; Fred W., onr subject; Martin, 
boiMi October 4, 1866; Lizzie, born January 
2, 1869; and Lena, born February 14, 1876, 
is at home. 

Fred W. Dufrenne, the subject of this 
sketch, is now at the head of iiis deceased fa- 
ther's store, with Mr. Lyle. He is a Demo- 
crat in his political views and hie first vote 
was cast for Cleveland. In 1889 he was 
united in marriage with Emma Schroeder, 
who was born in Yerona, Wisconsin, April 
17, 1870, a daughter of Jacob and Salome 
(Minch) Schroeder. The father was born in 
Germany, September 29, 1841, and died Oc- 
tober 31, 1875. He was a son of Casper and 
Margaret Schroeder. Casper was engaged 
in a paper mill until 1851, when he came to 
America, with a wife and five children, and 
first rented land in Verona, Dane county, 
Wisconsin. He then pui'chased 160 acres of 
unimproved land, erected a small lious_e and 
other necessary improvements, and later 
bought and moved to another home of forty 
acres. There the father spent the remain- 
der of his life, dying at about the age of 
sixty- two years. His widow then moved to 
Madison, Wisconsin, whert she died at the 
home of her daughter, also at about sixty-five 
years of age. Jacob, the father of Mrs Du- 
frenne, remained at home until twenty-one 
years of age, and then enlisted in the Twenty- 
thii'd Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, Com- 
pany I, but after two years of service, on 
account of sickness, was discharged from the 
Marine Hospital, at New Orleans. He then 
remained on his father's farm until Novem- 
ber 12, 1868, when he was united in mar- 
riage with Miss Salome Minch, who was 
born in Rliine province, Germany, December 
7, 1842 a daughter of Bernard and Frances 
(Fisher) Minch, who were born in that pro- 



220 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



vince in 1815. The mother was a daughter 
of John and Lizzie Fifilier, both of whom 
died ill Germany. Bernard Mineli was em- 
ployed in a vineyard in his native country 
until in May, 1853, when he and liis wife 
sailed from Uavre, landing in New York af- 
ter a voyage of tifty-fonr days. Then they 
came by canal and lakes to Milwaukee, pur- 
chased 200 acres of wild land in Montrose, 
Dane county, and erected a log house, 16 x 20 
feet. Previous to this, four families lived 
in one log house covered with straw. Soon 
afterward Mr. Minch built a stone house, 
then considered a very fine dwelling, and in 
which the parents of Mrs. Dufrenne and also 
one married daughter still reside. 

After marriage, Jacob Schroeder purchased 
a hotel in Verona, which he conducted three 
years, and then, in company with a l)rother- 
in-law, bought a general store and hotel in 
I'aoli. After his death Mrs. Schroeder con- 
ducted the hotel and store about three years, 
then sold her interest in the store and moved 
to Madison for the purpose of educating her 
children. In 1884 she removed to Middle- 
ton, AVisconsin, where, in 1888, she was ap- 
jHiinted Postmistress, also opened a confec- 
tionery store, and has been engaged in both 
occupations since that time. She had two 
children, cmly one now living, the wile of 
our subject. Mr. and Mrs. Dufrenne had 
one son, Willie, born in this county. May 24, 
1890, and died September 17, 181)2. 

Tp.AUUV W. LOVEJOY. -Among the 
names of those old settlers who have 
lieen prominently connected with the 

early history of Madison occurs the name of 

the subject of this brief biographical sketch. 

For many years he was the efficient mes- 



senger and waiting clerk of the State Execu- 
tive officer, serving nearly twenty-six years 
in all, during which time he became well 
known as a good and capable servant of the 
people, as well as a loyal and public-spirited 
citizen. lie was born in Hudson, New 
York, February 18, 1827, but was chiefly 
reared and educated near Sandusky, Ohio. 

When the trouble with Mexico arose our 
subject was one of the flrst to engage in ser- 
vice with the Fourth Ohio Volunteer Kegi- 
ment, under Colonel Charles Brougli, engag- 
ing at the battle of Atlixco del Rio or 
Broken Bridge, where the United States 
troops crossed the river by wading after the 
Mexicans had blown up the bridge. In this 
way the American soldiers were enabled to 
surprise the Mexicans, capture many of them, 
besides sixteen pieces of artillery. Later he 
was in the battle of Pueblo, under General 
Ilurlbert commanding. Tlie Fourth Ohio 
Regiment did not do any more service, but 
was discharged after two years of service. 
During the entire time Mr. Lovejoy only 
suffered one slight wound, in the left leg. So 
brave a soldier could not remain quietly at 
home while so mighty a struggle was con- 
vulsing the nation, in 1861, so he enlisted 
in Company K, Thirty-second Wisconsin 
Volunteer Infantry, Captain John E. Grout, 
and Colonel James II. Howe commanding at 
the tinie of his entering the service. After 
a short time spent in the State the regiment 
went South, joining the Army of the Tennes- 
see under General Sherman, and marched 
with him through Georgia, participating in 
the many engagements of that memorable 
campaign. While before Atlanta, after night 
had come on, it was found necessary to 
strengthen the fortifications. Mr. Lovejoy, 
with others volunteered to set up pickets of 
chevavx defrise, the command being given 




9G ^//. "^r^rJ/ou/. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



2-21 



to our subject by General Howard. After 
conducting the work with skill and energy, 
during which time he never flinched, although 
it was a task wliich required a great amount 
of bravery to accomplish, Mr. Lovejoy was 
about to retire, when he was struck by a 
sharpshooter's ball, which entered his head 
a little back and below the eyes and passed 
entirely through! The great marvel was 
that he escaped with his lite, as he was 
shot so many times, in the bright moon- 
light, by sharpshooters. So bailly was he 
wounded, on this 19tli of August, 1864, that 
he was thrown for dead in the dead house; 
but upon further examination it was found 
that life was not quite extinct; so he 'was 
taken to a hospital and carefully nursed back 
to health, in the city of Madison. After his 
recovery he was discharged from the hospital 
and the service May 27, 1865, with the 
rank of brevet Captain and was given a com- 
mission. 

After the war was over, in 1866, he came 
to Madison, Wisconsin, where he has since 
continued to reside. The Captain was mar- 
ried in Madison, Lake county, Ohio, in 1852, 
to Miss Helen M. Fox, l)orn, reared and edu- 
cated in that county and State, dying at her 
home in Madison, Wisconsin, August D, 
1871, at the age of forty. She was the mother 
of four children, — all dead but Frank H; 
Jennie, married Frank B. Salmon, and died in 
California, without issue. Frank H. is a yard- 
master at Stevens Point for the Wisconsin 
Central Ivailroad, and married Miss Mattie 
Martin, of Peoria, Illitiois. Our subject was 
married a second time, in Madison, to Miss 
Lucy Miles, born, reared and partly educated 
in Chautauqua county, New Yoi-k, but has re- 
sided ill Madison and Dane county for forty 
years. She is the mother of no children. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lovejoy are members of the 
it> 



ConKreeational Church, of which the former 
is janitor. During his sixty-five years of 
life our subject has ])assed through som« 
stirring events, and entjagcd in some very 
severe battles, yet notwithstanding his age 
he is still very active and possesses more 
bodily strength than many a younger man. 
He is a stanch Republican and is a member 
of C. C. Washburn Post, G. A. R., No. 11. 
By his genial, pleasant manner he lias made 
many friends wlierever he has been, both iq 
private and public capacity. 

tOBERT McKEE BASHFORD, the son 
of Samuel Morris and Mary Ann Bash- 
ford, was born at Fayette, La Fayette 
county, Wisconsin, December 31, 1845. 
Samuel Morris Bashford was born in New 
York city, and at twelve years of age his 
father, who was there engafjed in commercial 
pursuits, having die<l suddenly, leaving his 
affairs unsettled, went to live with Dr. Mor- 
ris, a near relative, by whom he was educated 
and with whom he studied .-^nd practiced 
medicine for a time. The practice of medi^ 
cine being distasteful to him, soon after 
reaching his majority he removed to the West 
and settled in Grant county, Wisconsin, in 
July, 1835. Having there buried his first 
wife, he was on June 27, 1843, united in 
marriage to Mrs. Mary Ann Parkinson, wliose 
first husband, William Carroll Parkinson, 
had died a few years before. After remov- 
ing to the West he never practiced medicine 
as a profession, l)ut in the new and sparsely 
settled country, when no otiier physician cdulil 
be had, he was frequently called upon to at- 
tend the sick, which he did cheerfully and 
free of charge. He had also become identi- 
fled with the Methodist Church as a regularly 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



ordained Deacon and Local Preacher, which, 
togetlier with iiis pursuits as a fanner, made 
him a most useful citizen in the community. 
While holding religious services in Willow 
Springs, a few miles from his home, on June 
16, 1850, he was stricken with apoplexy and 
died, aii;ed thirty-six years. 

The mother of our subject was a native of 
Kentucky, the daughter of llobort McKee, 
and in childhood removed with her parents 
to Edwardsville, Illinois. There she was 
first married, when but eighteen years old, 
and soon after with her husband, who was not 
much older, removed to the Territory of 
Wisconsin, traveling overland with teams, 
and settled in Fayette, then known as Par- 
kinson's settlement, in the sj)ring of 1839, 
upon the same tract of land where she has 
ever since continued to live. After the death 
of her second husband she married, in 1852, 
William P. Trousdale, with whom she lived 
until his death in 1890. She bore nine chil- 
dren, seven of whom reached majority and 
six of whom still survive. She has done her 
part with other noble pioneer women toward 
the upbuilding of a great State in the wilder- 
ness of the Northwest. 

Robert M. l>asliford spent his boyhood on 
the farm, attending public and private schools 
portions of each year, until the fall of 18G3, 
when he entered the preparatory department 
of the State University, and graduated in the 
course of ancient classics in June, 1870. 
During his college course he was obliged to 
teach to supply the means of his own educa- 
tion, as two other brothers were attending 
tlie university during parts of the same pe- 
riod. Before his graduation he had taught 
as principal of the schools at Linden, Poy- 
nette and Darlington in iiis native State, and 
had received Haltering offers to continue in 
that work. 



He had, however, decided to practice law, 

and in the fall of 1870 entered the law school 
of the State University, and at the same time 
tiie law office of Smith & Lamb, then one of 
the leading firms in the State, located at 
Madison. He graduated in the law course 
in 1871, and was then prevailed upon to enter 
into copartnership with Messrs. John V>. and 
A. C. Parkinson and George liaynier. for 
the purchase of the Madison Daily and 
Weekly Democrat. He continued as one of 
the editors and proprietors of the paper from 
April, 1871, to April, 1876, during which 
time new presses anil material were purchased ; 
the paper was enlarged and the daily edition 
changed from an evening to a morning p:iper, 
and it was placed upon a solid foundation as 
the leading Democratic newspaper in the 
State. Mr. Rashford was always liberal and 
progressive in his views upon political sub- 
jects and courageous in the expression of his 
convictions. For this reason lie frequently 
encountered the opposition of the Bourbon 
element of his party. In 1871 he favored 
the nomination of Hon. James R. Doolittle 
for Governor by the Democratic State Con- 
vention, although Mr. Doolittle had but 
recently separated from his Republicaii asso- 
ciations in the United States Senate. The 
nomination was made, though bitterly op- 
posed by the old-line Democrats, and Mr. 
Bashford served as Secretary of the Demo- 
cratic State Central Committee. He here 
received his first lessons in practical politics, 
and from a leader of large experience, who 
was thoroughly skilled in all the honorable 
methods of party warfare. Mr. Doolittle had 
served twelve years in the United States Sen- 
ate during the period of the war and recon- 
struction, and as the confidential friend of 
Abraham Lincoln during his presidency. He 
had a knowledge of pul)lic men and a fa- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



223 



miliarity with public affairs during this pe- 
riod tliat gave his words the weight of liistory. 
He was tiien in the full maturity of powers, 
a man of fine presence and great pifts as an 
orator, and he made the canvass of Wisconsin 
in 1871 with the expectation, if successful, of 
beitig the standard-bearer of the J democracy 
and liberal Republicans for President in 1872. 
He was defeated, and was content to preside 
over the National Convention at I5altimore, 
which indorsed Horace Greeley as such can- 
didate. 

The nomination of Horace Greeley by the 
Liberal Republicans at Cincinnati, in 1872, 
was a disappointment to the friends of the 
movement, but Mr. Bashford considered it to 
be the true course for the Democracy to in- 
dorse his candidacy. His associates on the 
paper were absent at the time, but he took 
the responsibility of hoisting the names of 
the candidates and committing the paper to 
their support. This was in advance of the 
Democratic National Convention which as- 
sembled in .July, and many of tlie leading 
Democrats of the State were outspoken in 
their opposition to the indorsement of the 
Liberal candidates. The delegates chosen 
from Wisconsin, however, were unanimously 
in favor of indorsement, as were the dele<rates 
from most of the States, thus vindicating the 
wisdom of the political course of the Demo- 
crat. 

Mr. Bashford was especially active in the 
campaign of 1873 in Wisconsin, and was in- 
fluential in bringing about a union between 
the granger or reform elemetit in politics 
and the Democratic party, which resulted in 
the nomination and election of the ticket 
headed by Hon. William R. Taylor, of Dane 
county, for Governor. The " granger" legis- 
lation followed, which was more radical than 
either party honestly desired, then a contest 



in the courts to test the validity of these 
enactments, and the ultimate triumph of the 
State establishing the right of the Legisla- 
ture to control railway corporations of its own 
creation, or carrying un business by its au- 
thority. The State campaign of 1875 was a 
memorable one for its bitterness and personali- 
ties, but the Democratic Reform State ticket 
was re-elected, with the exception of Governor 
Taylor, who was defeated by a few hundred 
votes through the special efforts of the rail- 
way coi-porations and the treachery of party 
associates in one part of the State. During 
the period of the supremacy of his party in 
the State, Mr. Bashford, as editor of its lead- 
ing newspaper, exerted his influence to secure 
the fulfillment of every pledge made to the 
people and to enforce efticiency and economy 
in every department of the Government. 

While connected with the Democrat, in 
addition to his other duties, Mr. Bashford 
reported one house of the legislature. Hp 
also compiled the Legislative Manual for 
1875, 1876, 1877 and 1878, by appointment 
of Hon. Peter Doyle, Secretary of State, and 
made the Blue Book a standard for works of 
this character. Li this manner he acqnii'ed 
great familiarity with legislative proceedings 
and with the details of public affairs in con- 
nection with the State dejiartments and State 
institutions. Mr. Bashford was also con- 
nected with the publication of the Tievised 
Statutes of Wisconsin for 1878. 

In 1876 Mr. Bashford disposed of his in- 
terest in the Madison Democrat to engage in 
the practice of law, and Ijecame a member of 
the law firm of Gill, Bashford & Spilde. He 
has since applied himself diligently to the 
practice of his profession. In 1882 he be- 
came a member of the firm of Tenney, Bash- 
ford & Tenney, which for the ensuing three 
years did an extensive business in commercial 



224 



jnOGRAPHWAL REVIEW OF 



law throughout Wisconsin and adjoining 
States. In 1885 Mr. Bashford opened an 
office with Mr. Tenney, under the same firm 
name, in the city of Chicago, where lie was 
especially engaged in commercial law and 
corporation cases. This firm enjoyed a large 
practice, but Mr. Bashford did not feel physi- 
cally able to endure the continual pressure 
and daily drudgery of the court room, and in 
1889 severed his connection with the firm in 
Chicago and returned to Madison to resume 
the practice of his profession among his old 
friends and clients. He then formed a co- 
partnership with Hon. James L. O'Connor, 
the present Attorney-General, which still 
continues under the firm name of Bashford, 
O'Connor & PoUeys, the latter having more 
recently become a member of the firm. 
Mr. Baahfbrd's professional engagements have 
called him before the different courts of Wis- 
consin and Illinois, and occasionally before 
the courts of Iowa, TS'ebraska, Michigan atid 
Minnesota, and he has thereby become widely 
known as a lawyer throughout the North- 
west. He has the reputation of being a 
thorough, all-round lawyer, of understanding 
legal remedies and how to apply tliem prompt- 
ly and efficiently in any given case, To him 
the la>v as a science, when applied to human 
affairs, commands right motives, proper 
methods and just ends. He has been con- 
nected with many leading cases in the courts 
of Illinois and Wisconsin during the last ten 
years, but has won his widest distinction as a 
lawyc^r in the prosecution of the suits against 
the former State Treasurers of Wisconsin to 
recover interest paid by the banks upon the 
deposit of pulilic funds. He was employed 
as special counsel in those suits by Governor 
Peck, and. in connection with Attorney Gen- 
eral O'Connor and Senator Vilas, prosecuted 
them to a successful conclusion in the ('ircuit 



and Supreme Courts of the State. By reason 
of the large amounts involved and the promi- 
nence of the ex-treasurers and their bonds- 
men, and their party affiliations, these eases 
attracted great attention throughout the 
country. The ground to be covered by the 
suits to recover the interest money was, in a 
measure, untrodden, and the details of their 
management required accurate legal knowl- 
edge and great skill and diligence in the 
apj)lication of summary methods to accom- 
plish the highest results; and it is much to 
the credit of the counsel for the State that 
they never lost a single point in any proceed- 
ing from the beginnin<j to the end of the 
protracted and difficult litigation. 

Mr. Bashford has always taken a lively 
interest in city affairs, and has rendered valu- 
able services to the people in official station. 
1881 he was elected City Attorney of Madison, 
and was enabled by a carefully written opin- 
ion to defeat a proposition before the Com- 
mon Council to give a franchise to a private 
corporation to construct water-works for the 
city. The Council, acting upon his advice, 
refused to grant the franchise, and adopted a 
resolution prepared by him, creating a com- 
mittee to secure the necessary legislation to 
enable the city to build, own and control its 
own water-works. Mr. Bashford served on 
the committee and prepared the amendment 
to the charter that was adopted. In the en- 
suing year a committee was apjiointed by the 
Ooran^on Council to provide means and 
plans to proceed with the construction of a 
complete system of water- works and to carry 
such plans into execution. As city attorney 
he was a member of this committee, prepared 
all the contracts and aided in directing their 
enforcement. Tiie construction of water- 
works necessitated the buihling of sewers, 
and Mr. Bashford, as City Attorney, servpd on 



DANE COUNTY, WISUONSIN. 



225 



like committees to secure legislation and to 
award contracts and supervise the construc- 
tion of the works. He served as City Attor- 
ney from 1881 to 1886, when he resigned, 
having seen, during the period for which he 
served, the water-works and sewers con- 
structed and put into successful operation. 
He also served as a member of the Board of 
Water Commissioners and as a member of 
the Board of Education for a period, until 
he resigned from each place. 

In the spring of 1890 Mr. Bashford was 
elected Mayor of the city, and was called 
upon to administer affairs under rather em 
barrassing conditions. Tiie finances were 
not sufficient to defray current expenses for 
the ensuing year; and at the first meeting of 
the Common Council a resolution was adop- 
ted appointing a committee, of which the 
Mayor was named as chairman, to investigate 
charges of corruption upon the part of two 
of the aldermen and the chief of the fire de- 
partment, in connection with the purchase of 
hose for the city, during the preceding term. 
The investigation resulted in the expulsion of 
the two aldermen and the removal of the 
chief of the tire department. This was a 
most unpleasant task for the new Mayor, as 
the delinquent officers had for a long time 
enjoyed the confidence of the people, and two 
of them had been his personal and political 
friends, and every influence was brought to 
bear to prevent rigorous punishment. But 
Mayor Bashford took the ground in his re- 
port that " in dealing with malfeasance in 
office there can be no compromise; no half- 
way measures can remove the evil and root 
out corruption entrenched in high places." 
The Common Council stood as a unit in his 
support, as did also the press and people of 
the city, regardless of party. The Wisconsin 



State Journal of May 27, 1890, in referring 
to the subject, said: " It is unfortunate that 
the necessity arose for the expulsion from 
office of two Madison aldermen and the re- 
moval from his position of the chief of tlie 
fire departmant, but all good citizens will 
unite in commending the Mayorand Common 
Council for the vigor with which they have 
performed their work and for their unwaver- 
ing labors along the line of public dnty. 
While deep regret must be felt that those 
clothed with official trust have l)etrayed the 
confidence reposed in them by the public, no 
one can be justified for any reason in winking 
at corruption on the part of our public of- 
ficials, no matter how well or how long they 
have served the municipality. Boodling has 
become far too common a crime. * * * 
It cannot be dealt with too severely, and, as 
Mayor Bashford has said, ' there can be no 
compromise' with it. Boodling is a double 
crime, for, with the criminal act of taking 
monev in payment for a corrupt <leed, goes 
the gross abuse of trust confided to the faith- 
less official by a pulilic which only sought to 
honor him." The Madison Democrat of May 
28, 1890, said: >'The Mayor and Common 
Council had a most difficult, unpleasant and 
thankless duty thrust upon them in the in- 
vestigation of the ' boodle cases.' They have 
performed that duty faithfully in excellent 
spirit and temper. Despite some exasper- 
ating incidents, they have fully, patiently and 
impartially heard the cases and come to their 
conclusion; and they have acted fearlessly 
and according to their honest judgment. 
They deserve the thanks of all our citizens. 
They have set an example which should en- 
courage all friends of clean, honest, pure ad- 
ministration. They have made odious that 
sort of treachery to public duty that sells out 
the public interest for private gain. They 



220 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



have given a bright example for other muni- 
cipalities to t'ollow." 

i^otwithstaniling the condition of the 
finances of the city, Mayor Bashtbrd was ena- 
bled, by disposing of certain city lots, to pur- 
chase a stone (juai-ry for the city and a steam 
road roller, and thus provide the means for the 
anccessfiil prosecution of street work. The 
necessary legislation was secured to enable 
the city to issue bonds for building street 
crossings, when the remainder of the work 
was paid for by special assessments and a 
thorough system of street improvements was 
then inaugurated. Work for the ensuing 
year was laid out and ordered, and adequate 
funds were provided an<l left in the treasury 
for its successful prosecution. The fact that 
Mr. Bashford was, in a measure at least, in- 
strumental in [he building of the water-works 
and sewers, and in providing a stone quarry 
and steam road roller, and in inaugurating a 
proper system for street improvement, indi- 
cates the character and purpose of his service 
for the pul>lic. He has always aimed at per- 
manent results, and has not sought to attain 
temporary advantages by the sacrifice of 
higher but more remote ends. 

While devoting his attention assiduously 
to the practice of law, Mr. Basiiford could 
not avoid participating more or less in pui)- 
lic alfairs of a political character. He has 
always had decided convictions and was ever 
ready to labor for the success of his party. 
He has served on the city, county and State 
central committees from time to tinu>; has 
been a delegate to the city, county and State 
Conventions, and in 1884 was chosen a dele- 
gate to the National Democratic Convention 
at Chicago. It was a singular fact that ho 
and his colleagues and their alternates in that 
convention were all natives of the district 
which they represented. 



Mr. Bashford, in 1892, was elected to the 
State Senate from the district embracing the 
city of Madison and the larger portion of 
Dane county, for a term of four years. He 
entered upon the discharge of the duties of 
the office January 11, 1893, and was imme- 
diately appointed upon important commit- 
tees of that body. He has introduced and 
advocated measures for the advancement of 
the educational and material interests of the 
State. In his first messaije to the Common 
Council, Mr. Bashford stated the rule which 
he always aitns to follow, — that '• the public 
welfare is the only safe guide for official con- 
duct." 

Mr. Bashford was first married on Novem- 
ber 27, 187H, to Miss Florence E. Taylor, the 
daughter of Hon. William II. Taylor, of 
Cottage Grove, Dane county, Wisconsin, then 
Governor-elect. She was born in that town 
and was then in her nineteenth year, and a 
member of the senior class of the State Uni- 
versity, with which she graduated in June, 
1874. She departed this life August 16, 
1880, having boon for some years jjrior to 
her death a confirmed invalid. A daughter, 
Florence, survives. On February 7, 1889, 
Mr. 13ashford was united in marriage to Miss 
Sarah Amelia F'uUer. of Madison, the young- 
est (laughter of Morris E. F'uUer, Esq.. one of 
the loading business men and best known 
citizens of Wisconsin. Their home, celebrated 
for its hospitality, is the center of a large 
circle of friends who here always find a cor- 
dial welcome and congenial associations. 

^^KHIAEL O'DWVER, a merchant of 
I )ane, Wisconsin, was born in Toma- 
line, county Limerick, Ireland, in 
1838, a son of Thomas ()T)wyer, a native of 



D^IHE WUNTY, WI,SV0NS1N. 



227 



the same place, and a farmer and miller by 
occupation. The latter married Ellen Eutlei', 
also a native of county Limerick, and a 
daughter of George and Mary (Kilbride) 
Butler, of the same county. They were 
well-to-do farmers, and reared six sons and 
live daughters. One of the sons, Georj^e 
Butler, became a Bishop of Limerick, and a 
leading Nationalist. P^our of the sons, 
Daniel, Dennis, Patrick and William, came 
to America in 1848, and three located in 
Vienna township, Dane county, Wisconsin. 
William remained in this country about live 
years, and then returned to Ireland. Of the 
remaining three, Dennis is the only one now 
living, and who is engaged as a miner in 
Idaho. Mr. and Mrs. Butler departed this 
life in 1880. Thomas O'Dwyer was twice 
married, and l)y the first union, with the 
mother of our subject, reared five children, 
viz.: Mary Ann, who resides with our sub- 
ject; Michael, whose name heads this sketch; 
Catherine, employed in the store with her 
brother; John, a di-uggist of Omaha; and 
George, deceased in Ireland, at the age of 
twenty-five years. The father died at the 
age of forty-four years, and the mother at 
thirty-six years. 

Michael O'Dwyer, in company with his 
two sisters, Mary Ann and Catherine, left 
Limerick, Ireland, August 22, 1853, for 
America, and arrived in Vienna township, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, November 10, of 
the same year. They sailed on the American 
craft Indus, and were sixty-three days on the 
ocean. After landing they came by rail to 
Dunkirk, by boat to Detroit, Michigan, 
thence to Chicago, by the lake to Milwau- 
kee, and then by team to Hundred-Mile 
Grove, Dane county. Our subject was then 
fifteen years of age, and his cash capital con- 
sisted of $300. He was engaged at farm 



labor with his uncles, the Butler Bros., until 
ISCil. Ill 1858 he purchased eighty acres of 
the capital laud, paying $2.25 per acre, and 
three years afterward sold the same for $15 
per acre. He next bought a quarter section 
of land of his uncle for $20 per acre, going 
in debt for the entire tract, and he still owns 
this land, which is now worth aljout $60 an 
acre. In 1874 Mr. O'Dwyer began the mer- 
cantile business with his brother John, who 
came to Wisconsin from Australia in 1870. 
The latter had been engaged in teaching in 
that country for eight years. This partner- 
ship continued one year, when John married 
and began the drug luisiness in Elroy, this 
State. His wife soon afterward died, and he 
then sold out and began the same business in 
Omaha. Our subject has served as Town 
Clerk for live years, and as Postmaster since 
the administration of Hayes, with the ex- 
ception of two years during Cleveland's 
reign. He is a Republican in his political 
views, and the family are members of the 
Catholic Church. 

May 18, 1865, by Rev. Etchmond, Mr. 
O'Dwyer was united in marriage with Ellen 
Dillon, a native of county Kildare, Ireland, 
but who came to America with her parents 
in 1848. She is a daughter of William and 
Maria (Lalor) Dillon. The father was a 
brewer in Athy, Ireland, came to America 
with ample means, and lived a retired life in 
Madison, Wisconsin, until his death, which 
occurred in 1863, at the age of seventy-five 
years. His wife died in 1862. Mrs. O'Dwyer 
has one brother, George Dillon, in California, 
and two, Joseph and Jerome, in Tennessee. 
Oiir subject and wife have had eight chil- 
dren, namely: Maria, who died at the age of 
eight years; Ellen, wife of M. J. Roland, of 
Milwaukee; George, in the pharmacy class 
at the State University; Thomas, telegraph 



228 



BIOGRAPHIGAL REVIEW OF 



operator for the Chicago & Western Railroad; 
Josepli, stiulying telegraphj ; Michael, Will- 
iam and Charles. 

fAMES BONNER,' a farmer of Dane 
county, Wiscopsin, was born in Leices- 
tershire, England, September 11, 1831, 
a son of James and Catherine (Hastings) 
Bonner, natives of the same place. When a 
young man the father was engaged in the 
hosiery trade, and later was a tavern and toll- 
gate kee])er for many years. His death 
occurred in his native country at the age of 
forty-tive years, and the mother died in the 
same place at the age of fifty-three years. 
They were the parents of seven children, 
three of whom still survive. 

James Bonner, our subject, remained at 
home until his father's death, after which he 
worked by the month for several years. In 
1848 be came to America, on the Tuscora, 
having been seven weeks in the voyage from 
Liverpool to I'hiladelphia. lie remained in 
the latter city and Rhode Island for three or 
four years, engaged as a carriage driver dur- 
ing the summer months, after which he pur- 
chased 100 acres of land in Cross Plains 
township, Dane county, Wisconsin. Mr. 
Bonner has added to this purchase until he 
now owns 347 acres. 

He was married in February 5, 1857, to 
Miss Sarah Tatlow, a native of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. Her parents came to this 
country from England, and the father died in 
Philadelphia at the age of about seventy 
years. The mother still resides in that city. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bonner have had twelve chil- 
dren, six of whom still survive: Robert, mar- 
ried, and has one child; Henry, married, and 
has three children; James, also married; 



Emma, the mother of two children; and 
David and Anna, at home. Our subject 
votes with the Republican party, and served 
as Supervisor thirty-five years and Assessor 
fifteen years ago. Both he and his wife take 
an active interest in church work. 

^-sr.,miCHAEL F. VAN NORMAN, one 
l I'lt ^^ ^^^^ representative business men of 
'^^^T^ Dane county, Wisconsin, was born in 
Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, September 19, 
1835, a son of Jacob and Mary (Parks) Van 
Norman. The father was born near Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, on the Mohawk river, 
in 1802, a son of Samuel and Phrebe Van 
Norman, natives of Holland. They came to 
the United States with their parents when 
very small children, settling in Pennsylvania, 
and they died near Scranton, that State, the 
father aged ninety-five years, and the mother, 
ninety years. Samuel was a farmer and 
miner by occupation. The father of our sub- 
ject, Jacob Van Norman, was engaged in the 
lumber business until forty-five years of age, 
and then purchased 220 acres of partly im- 
proved land in Chemung county, New York, 
where he remained until 1854. In that year 
he sold his land and houirht 320 acres in Iowa 
county, Wisconsin, and there remained imtil 
his death, at tlie age of seventy-eight years. 
In his political relations, he was a Democrat 
up to the late war, when he voted for Lincoln's 
second term. He was a prominent man, and 
held many local otfices. The mother of our 
subject was born in Pennsylvania, a daughter 
of Joseph and Rebecca Parks, who came from 
Newfoundland to the United States. They 
located first in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, 
where the father died at about the age of 100 
years, and the mother twenty seven years 



DAIfE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



239 



younger. The grandfather Parks was a sol- 
dier in the war of 1812, for which he after- 
ward drew a pension. The family were noted 
for their longevity. The mother of our sub- 
ject (lied near Sioux City, Iowa, at the home 
of her son, Jacob, aged eighty-four years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Van Norman were members of 
the Methodist Church for many years, of 
which the former served as Class Leader, and 
also took an active part in the Sunday-school. 
They were the parents of nine children, seven 
now living, of whom two are engaged in 
farming, one in the ministry, and the re- 
mainder in the stock business. Two of the 
sons, beside our subject, were soldiers in the 
late war. Peter served in the Eighteenth 
Wisconsin Infantry, Company P), remained 
from the outbreak until its close, and came 
out without a scratch. G. B., a member of 
Company H, Eighth Wisconsin Regiment, 
also served until the close, and was slightly 
wounded. 

. Michael F., the subject of this sketch, re- 
mained at home until twenty-one years of 
age, attending the district school in the win- 
ter, and working on his father's farm during 
the summer, also studying at home to gratify 
hs8 ambition for learning. He was then 
employed in teaching in the winters, and 
attended the Evans ville College one term. 
In his twenty-third year he left home, on 
account of his health, went to Kansas, and 
engaged in teaming for Pike's Peak Express 
Company. While there he drove four mules 
that hauled a coach containing Horace Gree- 
ley, from Manhattan to Fort Riley, on that 
gentleman's overland trip to California. In 
1860 Mr. Van Norman returned to Iowa 
county, Wisconsin, rented a farm, and was 
obliged to go in debt for everything he 
bought, on account of the failure of the State 
Banks with the money saved up for his occa- 



sion more than being worth from 10 to 40 

cents on the dollar. 

lie remained there until the outbreak of 
liie late war, when, in July, 1862, he joined 
Company E, Thirty-first Wisconsin Volun- 
teer Infantry, under Captain -I. B. Mason, 
who died a short time afterward at Nashville, 
Tennessee. He served until the close of 
hostilities, was mustered out at Louisville, 
Kentucky, and discharged at Madison, Wis- 
consin. At Atlanta, July 24, 1864, he was 
wounded, and remained in the hospital four 
days, when he secured transportation home 
and returned to his regiment in thirty days. 
He was in the Division Commissary Depart- 
ment and on detached service at Smoky 
Swamp, South Carolina, and marched through 
to Washington by way of Richmond with the 
Twentieth Army Corps. 

After the close of the war Mr. Van Norman 
returned home, rented a farm of 330 acres for 
six years, then bought 100 acres of land in 
Dane county, and five years later rented his 
place and moved to the village of Middleton, 
where he has since been engaged in shipping 
horses, cattle, etc. He is a lireeder of fine 
horses, and has as tine a standard l>red stallion 
as can be found in Wisconsin. Mr. Van 
Norman is doing much to improve the stock 
of this section, is breeding both draft and 
speed horses, and has offsprings from his 
stallion, which is exciting the comment and 
admiration of horsemen throughout the coun- 
try. In addition to his stock and town prop- 
erty, he also owns 216 acres of land in Dane 
county, and property in Dakota. In his 
political relations he has been a Republican 
since Lincoln's second term, but usually votes 
for the best man. Socially he has been a 
member of the G. A. R.. L. T. Park Post, at 
Black Earth, for three years, and has also 



230 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



been a member of the I. O. O. F., of Middle- 
ton, for many years. 

In 1860, in Iowa county, Wisconsin, Mr. 
Van Norman was united in marriage with 
Catherine Dean, who was born in Bradford 
county, Pennsylvania, July 31, 1837, a daui^h- 
ter of Henry II. and Elizabeth (Ettlenian) 
Dean, also natives of that State. The father 
died at the old home in Iowa county, Wis- 
consin, aifed forty fnur years, and the mother 
departed this life at Piano, Illinois, at the age 
of sixty. Both families were of German 
descent. Our subject and wife have four liv- 
ing children: Etta M.. born in February, 
1869, married Henry H. Whaleii, engaged 
with his father-in-law in the stock business; 
and they have one <laughter, May Bernice; 
William E., born October 20, 1874, is attend- 
ing school at Madison, Wisconsin; George 
W., born December 19, 1878, and Paul, born 
June 1, 1881, are at home. 



fUANK M. DOUN, one of the most 
popular members of the County Board 
of Supervisors, was born in Ephratah, 
Fulton county. New York, October 16, 1837, 
and his father, Michael M. Dorn, was born in 
the same county, January 3, 1819, and his 
fatiier, grandfather of the subject, was also a 
native of the same county, having been born 
there when it was a part of Montgomery 
county. Ilis father, great-grandfather of 
subject, was one of eleven brothers, and «as 
a soldier in the Revolutionary war, but his 
brothers were stanch Tories, and went to 
Canada, and only two of them, as far as is 
known, returned to the States. The great- 
grandfather and one of tiie brothers inherited 
their father's farm, and lived close together 
and drew water from the siuiie well, •)ut 



never became reconciled, as the great-grand- 
father of our subject never forgave his brother 
for his disloyalty to his native country. He 
died at the age of ninetv-seven years. The 
grandfather of our subject was a farmer, and 
sjient his entire life in his native county. 
The maiden name of his wife was Maria 
Miller, also a native of the same county, who 
spent her entire life in the place of her birth. 

The father of our subject was reared on 
the farm, and continued agricultural pursuits 
in Fulton county, when he sold his farm in 
1850, and bought a hotel in Cedarville, 
Herkimer county, which he ran for live years, 
and then kept hotel in IJtica for one year. 
In 1856 he came to Wisconsin and engaged 
in the livery business in Madison, where he 
continued ' until his death, in 1887. The 
maiden name of his wife was Lucinda Sharer, 
born at Palatine, Montgomery county. New 
York. Mrs. Dorn died in Madison, June 
25, 1889. Mr. Dorn, Sr., was a Democrat 
in politics. 

Our subject was in his nineteenth j'ear 
when he came to Wisconsin with his parents. 
In 1860 he became interested with his father 
in business, and has continued in the same 
calling ever since. 

In 1859 he married Jane Dudley, born in 
La Porte, Lorain county, Ohio, daughter of 
Joseph and Mary Dudley. Mr. and Mrs. 
Dorn have had one daughter, (ylara L., who 
married Allen W. Peck, of Chicago. Mr. 
and Mrs. Peck have one child, Frank W. 

Mr. Dorn is a Democrat in politics, and 
served three years as a member of the City 
Council, and one year as Chief of Police. 
He is now serving his tenth year as a mem- 
ber of the County Board of Supervisors. 
He is a member of Monona Lodge, No. 12, 
K. of P., and is the Keeper of Records and 
Seals. For twenty-six years he was a mem- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



231 



ber of the Capital City Hook and Ladder 
Company, the first company ever organized 
in Madison. 



ifilOMAS REGAN, a citizen of Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, was born in county 
W^ Sligo, Ireland, February 15, 1840, son 
of Patrick and Catherine (Dyer) Regan, both 
born and reared in county Sligo, where the 
father was occupied as a farmer and civil 
engineer. Patrick Regan, the lather, had 
been well educated at Limerick, Irelanil. 
He has one living brother, John, a farmer, 
residing in Adams county, Nebraska. Both 
of the parents of our subject died in Ireland. 

Thomas was reared in his native country, 
receiving a primary education at the parish 
schools, but at the age of eleven years he 
emigrated to America. Sevei'al years were 
passed at Boston, Massachusetts, but about 
1855 he came to Madison, Wisconsin. At 
Madison he entered tlie business of plumb- 
ing and gastitting, later went to Chicago, 
where he completed his education in that 
line. For the three following years he re- 
mained in Cliicago, successfully engaged in 
his trade. He then returned to Madison, 
and went into business for himself, in 1864. 
Mr. Regan conducted his business alone, 
never having a partner. Later he sold out, 
but after two years he bought it back again, 
and continued in it until Jatuiary 1, 1891, at 
which time he sold it again. 

At present Mr. Regan is not engaged in 
his trade, as he is fully occupied in looking 
alter his farmincj interests. He has been a 
successful business man, and is much re- 
spected throughout the city. 

The marriage of our subject took place 
September 24, 1866, in Madison, Wisconsin, 



to Miss Susie Pierce, a lady who was reared 
at Pierceville, Wisconsin, at which place her 
parents were early settlers. Mr. and Mrs. 
Regan have five living children, as follows: 
Kate M., who married Albert G. Schraede- 
man, of Madison; Alice S., Susie P., Annie 
II. and Arthur T. Miss Susie is attending 
the university; Miss Annie the high school, 
and Arthur the ward school. The death of 
Mrs. Regan occurred Novemljer 7, 1888, at 
the age of forty-eight years. Mr. Regan iias 
never desired nor held othce, being too ab- 
sorbed with lousiness cares. 



fENS J. NASET, a contractor and;builder 
of Dane county, Wisconsin, was born in 
Bergen, Norway, April 13, 1828, a son 
of Johannes and Alan (Bardal) Naset, natives 
also of the same place. The father was a 
farmer and mechanic by occupation. 

J. J. Naset, the subject of this sketch, 
came with his parents to America, at the age 
of seventeen years, in 1845, locating in 
Christiana township, Dane county, Wisconsin. 
For five years he worke<l on his father's 
farm, then, March 19, 1850, he married Ger- 
trude Ingebrechtson, of Christiana township, 
and purcliased his father's farm, which lie 
thereafter kept for about twenty years. Be- 
sides farming, he was working at his trade. 
In 1868 he moved to Cambridge, Dane 
county, where he engaged in the hardware 
business, which he in 1873 moved to Stough- 
ton, and for six years continued in company 
with II. Venos. 

In Stoughton he built his brick building, 
and also erected for G. T. Mandt the wagon 
factory and other buildings. He remained 
employed by G. T. Mandt for seven years. 
Mandt then failed, financially, and Mr. Naset 



232 



BIOGRAPniGAL REVIEW OF 



had then, as he still has, an interest in the 
wagon factory. In 1882 a stock company 
was formed, Mr. Naset was electeil vice-presi- 
dent and superintendent, which position he 
kept for two years. 

Thereafter Mr. Naset engaged in contract- 
ing and building. Among the buildings 
erected by him are the Norwegian Lutheran 
Seminary, in Minneapolis; the East Church 
and parsonage, on Koshkonoiig; the Lutheran 
Seminary, in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and 
many other church buildings. He superin- 
tended the construction of the Norwegian 
Lutheran College imilding in Decorah, Iowa, 
which cost SIOO.OOO. 

Mr. Naset is a Democrat in his political 
views. He has served as Supervisor of 
Christiana township for six years. In Stough- 
ton he has served on the School Board, and for 
six years has been City Treasurer. 

Religiously, Mr. Naset is a l^utheran, and 
a member of the Norwegian Lutheran 
Synod of America, having for more than the 
last tliirty years Ijeen a member of its general 
council, and for more than nine years one of 
its Trustees. 

Mr. Naset, after liaving lived eighteen 
years in America, made a trip to Europe, 
where he visited his mother country, as well 
as Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and other 
parts of the old world. 

Mr. and Mrs. Naset have no children of 
their own, but they liave adopted two daugh- 
ters, one of whom, Ingebjorg, is the wife of 
Mr. O. O. Melafas, druggist in Stoughtoii; 
and the other, Karen, is married to Mr. Ole 
Frederikson, a farmer in Minnesota. 



n ARLES M. FORESMAN, our subject, 
was born in Pickaway county, Ohio, 
September 17, 1822, and was a son of 
William and Mary (CruU) Foresman. The 
father was born in 1770, in Northampton 
county, Pennsylvania, and the mother in Lit- 
tle York, Pennsylvania. Py occupation his 
father was a miller, and his father had been 
the same. He was the parent of live chil- 
dren, three of whom grew to maturity. The 
father emigrated from Ohio to Pennsylvania 
in 1812, and there erected a mill, where our 
subject learned the trade of a miller. He 
had very poor school advantages. 

Charles Foresman worked at the trade of 
milling until 1854, when he removed to In- 
diana and located near Lafayette. At that 
place he purchased a mill, but in 1859 he 
sold it and came to Madison, "Wisconsin, but 
one year later went to Milwaukee, again re- 
turning to the city of Madison, where he en- 
tered the land office, and remained there un- 
til March, 1891. 

The marriage of our subject took place 
December 14, 1847, to Miss Susan M. Nash, 
of Newark, Ohio, and he has a family of five 
children, as follows: William M., Harry A., 
Addie B., Mary E. and George N. He was 
bereft of his wife in November, 1874. He is 
a well-known man in this city, and much 
respected. 

fAMES CONKLIN, an enterprising busi- 
ness man of Madison, was born in Bur- 
lington, Vermont, June 12, 1831. His 
father, John Conklin, was born in county 
Tipperary, Ireland, and his father, Mathew 
Conklin, was also born there and spent his en- 
tire life in his native country, but two of his 
sons, John and M;\thew, came to the United 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



233 



States and lioth settled iti Vermont. John 
Conklin was reared in liis native country and 
learned the trade of blacksmith from his 
father and came to America in 1829, accom- 
panied by his wife and one child. Tliey set- 
tled in Burlington, Vermont, and very soon 
Mr. Conklin was appointed janitor of the 
Vermont State University. In 1849 became 
to Madison and secured the position of janitor 
in the Wisconsin State University, where he 
remained until his death, which occurred in 
1867. The maiden name of his second wife, 
mother of our subject, was Catherine O'Don- 
nell, of the same county as her husband. Her 
death occurred in 1880, after she reared four 
children, namely: James, Edward, Margaret 
and John. 

Our subject received his education in the 
public schools of his native town, and re- 
moved to Wisconsin with his parents in 1849. 
There were no railroads in Wisconsin at that 
time, and they catne via Lake Champlain to 
White Hall, on Champlain canal to Troy, 
from there on the Erie canal to Buffalo, 
thence by lake to Detroit, where he took the 
train for New Buffalo. From there he went 
by lake to Milwaukee, whence he proceeded 
by team to Madison. For two years he car- 
ried the mail from Madison to Prairie du 
Sac, and from Madison to Monroe. He was 
then employed in teaming for one year. In 
1854, as he had been very industrious and 
saved his earnings, he was able to purchase a 
team and begin active business for himself. 
In that same year he began to buy wheat and 
sell coal. In 1864 Neeley Gray took him as 
a partner and they continued the business 
until the death of Mr. Gray, in 1867, when 
Mr. Gray'a sons succeeded to their father's 
interest in the business, which was continued 
until 1881, when Mr. Conklin and his son 



assumed charge, and have continued to run 
the establishment ever since. 

In addition to his above mentioned luisi- 
ness Mr. Conklin is interested in other enter- 
prises. In 1873 he bought and retained for 
two years an interest in the ice business. In 
1882 he purchased the plant. The ice-houses 
on Lake Mendota have a capacity of 5,000 
tons, and another house on Monona lake has 
a capacity of 1,000 tons. 

Ml-, (lonklin married in 1S54, Miss Mary 
Egan, liorn in Canada, dauo;liter of Jolm Ea- 
gan, a native of Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. Conk- 
lin have five children, namely: James IC., 
Mathew H., Margaret E., Mary B. and John 
W. The family are all members of St. 
Hapliael's Church. 

In politics our subject is a prominent 
Democrat, and has served six years as a mem- 
ber of the City Council, representing the 
First Ward. He also served several years as 
a member of the Board of Education, four 
terms as Mayor, and in 1884 was elected to 
the State Senate, where he served on several 
important committees, one of which was the 
Committee on Claims. During his term of 
service as Mayor the present fine system of 
water-works was introduced, and much credit 
is due him for his able manner in which he 
superintended the enterprise. 



4^ 



^ 



ANIEL W. TOMPKINS, one of the 

early settlers of the county, residing in 
Blooming Grove township, was born in 
New Bedford, Massachusetts, January 14, 
1832. His father, Joseph Tompkins, was 
l)orn on the line between the States of Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island and his father, 
Gideon Tompkins was, as far as is known, a 
native of the same locality, where he owned 



234 



BIOORAPniCAL REVIEW OF 



a farm on l)oth sides of the State line and 
liere it was that he spent his last years. The 
father of our sul)ject learned the trade of 
painter and in 1834 he removed tolSew York 
State, where he followed his trade some 
years. lie then removed to Newport, Rhode 
Ii-huid, and there spent his last years. The 
maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was .\nn F. lii'own, born in Massachusetts, 
died iti New York. 

Oui- subject attended tiie public school of 
his section, remaining with his parents until 
1848, when lie started for Wisconsin, via 
railroad to Ijullak), lakes to Milwaukee, from 
which city Madison was reached by stage. 
The •• capital city '' was but a small place at 
that time and the surrounding country was 
but little improved and deer and other kinds 
of wild game roamed unrestrained. Mr. 
Tompkins soon found employment as a farm 
lal)orer and alter a few years of working for 
Others, he settled on the farm he still owns 
and occupies. This is a fine tract of hind, 
170 acres in extent, well improved. 

Mr. Tompkins married, November 17, 
1S54. I'jiuline Kegina Kohn. born in Witten- 
burg. Germany. Her father, John Kohn, 
was born in the same locality and by profes- 
sion was a physician, having early turned his 
attention to the study of medicine, and grad- 
uatif.g as a physician and surgeon. lie 
])rii(:ti('ed his calling in Wittenburg until 
1851, when lie set sail from Havre, May 18, 
1851, on the " William Tell," for America. 
This vessel held 730 passengers and landed 
tliein in New York, June 13, 1851. Dr. 
Kohn located in Sauk City, Wisconsin, 
wluMH! he bought six lots. Here he practiced 
until his death. The maiden name of his 
wife, mother of Mrs. Tompkins was Christi- 
ana C. Ijaumaan, born in the same locality as 
her husband. After his death Mrs. Kohn 



went to Kansas and spent the remainder of 
her life in that State with a daughter. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tompkins have eight chil- 
dren, namely: Jo.seph B., Emily B., Char- 
lotte C. C, Ann F.. Julius E., Robert F., 
Marian O. and Lucy E. Mr. and Mrs. 
Tomj)kins are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and Mr. Tompkins is a 
Republican in politics. Our subject and his 
good wife are leading members of the local 
society and are highly respected by all who 
know them. 



t^ 



^^ 



f.T^ILLIAM MINCII, a prominent mer- 
X*lWk\J| chant of J*aoli, dates his residence in 
[■"SIstS Dane county, Wisconsin, from 1854. 
He was born in Rlieiii Pfalz, l!a\aria, June 
22, 1845. being a son of Hernani and Fran- 
ciska Minch, who were born respectively, 
January 23, and October 24, 1815. The 
father of our subject was a farmer and car- 
ried on an agricultural life in his native land 
until 1854, when he came to the United 
States. The family landed in New York 
city in April, and at once started for Wis- 
consin. They wore able to come as far as 
Stoughton, Wisconsin by rail, and then took 
wagons to Madison. At once Mr. Minch 
])iin'liast'(l eighty acres of land in Montrose 
township. \\ this time the laixl here was 
all a wilderness, the land entirely unimproved 
and covereii with timber. As quickly as 
possible a log cabin was erected for the pro- 
tection of the family and Mr. Mincli began 
the improvement of his farm. He hail 
about $S00 in money and his family did not 
endure as many hardships as did those who 
came entirely without means. He continued 
tilling the soil until 1876, when he retired 
from active labor, but still resides on the 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



335 



farm, which now consists of 180 acres of well 
improved land. He is an adherent of the 
Democratic party, but only takes enough in- 
terest in it to vote. Both parents were mem- 
bers of the Roman Catholic Church. They 
reared a family of five girls and one boy, as 
follows: Catherine, married to Frank Meng, 
and resides in Mazomanie, Wisconsin; Sa- 
lome, married Jacob Schroeder and resides 
in Middleton, where she is Postmistress; Bar- 
bara married Jacol) Strieker and resides in 
Middleton; Elizabeth married Fred Saner 
and resides on the old home.stcad, and Ger- 
trude married Anthony Schillinger and re- 
sides in Mazomanie. 

Our subject was the only son of the family 
and third in order of birth. He was only 
nine nears of age when the family came to 
the United States, was reai'ed on tlie farm 
and was taught in the district school. At 
the age of twenty-three years he married Bar- 
bara Fischer, a daughter of John and Cathe- 
rine Fischer. She was also born in Bavaria, 
in the same town as her husband and came 
with her parents to America on the same ves- 
sel with theMinch family. They also settled 
in Montrose township, where they have 
passed their remaining years. After mar- 
riage resided nearly two years on the farm 
with his parents, and then established a gen- 
eral mercantile business. In this he was 
associated with Jacob Schroeder, as partner, 
and the firm name was Mincli & Schroeder. 
The business was carried on until the death 
of Mr. Schroeder in 1875, but Mrs. Schroeder 
retained an interest in the business until 
1879, at which time our subject became sole 
proprietor and is now one of the successful 
merchants of the county, carrying a general 
and excellent stock of 2oods. Mr. and Mrs. 
Minch have three sons and two daughters 
living, one daughter, Lena, having died at 



the age of thirteen years. Tlie names of the 
living children are: Carl, Jacob, Salome, 
Lizzie and William. In politics Mr. Minch 
is a Democi-at, Imt would not willingly ac- 
cept public office. All his life he has been 
actively occupied in business, for five years 
conducting a hotel at Faoli. lie received 
from his father §1,000, and by good judg- 
ment increased this by successful investment. 
Being upright and industrious he has suc- 
ceeded in whatever he has undertaken. 






^ 



HrREDERICK STICKNEY. P( stmas.er of 
1^1 Mazomanie, was born in Lancaster, 
"3^ New Hampshire, January 8, 1836, a 
son of Jacob E. and Martha (Goss) Stickney. 
The Stickney family trace their ancestry by 
direct descent from the family of Normans 
who crossed the British ciuinnel with Will- 
iam the Conqueror, when he subjugated the 
British Isles. The Normans spelled the 
name De Stickney, but of late generations 
the prefix has been dropped. The city of 
Stickney in England is named in honor of 
the early members of this family. They first 
came to the United States in 1(520, locating 
in Rowley, Massachusetts. The faujily have 
always l)een patriotic, and one member, John 
Stickney, was with General Warren in the 
famous battle of Blinker Hill. They have 
also taken part in all other wars of our coun- 
try. The father of our subject, the late Dr. 
Stickney, was born in Brownsfield, Massa- 
chusetts, April 5, 1797, was one of twelve 
children, and was educated at Bowdoin Col- 
lege, at Brunswick, Maine. 

Frederick Stickney, the subject of this 
sketch, came to Wisconsin in 1853, and en- 
trained with his brother in the mercantile 
business at Fall River. One year later he 



236 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



found employment with Iloton's Express 
Company, afterward merged into the Ameri- 
can Express Company, in Milwaukee, and 
the following year began work in the railroad 
oftice in Mazomaiiie, under his brother, J. 
B., also engaged in buying wheat. In Au- 
gust, 1862, Mr. Stickney enlisted in the late 
war, in Company F, Twenty-fourth Wiscon- 
sin Infantry, and served with the Army of 
the Cumberland until the close of the strug- 
gle, and took part in all the engagements and 
marches in which that great army figured. 
He was mustered out of service in June, 
1865. In 1868 he was appointed postal 
clerk on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
railroad, serving in this capacity for eigliteen 
consecutive years. In 1889 he was appointed 
Postmaster of Mazomanie, under Harrison, 
and still holds this position. Mr. Stickney 
also owns a small farm in the vicinity of 
Mazomanie, which is cultivated by his eld- 
est 80D. 

December 25, 1866, our subject was united 
in marriage witii Sarah Campbell, a native of 
Hellevue, Ohio, and who came to Wisconsin 
wlien 3'oung. They have live children, 
namely: Percy, born in 1870; Mal)e] W., in 
1871; Martiia G., in 1872; and Lucile, in 
1885. Mr. Stickney affiliates with the Re- 
publican party, has taken an active part in 
many campaigns, hut has never sought public 
office. 

[EORGE BUNKER, one of the oldest 
settlers of the Territory of Wisconsin, 
secretary of the Kreuz Curtis Shoe 
Company, was born in the town of De liuy- 
ter, Madison county, New York. His father, 
Gorliam Hunker, was, it is thought, born in 
Colaml)ia county, New York. Tiie grand- 1 



father of our subject was a sea captain, in the 
whaling business, and served many years. 
He and his wife were Quakers, and reared 
their children in the same faith. The father 
of our subject learned the trade of black- 
smith and molder. In the spring of 1837 
he came to the Territory of Wisconsin to 
search out a location. He claimed a tract of 
Government land, in what is now the town 
of East Troy, Walworth county, and there 
erected a log building. Then he went to 
Chicago and followed his trade until the fall, 
at which time he went back to New York for 
his family, returning to Chicago tiiat same 
fall, making the removal by the most con- 
venient and expeditious way, which was via 
the canal to Biiffallo, thence by lake to Tole- 
do, and by team to Chicago. The latter was 
then but a small place and here the family 
remained until the spring of 1838, and then 
started by team to their future home, follow- 
ing an Indian trail up Fox river. The family 
moved into the log cabin that the father had 
built and this served as their first home in 
Wisconsin. It was from necessity that the 
father followed his trade of blacksmith, and 
the people came from niany miles away to 
get work done. In later years he devoted 
his entire time to his farm and resided there 
until his death. The maiden name of the 
mother of our subject was Rachel Russell, 
born in New York of Quaker parents. Siie 
spent her last years in Walworth county, on 
the old home place, where she reared seven 
children, as follows: ^lary, George, Henry, 
Harriet, Jane, William and Clarissa. 

Our sul)ject was thirteen years old when 
he came AYest with his parents. At that 
time the Territory of Wisconsin was jiracti- 
cally unsettled, save by the Indians, and tiie 
land was all owned by tlie Government. 
Deer and other kinds of wild animals were 



l)A^E GOUNTF, WISCONSIN. 



237 



plentiful, and roved at will. Our suliject at- 
tended the pioneer school, and the first of 
these were taught in the log schoolhouse. 
He assisted on the farm and resided with his 
parents until twentj-one jears of age, when 
he went to Milwaukee and was engaged in a 
lumber yard for about one year. The follow- 
ing tliree years he was engaged in farming in 
Walworth county, except in the winter sea- 
sons, whicli lie spent in the lumber regions of 
Michigan. Following that he went to 
Chicago and eni^aired in the wholesale lumber 
trade one year, then to White Water, Wiscon- 
sin, where he engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness until 18G8; then came to Madison and 
■conducted a business here for about twenty- 
•five years, when he sold out and has since 
lived practically retired. 

October 11, 1819, he married Miss Fannie 
Hulbert, a native of New \^ork, and a daugh- 
ter of Levi Uulljert. Mr. and Mrs. Bunker 
have three children, namely: Charles H 
Mary and Laura. Mr. Bunker is a promi- 
nent Democrat of the county and several 
terms has served as a member of the City 
Council from the Fourth Ward. 

H M. TUFtNER, president of the Dane 
County Bank, was born in Chautau- 
■® qua county. New York, January 4, 
1838, a son of (Tcorge H. and Mary (Wat- 
son) Turner, both Itorn and reared in Massa- 
chusetts. Tiie father was a physician by 
profession, and he and his \yife had only one 
son, our snbject. When the latter was only 
eighteen months old the mother died, after 
which the i'ather renuirrieil, and l)y the last 
union there were three childi-en. 

O. M. Turner came to Wisconsin at tiie 
age of nine years, where he remained on a 

17 



farm in Dunkirk township until sixteen years 
old. He was given a good common school 
education, also attending the Albion and Mil- 
ton Academies about three years. In April, 
1861, he enlisted for the late war, in Com- 
pany K, First Wisconsin Infantry, under 
Captain L. Fairchild, of Madison, and served 
with Patterson. After the battle of Falling 
Water Mr. Turner was mustered out of 
service, and returned to Wisconsin. For 
twenty-nine years he was einployed as agent 
fur the St. Paul company at McGregor, Mil- 
waukee and Stoughton, and was also engaged 
in the tobacco and lumber trade in Stough- 
ton. In 1871 he embarked in the real-estate 
business in this city, later in Minnesota and 
California; in 1877 organized the Stoughton 
State Bank, where he remained until 1881, 
and in that year organized the Dane County 
Bank. He was elected its first president, 
and the bank now has a capital of $60,000. 
Mr. Turner is also president of the Stough- 
ton Milling Company. He votes with the 
Prohibition party. 

Our subject was married May 16, 1865, to 
Sarah E. Stoughton, a daughter of Luke S. 
and Eliza (Paige) Stoughton. The father 
was the founder of the city of Stoughton, 
Mr. and Mrs. Turner have had five children: 
Mary Ada; Luke Lynn, deceased at the age 
of nine years; Giles McClure, Roy S. and 
Paul Boynton. Giles is a student in the 
University of Wisconsin. 



fUDSON FRANCIS, a well-known resi- 
dent of Blooming Grove, was born in 
Royalton, (.'uyahoga county, Ohio, June 
8, 1855. His father, Daniel, was born in 
the same place, and his grandfather, Thomas 
Francis, was a native of Massachusetts, mar- 



3:i-S 



BIOGHAPUWAL HEVIEW OF 



rieil Hetsey Davis and removed to Oliio with 
an ox team, becoming one of tlie first settlers 
of lioyalton. Their daughter Rhoda was the 
first white child born there. He bought a 
tract of Government land, all timber, built a 
log house in the wilderness, and commenced 
at once to improve his farm. There were 
neither railroads nor canals for many years, 
and Cleveland, then a small place, was the 
market for supplies. Deer and other kinds 
of game were plentiful. He cleared a farm 
and resided there until his death. The father 
of our subject was reared nn a farm, which 
lie cultivated, and also raised stock. He 
nsed to buy in Michigan, and market in 
Ohio. His home for his entire life was in 
his native county, where he died in 1889, in 
his si.Kty-ninth year. The maiden name of 
the mother of our subject was Maria Bur- 
rington, born in the same town as her hus- 
band, daughter of Jonathan Burrington, and 
died in 18G3. Nine of her children grew 
to maturity. 

Our subject was reared in his native town, 
residing on the home farm until his twenty- 
third year, when he entered the employ of 
the Standard Oil Company. In 1S82 he 
came to Dane county, where he has been a 
resident ever since, locating in 1889 on his 
father-in-law's farm, where he now resides. 

Ho was married in 1885, to Miss Helen 
Vanlioesen, born in Fitchburg, Dane county, 
"Wisconsin. Her father, Daniel L., was born 
in Augusta, Oneida county. New York, .1 uly 
11, 1818, and his father and grandfather 
were born in Kinderhook, New York, of 
early Holland ancestry. The maiden name 
of the grandmother of Mrs. Francis was 
Mary Wessells, of New York. Tiie father 
of Mrs. Francis resided in New York until 
1854, then came to Wisconsin, buying a 
farm in the town of Fitchburg, resided there 



many years, later bought the farm where the 
subject now resides, in Blooming Grove. 
This is one of the best improved farms in the 
county, and here Mr. Van Hoesen resided 
until his death, in 1891. The maiden name 
of his wife, mother of Mrs. Francis, was 
Frances Darling, born in New York, daugh- 
ter of Chester and Lucy (Root) Darling. 
She died in May, 1892. Mr. Van Hoesen 
was prominent in public afl'airs, and served 
as Assessor and Supervisor; was successful 
as a farmer, and acquired a handsome com- 
petency. Mr. and Mrs. Francis have two 
children, Harley B. and Ray G. In his 
political views he is a Republican. 



AVID D. LOGAN, a merchant of 
Black Earth, Wisconsin, was born in 
Onondaga county. New York, August 
29, 1832, a son of John and Ann (Emmerson) 
Logan. The mother was born in Bristol, 
England, and came to America in 1817. The 
father first saw the light of day in Ireland, 
where his father, an officer in the British 
army, was temporarily located on duty. His 
ancestors were from England and Scotland. 
He began life for himself as a tailor, but fol- 
lowed this occupation only a short time. The 
parents came to Wisconsin in 1840, locating 
in liacine county, where the father engaged 
in the hotel business. They reared a family 
of si.x children, four sons and two daughters, 
and those now living are: Thoitias E., a mer- 
chant of Boise City, Idaho: David D., our 
subject; and Enima, now ^Irs. Carpenter. 

David D. Logan received only a limited 
education, ami at the age of seventeen years 
he engaged in general merchandising in Wal- 
worth county, Wisconsin. He next followed 
the hotel tuisiness at Little I'rairie, same 



DANE COONTY, \YIt<CONt<IN. 



239 



county; a short time afterward liegan the 
sale of groceries at Stevens' Point; two 
years later followed agricnltnral pursuits in 
Walworth county, and in 1856 came to Black 
Earth, Dane county, Wisconsin, where he has 
ever since remained. Mr. Logan was en- 
gaged in the sale of grain and live stock un- 
til 1878, and in that year o]iened a general 
mercantile store with J. K. Stanford, under 
the firm name of Stanford & Logan. In 
1869 the firm purchased the fionring mills 
of this city, of whicli Samuel Goodlad owns 
one-third interest, tlie firm name being Stan- 
ford, Logan & Company, and he has charge 
of the mill. 

Mr. Logan was married in August, 1871, 
to Anna Miller, then of Vermont township, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, but a native of 
Germany. She came to America when 
young. To this union has been born five 
children, three now living: Etta C, Eva and 
Carrie. Mr. Losan affiliates with the Re- 
publican party, has served as Supervisor and 
Treasurer of his township, and as President 
of the Village Board. Socially, he is a Free- 
mason. 



^ 



^m- 



'^ 




:ILLIAM SEAMONSON, a success- 
ful farmer of Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin, was born near Skien, Norway, 
Februai-y 9, 1840, a son of Soamon A. and 
Gunild Seamonson. The father, a farmer by 
occupation, came to An^erica in 18'42, and 
was followed by his wife and children the 
next year. They first settled in Muskego, 
Waukesh^county, Wisconsin, in the same year 
located near Beloit, Rock county, and in Au- 
gust, 18'44, came to section 9, Pleasant 
Spring township, Dane county. The father 
died here March 20, 1847, and the mother 



December 2, 1869. They were the parents 
of five children, three sons and two daugh- 
ters, of whom our subject was the youngest 
cliild. The fatlier had been married previous 
to this union, and they also had fivechildren. 
The njaternal grandfather of our suliject was 
a professor in the parish schools, a Deacon 
in the church, and a soldier in the war against 
Denmark in 1812. 

William Seamonson, the subject of this 
sketch, was obliged in early life to assist his 
mother to maintain the family, as his elder 
brother was a cripple. He was given a dis- 
trict school education, and when yet a boy he 
drove an ox team for plowing, receiving five 
cents per day. August 11, 1862, he enlisted 
in Company D, Twenty-third Wisconsin Vol- 
unteer Infantry, served in the Army of Ten- 
nessee, the Gulf and Mississippi, was ap- 
pointed CJorporal, and in April, 1863, rose to 
the rank of Sergeant. Mr. Seamonson took 
part in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Ar- 
kansas Post, Cireenville, Mississippi, Cypress 
Bend, Arkansas, Grand Gulf, Champion 
Hill, assault on and siege of Vicksburg, 
siege of Jackson, Mississippi, Carrion Crow 
Bayou, Lfiuisiana, Spanish Fort, Fort 
Blakely, and Mobile, Alaliama. He was 
slightly wounded at Sabine Cross Roads, and 
had many narrow escapes from death and 
capture. He was mustei-ed out of service 
July 4, 1865, at Mobile, Alabama, and im- 
mediately returned to Wisconsin. Mr. Sea- 
monson subsequently bought 100 acres of 
land on sections 16 and 17, Pleasant'S|)rings, 
which he sold in 1889, and then bought bis 
present farm of ninety acres, on section 15. 
He is engaged principally in the raising of 
tobacco and live stock. Politically, he affili- 
ates with the Republican party, was first 
Supervisor of Pleasant Springs township, 
also Treasurer; served as Chairman of the 



240 



BIOQRAPniCAL REVIEW OF 



town Board of Supervisors, and member of 
County Board, three terms as Assessor, rep- 
resented his district in tiie Centennial Legis- 
lature in 187G; was Assistant Sergeant-at- 
Arms in 1878, a member of the State Con- 
vention eight different times, and attended 
the last one at Milwaukee, which nominated 
John C. Spooner as Governor of Wisconsin. 
He is now serving his seventh term as Jus- 
tice of the Peace, and is also Chairman of the 
Township and County Board. 

Mr. Seamonson was married November 1, 
1865, to Handy Christopher, who was born 
in Norway, December 4, 1839. She came 
to America in 1850, locating on section IC, 
this township. They have one child living, 
Charles S., assisting his father on the farm. 
They lost two children by death, Cornelia 
Christine, deceased in 1874, at the age of 
eight years; and one who died in infancy. 
The mother departed this life in December. 
1873, and October 22, 1876, Mr. Seamonson 
married Isabelle T. Gullikson, of Pleasant 
Spring township, and a daughter of Toston 
Gullikson, born April 28, 1854. To this 
union has been born six children, viz.: Kandy 
C, born January 17, 1878; Thomas A., Au- 
gust 1, 1879; William A., September 6, 
1881; Matilda G.. August 22, 1883; Simon 
O., born December 22, 1885, died the fol- 
lowing day; Belle Ida. born September 30, 
1887; and Nellie J., August 14, 1890. So- 
cially, Mr. Seamonson is a member of the 
G. A. R., Stoughton Post, and religiously, 
affiliates with tlie Lutheran Church. 



-^y\/\fLfir- 



-q/l/lyxy^ 



a.EXANDEIi M(:(.'AUGirN, a farmer of 
\\^\ Dane town.'^liip, Dane countj.was born 
^^ in county Antrim, Ireland, July 12, 
1822, a son of Charles and Sarah (Christy) 



McCaughn, natives also of that conntry. The 
father followed the blacksmiths* trade during 
his entire life, and his death occurred in Ire- 
land in 1837, at the age of si.xty years. The 
mother survived her husband many years, 
dying in Delaware county. New York, at the 
age of about eighty years. They were the 
parents of live sons and three daughteas, of 
whom our subject is the j'oungest child. 

The latter came to America in the spring 
of 1841, at the age of nineteen years. lie 
came on the sail vessel Francis D. Paul, an 
American three-master in the cotton trade, 
and they were six weeks from Liverpool to 
New York city, having been driven out of 
their course by a heavy storm of three weeks. 
Mr. McCaughn immediately joined his brother 
William in Delaware county, who had come 
to this country two years previous, and soon 
found work in the hay fields. lie spent four- 
teen years in that county, and thirteen years 
of that time was employed by one man, for- 
!nerly a sailor. lie succeeded in saving $1,000 
from his monthly earnings, but afterward lost 
S200. In the fall of 1855 he purchased 120 
acres ot land in West Point township, Colum- 
bia county, Wisconsin, for which he jiaid 
$800. Two years afterward he sold that 
place for $1,700, to be paid for in wheat at 
seventy-five cents per bushel, and at tlie rate 
of $200 a year. This was considered a wild 
liargain, but he sold his wheat at $2 to S2.75 
per bushel. After selling his land Mr. Mc- 
Caughn immediately came to this place and 
bought 120 acres of his sister-in-law, for 
which he paid $2,000. He bought the place 
for timber land, but the timber had been 
mostly stolen. He was obliged to go iti ilebt 
for this place, paying seven percent interest, 
and the first year he borrowed the money to 
pay the interest, paying ten per cent on the 
the latter. Our subject now owns 2Q0 acres 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



241 



of fine land, but for the past year lie has 
rented his entire place. When he came to 
this State there were no regiilai' laid roads, 
and his dwelling was a small tVame cabin. 
He erected his present frame house in 1861, 
at the beginning of the late war. Although 
Mr. McCaughn took no part in that struggle, 
he aided materially with his means. Politi- 
cally, he affiliates with the Republican party. 
In 1856 our subject was united in mar- 
riage witli Margaret Steele, a native of 
Delaware county, New York, and a daughter 
of Robert Steele, a farmer by occupation. 
She departed this life in 1874, at the age of 
fifty years, and three years afterward Mr. 
McCaughn married Miss Mahala Steele, a na- 
tive of Baraboo, and a daughter of Samuel 
Steele, who was born in Delaware county. 
New York. The latter was a brother of Mr. 
McCaughn's first wife. To this union has 
been born five sons: Charles, deceased in 
infancy; William A., aged fourteen years; 
Kolla, twelve years; Emery, nine years; and 
Howard, five years. 






fOSEPH FINGER, deceased, was born in 
Prussia, Germany, in 1816. He was 
reared to farm life, received a good 
conimoD school education, and remained at 
home with his parents until 1854. In that 
year he came on a sailing vessel to America, 
landing in New Y'ork after a voyage of two 
months, with comparatively little means. A 
short time afterward he bought eighty acres 
of land in Bristol township, Dane county, 
Wisconsin, for which he paid $900. Thirty 
acres of the land was cleared, and on which 
was a small log house, where they liegaii their 
pioneer life. Mr. Finger added to his origi- 
nal purchase until he owned 100 acres, 



erected a good residence, barns, etc., and re- 
mained there until his death, August 2, 18S5. 
He was buried in the Catholic cemetery at 
East Bristol. 

In 1884 he was united in marriage with 
Agatha Dreps. They reared a family of 
eight children, viz.: Mary, of La Crosse, Wis- 
consin; Catherine, wife of Fred Krich, of 
Appleton, this State; Ferdinand, of Camp 
Douglas; Henry, of North Leeds; Joseph, of 
Madison; Agatha, of Albany, Minnesota; 
Anton, of Hampden, Columbia count}', Wis- 
consin; and Theresia, at home. For a short 
time after the father's death the farm was 
conducted by a son, but since that time, in 
comjiany with her daughter, Mrs. Finger has 
managed the entire place. The children have 
all received a good education, and the family 
are members of the Catholic Church. 



U^,^'^OLONEL AUGUSTUS A. BIRD, one 
of the first and most noted settlers of 
Madison, paid the debt of Nature, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1870. He was born April 1, 1802, 
in Thetford, Vermont, and was a son of Sam- 
uel H. and Tabitha Bird, and a grandson of 
Ira Bird, whose father emigrated from Eng- 
land before 1730, and settled in Virginia. 
His mother was a daughter of Dr. Burgoyne, 
a nephew of General Burgoyne, and a Ma- 
jor in the British army. When our subject 
was only three years of age the father moved 
with his family to Madison county. New 
York. 

In April, 1824, he was married in the 
town of Westmoreland, New York, to Miss 
Charity Le Clair, a daughter of Louis Le 
Clair, a Frenchman. In 1826, Mr. Bird 
moved with his family to Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan, where he remained a little over two 



242 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



years, and then moved back to Madison 
count}', New York. In 1836, lie moved to 
Milwaukee, Wis^consin, and there engaged 
energetically in the business of building, as 
be had early acquired the profession of builder 
and architect, and long and successfully 
followed it at Utica, New York. In Mil- 
waukee he was appointed one of the three 
commissioners for the erection of the Terri- 
torial capitol, at Madison, and was the ac- 
tive and efticient man on the board. On 
June 1, 1837, Colonel Bird, at the head of 
about forty workmen and a train of four 
wagons, loaded with provisions, tools and 
other articles, started fortlie Fonr Lakes, the 
present site of Madison. There was then no 
road and the party was obliged to make one 
for themselves. They had an old map and a 
compass, and by perseverance and energy 
Colonel Bird and his party were (Miabled to 
pursue their route, chopping their way 
through the forest, building long corduroy 
roads over swamps, and fording or bridging 
streams. They forded Bock river at John- 
son rapids, near where Watertown now stands 
and forded the Crawfish, at Milford. For 
many uncomfortable days and nights they 
pushed onward, cheered by the luxuriance of 
nature by day, the music of the wolves by 
night, and sustained by an unconquerable 
spirit. There has since sprung up along this 
route the flourishing villages of Summit, 
Watertown, Milford, Hanchettville and Sun 
Prairie, an<l all along farms in a high state 
of cultivation, the homes of prosperity and 
happiness. The incident which gave the 
name Sun Prairie to the place that bears that 
name may not be uninteresting. The day 
Colonel Bird left Milwaukee, rain began to 
fall and continued everyday until he reached 
tjie middle of that prairie, just northeast of 
Madison, when the sun, for the first time 



shone out clear and bright, and he tore the 
bark from the first tree he reached and wrote 
on it, " Let this prairie forever hereafter be 
called Sun Prairie," and this name it still re- 
tains. What with rain, the breaking of roads 
and the fording of streams, the party did 
not arrive at their destination until the 10th 
of June. Among the party that accompan- 
ied Colonel Bird, were Darwin Clark, Charles 
Bird, Davitl Hyer and John Pierce and his 
family. Simeon Mills arrived the same day 
from Chicago. 

Arriving at Madison, the company camped 
under the trees until a log house could be 
built for their accommodation upon the banks 
of Third Lake. This was the first house 
built ill Madison, although at the same time 
and dui-iiijr the building of tiiis house a Mr. 
Peck commenced building a house in the 
same vicinity, as a boarding house for the 
commissioners and laborers. As soon as 
Colonel Bird had his men fairly at work he 
went to Detroit. Michigan, to get a steam 
engine and machinery for a sawmill to saw 
the lumber for the capitol and bnilt a steam 
sawmill on the banks of Fourth lake. The 
most of the men were married, and as fast as 
possible they put up buildings of their own 
and brought on their families, and Colonel 
P>ird laid out the city of the Four Lakes with 
this small nucleus. He was always an en- 
thusiastic admirer of Wisconsin, and was 
very instrumental in Imilding up ^ladison 
and Milwaukee. IJe was an arcliitect and 
builder, and among the monuments of his 
skill were the old capitol building, the old 
Madison House, the American Hotel, the 
first courthouse, the south building of the 
university, and the first dejxit. 

Colonel Bird was frequently honored with 
positions of trust, and in 1837-'38 he was a 
partner in a mercantile firm in Madison, with 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



243 



Governor Doty, James Morrison and John 
F. U'Neil, the settlement of the affairs of 
whicli involved a litigation of aliunt twenty 
years. In 1851, and in 1856, he was chosen 
to represent the Madison district in the Leg- 
islature, served the city as one of the earliest 
Mayors, was the first Sheriff of Dane county, 
and became well known to the pi-ominent 
men of the Territory and State. In the 
prime of life he was a man of much energy 
of character, and was well fitted by his hardi- 
hood of character for a pioneer. lie passed 
through many hardships and privations. 

Colonel Bird left a wife, and several chil- 
dren, who have reached maturity and are en- 
gaged in different walks of life. Three of 
his sons are connected with newspapers in 
this State and elsewhere, and are now in posi- 
tions of usefulness and prominence. Colo- 
nel Bird was possessed of a warm nature, 
generous to a fault, kind to the poor, and 
honest and upright in his dealings. He was 
a prominent member of the Masonic order. 
His death occurred very suddenly, at the 
residence of his son-in-law, Mr. J. Stark- 
weather, at Green 13ay, Wisconsin, where he 
bad been making a visit. He is supposed to 
have died from the effect of cancers of vvhicli 
he had several near his heart. In his death 
Wisconsin lost one of her noted and influen- 
tial pioneers. 



< 



-m^ 



^ 



|STES WILSON, interested in gold and 
and silver mining in Colorado for many 
years, our subject passed a busy life, 
hut is now retired from active business. In 
1882 Mr. Wilson was made the first presi- 
dent of the Badger State Mining and Milling 
Company. The mines which this company 
operated had been known as the Badger State 



mines, and are located near Red Cliffs, Eagle 
county, Colorado, and are considered very 
valuable, having been worked for considerable 
time. The climate of Colorado did not 
agree with Mr. Wilson, and he was obliged 
to return to his home at Madison. He had 
first located in Madison, March 16, 1854, 
since which time he has engaged occasionally 
in farming. 

Mr. Wilson was born in Belchertown, 
Hampshire county, Massachusetts, January 
30, 1820. He grew up as a farmer boy, and 
later took charge of a large brick manufactory 
at Springfield, Massachusetts, where he was 
engaged some ten years. This business 
proved very profitable, and with the money 
which he realized from it became to Madison, 
Wisconsin, and invested in land. Decem- 
ber 6, 1850, he left New York city on a ves- 
sel for San Francisco^ via Isthmus of Panama, 
andi after landing in California, engaged in 
placer and river mining at Mud and Diamond 
Spi'ing, California. After one year he was 
forced to return on account of the fever, 
taking passage on the Vanderbilt line. On 
his return trip he passed through all the in- 
teresting incidents of such a passage, and 
obtained a very good idea of the country at 
that time. 

Mr. Wilson came of an old English fam- 
ily. Three brothers, Jolm, Jacob and J oseph 
came to this country prior to the Revolution- 
ary war, and settled in Massachusetts, from 
whicli state their descendants have scattered 
over the Union. The family has been promi- 
nent wherever it is found. The father, Estes 
Wilson, Sr., was the son of Nathan Wilson, 
who lived and died in Hampshire county, 
Massachusetts. The death of the latter oc 
curred from an accident. He fell from liis 
wagon and ran a sjJinter into his foot, which 
caused gangrene, and death resulted. His 



244 



BIOGRAPHICAL HE VIEW OF 



son, tlie father of our subject, was born, 
reared and lived in Hampshire county until 
1870, when he came to Illinois and located at 
Farmer City, dying at the house of a daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Baggs, aged seventy-six years. In 
his religious belief he was a Methodist; in 
politics he was formerly a Whig, and then 
became a Republican. The mother of our 
subject was named Sarah Currier, who was 
born, reared and married in Hampshire county, 
Massachusetts, of which state her parents 
were natives. She died at the home of her 
daughter in De Witt county, Illinois, in 
1878, when over seventy-two years of age. 
She had been a woman of noble character, 
and was a member of the Metiiodist Episco- 
pal Church. Our subject is one of a large 
family, of whom six children are yet living. 
He is the oldest son, but a sister is still older, 
and is yet living. AVhile living in Spring- 
field, Massachusetts, he was married to Jane 
M. Ingalls, a native of New Hampshire, who 
was reared in Vermont until young woman- 
hood, and then came to Massachusetts, where 
she met and married Mr. Wilson. She was 
a talented young lady, and after graduating 
from an institution of learning in Boston, 
Massachusetts, she became a medical student, 
and graduated from a medical college in 
Boston, and began to practice in the old 
school. She came West in 1854, with her 
husband, and began to practice in the Home- 
opathic school. She has had much success 
and a very large practice, both in the city 
and vicinity. She has become quite well 
known and although now well along in life, 
she has not ceased her labors for the Ijenefit 
of those about her. She has made a success 
of the profession in which she had few com- 
panions at the time she entei-ed it. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilson have many friends in 
this county, and Mrs. Wilson is a member of 



of the Congregational Church of Madi-^on. 
They are the parents of one daughter, Mary 
J., who is the wife of Mr. Earl De Moe, and 
lives in Chicago. He is now in the United 
States mail service, with which he has been 
connected for nearly twenty years. He and 
his wife have one son. Earl Wilson, a young 
man of twenty- two years of age. 

Mr. Wilson has been a member of the 
City Council for some years. He is a Repub- 
lican in politics, and is a Master Mason, be- 
longing to Hiram Lodge, No. 50. Mr. Wil- 
son has an interest as a stockholder in a val- 
ble gold mine in Colorado. This mine is 
one of the largest and deepest in the State of 
Colorado, being over a third of a mile in 
depth, and is worked night and das- the year 
round by a large force of men. 

Mr. Wilson has recently retired to Chicago, 
and makes his home at No. 23 Best avenue. 

There is a family Bible possessed by Mr. 
and Mrs. Wilson, and is valued as a relic, 
being fully 150 years old. It was brought 
from England by the brothers who first came 
to thiscountry, one of whom, Joseph, in 1775, 
returned to Enj'land. 



LEXANDER FINDLAY, one of the 
leading grocery men of the city of 
Madison is the subject of this sketch. 
His business amounts to many thousands of 
dollars and the value of his stock, including 
groceries, baker supplies and illuminating 
oils would surprise those who do not look 
into those matters. His sales aggregate from 
§85,000 to 11100,000 annually. 

The subject was born in Scotlaml in 1S3S 
and his parents, most respectable and intell- 
igent people, resided in Kincardineshire 
Scotland, and lived and died there. For 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONfilN. 



345 



years Louis Findlay, the father, was a fish 
cnrer and dealer and was prominent in tiie 
business in his home town. Tlie Ijusiness 
wliich lie established is still conducted by his 
son William. 

The first one of the Findlay family to 
break away from home ties was a brother of 
our subject, Roliert Findlay. He came to 
America it 1856 and a few years later he 
moved to Montana and died there in 1868 in 
the prime of life. He had met with success 
in his undertakinffs and one of his descend- 
ants now lives in Kansas. AVhen our subject 
chose an occupation he decided to be an 
apothecary and served his time in that in 
Glasgow, Scotland. Later he became engaged 
in managing an American produce business 
in Scotland, and for seven years before coming 
here he conducted it. 

In 1863 our subject came to this country 
and located in Madison, where he has since 
shown himself one of her best and most 
reliable citizens. One of the causes which 
brought Mr. Findlay to America was the 
loss sustained on a cargo of Grain from New 
York to Glasgow, Scotland. This was during 
the civil war. The vessel which contained 
this grain was the Crenshaw, a ship that had 
made itself famous as a blockade runner past 
Charleston, South Carolina. Although it had 
a clearance paper from the British consul, the 
Alabama sunk it, cargo and all. Captain Sem- 
mes claiming that the "Yankees were getting 
too smart!" After Mr. Findlay reached 
Madison, in 1863, he joined his brother 
Robert as a drug and grocery merchant and 
has increased his business facilities from time 
to time until in 1881 he found it necessary to 
erect the large Findlay block on King street. 
This large and convenient buildingis occupied 
almost entirely by Mr. Findlay himself, as 



he is the lai'gest dealer in his line in the 
city. 

Our subject was mari-ied in Scotland to 
Miss Catherine P^lint, of Glasgow, Scotland 
who was a young lady of excellent family. Mr. 
and Mrs.F'indlay are the parents of the follow- 
ing four children: Paul, who conducts his 
father's business since Mr. Findlay has some- 
what withdrawn from active life, married 
Miss Bodenstein; Margaret D. is at home; 
Esther is married, and Mary is still at home. 



fllARLES STDAPtT SHELDON, A. 
M., M. I)., Madison. Wisconsin. — The 
subject of this sketch was born at New 
York Mills, Oneida county. New York, 
January 14, 1842, the son of Stephen Smith 
and Lemira (Harris) Sheldon. His parents 
were married at Rupert, Vermont, and 
removed first to eastern Massachusetts and 
subsequently to New York Mills, where his 
father was secretary of the New York Mills 
Manufacturing Company. Mr. Siieldon's 
health failing he purchased a farm near 
Brockport,New York, where he removed with 
his family when the subject of this sketch 
was three years old. 

After reaching a suitable age, Charles 
assisted in the work on the farm during the 
summer months and attended school during 
the winters, so continuing until he graduated 
from the Brockport Collegiate Institute in 
1858. In the fall of the same year he began 
his studies at Phillips Academy, Andover, 
Massachusetts, then under the care of that 
eminent scholar. Dr. Samuel H. Taylor and 
graduated in the following; summer. In the 
fall of 1859, with a majority of his Andover 
classmates, he entered the classical depart- 
ment of Yale ('ollege, at which he graduated 



246 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



in 1863. This class was the largest that had 
ever tjradnated from Yale and contained 
many who are now widely known for their 
usefnlness and ability. Among them may be 
mentioned, lion. William C. Whitney, ex- 
Secretary of the Navy, and Professor William 
G. Sumner of Yale College. Our subject 
received the degree of A. M. in 1866. 

After graduation, our subject removed to 
Madison, Wisconsin, where his parents had 
previously gone, and in the fall of 1863 
accepted tlie position of principal of tiie 
First Ward (Trainniar School, where he taiight 
until the following June. At tiiat time he 
became the principal of the State lieform 
School at Waukesha, Wisconsin, where he 
remained until January, 1865. He then 
began the study of medicine at Buffalo, New 
York, in the medical department of the 
Buffalo University. He attended three courses 
of lecture.s and graduated in February, 1867, 
with the degree of M. D. Daring the period 
of his studies at Buffalo he acted in the capac- 
ity of resident physician to the Buffalo 
General Hospital, remaining until the fall of 
1867, when he went to New York city for 
the purpose of attending a course of lectures 
at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
and in the spring of 1868 he graduated from 
that institution, receiving an ad-eundein, 
deifree of M. U. 

Our subject's first choice of location for 
the practice of his profession was at Winona, 
Minnesota, where he removed soon after 
graduating at New York. He here spent 
three years, gaining many warm friends and 
succeeding admirably in his practice. In 
January, 1872, he left Winona and removed 
with his family to Greenville, Michigan, and 
here formed a partnership for the practice 
of medicine with Dr. John Avery, for many 
years past president of the Michigan State 



Board of Health and at present a member of 
Congress from the Greenville district. He 
remained in Greenville for thirteen years, 
building up a large practice and actively 
engaging in the alfairs of the place. During 
twelve years of his residence in this place lie 
was Superintendent of the Congregational 
Sunday-school. 

In March, 1885, Dr. Sheldon removed to 
Madison where he has since practiced his pro- 
fession most successfully. He has been secre- 
tary of the Central Wisconsin Medical Society 
for the past six years, and secretary of the 
State Medical Society for the past three years. 
He is the medical nominator of the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society of New York for 
Southern Wisconsin and is a menber of the 
Council of the American Academy of Medi- 
cine. He also served on the Board of Exami- 
ners for pensions at Madison from January 
1, 1889 until June 14 of the same year. He 
finds time among the engrossing cares of a 
successful practice to be an occasional con- 
tributor to the medical journals. 

Politically the doctor is a Republican, but 
he has never sought political prominence and 
has never held office. Dr. Sheldon was mar- 
ried at Buffalo, New York, October 30, 1868, 
to Miss Emma L. Hodge, of that place, niece 
of William Hodge of that place, one of the 
early settlers of Buffalo. Mrs. Sheldon gra<i- 
uated at the Buffalo Female Academy in 
1867. To this union have been born four 
sons and one daughter, as follows: William 
Hodge, born October 8, 1869, who died 
April 22, 1874; Sidney Roby, born April 11, 
1873, now a member of the Junior class in 
the electrical engineerin'; course of the 
Wisconsin State University; Walter Hodge, 
born December 3, 1874, now a freshman in 
the ancient classical course of the same 
institution; Stuart, born .\ugust 23,1876, 



DANE VOUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



247 



and Helen Miriam, born Deceinl)er 3, 1884. 
Dr. and Mrs. Slieldon are ineinberfi of the 
Congregational Church and are both actively 
eumicred in the work. The Doctor is one of 
the Deacons of the ciiurch and was for live 
years Superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
He is known for his public spirit and is deeply 
interested and actively engaged in temperance 
and all other movements, which have for 
their object the benefit of the community at 
large. 



-«^ 



s-KQ 



IHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, pres- 
iWfvii i*^^"*- of the University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, was born January 24, 1835, 
at Derby, Vermont, a direct descendant in 
the seventh generation from William Adams, 
who settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 
1636. His father moved to Vermont in 
1845, from New Ipswich, New Hampshire. 
His early education was in the common 
country school, and at the age of sixteen he 
began teachinur and tau();ht four successive 
winters in his native town. Two terms he 
went to Derby Academy, having acquired, be- 
fore he was nineteen, such an education in 
mathematics as was necessary to become a 
surveyor. 

In the summer of 1855 it was decided by 
his parents to move to Iowa. In theautnmn 
the subject of this sketch, after visiting some 
relatives in Boston, New Jersey and Ohio, 
reached Denmark, Iowa, where some relatives 
had been for several years established. His 
father and mother and his only sister fol- 
lowed in the spring. For several years it 
had been his great desire to acquire a col- 
legiate education, but owing to the financial 
condition of the family it had not been prac- 
ticable. Though his father and mother very 



earnestly sympathized with his desire, it was 
impossible for them to render him any as- 
sistance. In the summer of 1S56, when a 
little more than twenty-one years of age, he 
decided to prepare for college. The princi- 
]3al of the Denmark Academy, Mr. II. K. 
Edson, encouraged him to believe that this 
could be done in two years. At the holidays 
it was decided to make the attempt to com- 
plete the work in one. He began the study 
of Latin and Greek in September, and in the 
following May had completed all the required 
work. His devotion to his studies, however, 
during this period had been so arduous that 
he was attacked with brain fever, which made 
it for a time doulitful wiiether he would ever 
1)6 able to resume his studies. The rest from 
June to September, however, insured com- 
plete restoration, and at the ojiening of the 
university year, in September, 1857, he was 
admitted, under heavy conditions, to the 
freshman class in the University of Mich- 
igan. When he started out for college he 
had $140 with which to go through his col- 
lege course. The financial disasters of 1857 
made it impos8il)le for his father to render 
him any assistance. The first two years he 
supported himself partly by teaching. Dur- 
ing the vacation between the freshman and 
sophomore years he taught a private school, 
which yielded him about $70. With this 
sum and his private endeavors he completed 
the sophomore year. At the beginning of 
the third year he was appointed an assistant 
in the university library, a position which 
yielded him that year |100. This position 
he held until his graduation, in 1861. He 
was induced to remain for post-graduate 
studies, partly by the fact that the post of as- 
sistant librarian was made more desirable by 
an increase of salary to $200, and partly by 
the encouragement received from Prof. An- 



248 



BIOGRAPHICAL HE VIEW OF 



drew D. White, in whose work he liad be- 
come specially interested. Near tlie close of 
the year he took one of President White's 
classes, and at the end of the year was ap- 
pointed instrnctor in Latin and history. 

In 1863 he was advanced to the rank of 
assistant professor, a position which he held 
nntil 1867, when, on the resicjnation of Pres- 
ident White to go to Cornell University as 
president, Mr. Adams was appointed pro- 
fessor of history and given leave of absence 
for somewhat more than a year for stndy and 
travel in Europe. During his period of ab- 
sence his object was to so increase his knowl- 
edge of German, French and Italian as to 
enable him to use them readily to make the 
acquaintances of the educational methods of 
Germany and F'rance particularly, and to 
visit as many places of historical interest as 
practicable. Instead of settling for contin- 
uous study at any one university, he spent 
about three months at Bonn, a month at 
Heidelberg, two months at Leipzig, a month 
at Berlin and a month at Munich. About 
two months in Italy, and from two to three 
months in Lausanne, Geneva and Paris. 
Soon after his return, in 1868, he established 
a historical seminary in the University of 
Michigan, modeled after the methods pur- 
sued in Germany. On the establishment of 
a school of political science in Michigan, 
Mr. Adams was appointed its dean, at the 
same time he was also appointed non-resident 
lecturer on history at Cornell University. 
This position took him for three weeks to 
Cornell at about the middle of each year. 

In 1885 he was elected to the presidency 
of Cornell University, and during the seven 
years of his incumbency of that position the 
number of students was increased from 560 
to more than 1,500. The endowment of tlie 
university was increased by $2,000,000. In 



1879 he received the degree of Doctor of 
Laws in the University of Chicago, and in 
1886 the same degree was conferred by Har- 
vard University. In 1892 President Adams 
resigned the presidency of Cornell Univer- 
sity with the purpose of devoting his life 
henceforth to the writing of history; but in 
the course of the summer he received several 
invitations to resume educational work, and 
finally accepted the presidency of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. 

In 1872 Mr. Adams published his volume 
entitled " Democracy and Monarchy in 
France," a book which attracted the atten- 
tion and favorable criticism of scholars. In 
1882 he published a memoir of historical 
literature, a work which is designed for the 
use of students, librarians and general read- 
ers. This work was the result of ten years 
of arduous application, and is very generally 
used by historical students in Europe as well 
as in America. A third edition of the work, 
much enlarged and improved, appeared in 
1889. In 1882 he published three volumes 
entitled >• British Orations, with Historical 
and Critical Notes," designed to be of assist- 
ance to chose who are studying the represent- 
ative orations of British orators. In 1892 
he issued a small volume on "Christopher 
Columbus, His Life and Works," the result 
of careful and critical study of the original 
authorities. He has been a frequent con- 
tributor to European and American reviews, 
including the Contemporary Review, The 
Forum and the North American. He has 
also published numerous monographs, and is 
a memlter and fellow of a large number of 
leai-ned societies. In 1890 he was elected 
president of the American Historical Associ- 
ation. 



DANE GOUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



249 



iLFRED MERRILL, now living retired 
I05.1K in Madison, was born in Binfjhainton, 
New York, January 17, 1824. Hisfa- 
tiier, Myron Merrill, was born in New Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, where he learned the trade 
of hatter. After his marriage he removed to 
Sherburne, Chenango county, and from there 
to Binghamton, where he established a hat 
factory and was very successful in the busi 
ness. He was one of the orcranizers of the 
Broome County Bank, of which he was the 
vice-president for many years. He dealt 
largely in real estate and at one time owned 
several thousand acres of timber and coal lamls 
in Pennsylvania. He died in I-Jinghamton, 
in 1873, aged eighty-three years. 

The maiden name ot his wife was Rhoda B. 
Robinson, born in Pembroke, New Hamp- 
shire, and died in Binghamton, in 1887, aged 
eighty-seven. She reared two children: 
Amelia, who married Louis S. Abbott and is 
still living in Binghamton. 

Our subject received his early education in 
the public schools of Binghamton and under 
private tutorage at Troy, New York, after 
which he engaged in the dry-goods and gro 
eery business in I'inghamton, until 1853, 
when he came to Madison. After his arrival 
he bought a farm, four miles out of Madison, 
on the west bank of Lake Mendota, on which 
he resided for twenty-five years. Since that 
time he has resided in Madison. On his farm 
is located Merrill's Rock Spring. It is a 
spring of mineral water, an analysis of which 
shows it to be superior to any other mineral 
water yet discovered. He has platted a por- 
tion of his farm, which is known as Merriii'.s 
park, and it occupies one of the most beautiful 
locations in this most picturesque region. 

Mr. Merrill married, in 1854, Miss Olive A. 
Collier, born in Bingiiamton, New York, and 
died October, 1889. In politics he is a Demo- 



crat and cast his first vote for Franklin Pierce, 
and has not voted since 1876, because a Demo- 
cratic Congress agreed to arbitrate, and hence 
the reason that Samuel J. Tilden was not in- 



augurated. 



^j GROVE, one of the leading German 

ll^ citizens of Madison, a wholesale dealer 

"^■if in wines and li(piors, also vinegar and 

a manufacturer of cigars, is the gentleman 

whose name opens this sketch. 

Our subject was born in the city of Han- 
over, Germany, October 13, 1822, and grew 
up and was educated in his native country. 
All youths receive a good education in the 
land of the German Emperor, but our subject 
was so thoroughly taught that he was made 
clerk in a Government Collector's office. La- 
ter he engaged in farming, and then bought 
a restaurant in Hanover for $5,000, and con- 
ducted this for five years. At the end (if that 
time he sold this business for $7,200, and in 
May, 1857, he left Germany for the United 
States, taking passage on a steamer. The In- 
diana, out from Bremer-Haven, and in twenty- 
one days landed in New York city, tiien 
came to Chicago and then to Freeport and 
there, with a Mr. Fred Bues, established a vine- 
gar factory and were wholesale li()Uor deiilers. 
In this venture our subject put the most of his 
money, but in two years the firm was over- 
taken with niistortuue and Mr. Grove lost his 
capital and had but $190 and six vinegar 
generators when he came to Madison, Wis- 
consin, to take a new start. 

The date of the coming of Mr. Grove to 
Madison was 1859, in the month of March, 
and with but small capital he opened ui) first 
as a manufacturer of vinegar and after some 
years so eidarged his business as to include 



250 



BIOORAPIllCAL JiEVI£W OF 



trade in wines and liquors. In 1875 our sub- 
ject bougiit out the cigar manufactory of 
Lantz ct Kevser and increased the business 
from tlie employment of eight men to that 
of tiiirty, which he needs a part of the time 
now. The firm now does business under the 
name of 11. (irove it Sons, and tlie cigar fac- 
tory lias a capacity of about 100,000 cigars 
per month. The goods are represented upon 
the road by one of the sons generally. The 
firm occupies Nos. 109 to 113 South Webster 
sti-eet. 

Few Germans who came here poor have 
done as well as Mr. Grove. He is now feel- 
ing the advance of years and is not very act- 
ively engaged any more in the business and 
has given the care over to his sons, who are 
cajiable and energetic young men, and are 
able to carry on the business as their father 
began it. Mr. Grove has been interested in 
everything which has served to build up the 
city and has been recognized as one of the 
reliable German citizens. lie has gone 
through the many experiences of those men 
who have crossed the ocean to make a home 
in this country. He came of German parents, 
who died when he was in cliildhood, and was 
educated by an uncle with whom he lived for 
some years, his uncle being a successful 
teacher. ^Ir. (-rrove was the only son of the 
family to come to the United States, and he 
liad two sisters who died in Germany, who 
were married to prominent men there. 

Mr. Grove was the lirst married in his na- 
tive province, to a lady of his own town, and 
she died in the prime of life after the birth 
of two children, AVilliam and Louis, the for- 
mer a liquor dealer in Madison and the latter 
a harness dealer in Sacramento, California. 
Mr. Grove was a second time married, at his 
ol<i hoTUf, to Miss Augusta Soehle, who was 
reared at the same place and has since been a 



true wife and mother. She has become the 
mother of seven children, one of whom, Dora, 
died in childhood, and Theodore, who was con- 
nected with bis father in business, died in 
1886, aged twenty-eight. Theodore married 
Miss Emma Itullman, and they have two 
children, William and Helen. Mathilda, who 
was married to Mr. John W. Veerhusen, 
who has died. She now lives with her parents 
and has a family of one son and two daugli- 
ters. Henry is also connected with his fa- 
ther in business. He married Miss Sarah 
McStay, and the^' live in this city. Fred is 
also with his father and married Miss Laura 
Menhardt, and they are residents of Madison. 
Walter is connected with the clerical work in 
the State bank and is at home. Edward, as 
all of the family, possesses business qualifica- 
tions and is connected with his father. Theo- 
dore. was a very proniinent man in the city 
and a member of the Council. The family 
attends the Presbyterian Church and Mr. 
Grove and his sons are independent in politics. 

U.WILLIAM WESLEY GILL, a phy- 
sician and surgeon of Madison, was born 
in this city, February Ifi, 1860, a son of 
William John and Hannah (Lantry) Gill, the 
forn)er a native of Ferrens I'oint, on the St. 
Lawrence river, (^anada, and the latter of 
eastern New York. The father, a railroad 
contractor by occupation, assisted in the build- 
ing of the Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad 
from Madison to Sun Prairie, also a section 
of the Ofdenshurg railroad, New York. He 
died about twenty-six years ago, and the 
mother now resides in Madison. They had 
three sons and three daughters, of whom our 
s\ibject is fourth in order of birth. The sons 
are connected with railroads in the West and 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



251 



Northwest, and the mother's brothers were 
also raili-oad contractors. 

William W. (Jill attended tliepiihlic schools 
of this city until seventeen years of afre, and 
then began the stock business and freighting 
over the west and northwest of Texas. Three 
years later he returned to this State, and in 
1881 entered the University of Wisconsin, 
where he remained one and a lialf years. lie 
was then in the Rush Medical College, Chi- 
cago, until his gra<luation in 1883, and tlie 
following year began practice in Madison, 
being lirst on the police force and iire depart- 
ment. During that year he also began the 
general practice of medicine. Mr. (tHI grad- 
uated at the law school of Wisconsin, in the 
class of 1887. In 1890, and in company with 
Dr. J. M. Boyd, he erected the Madison Hos- 
pital, at the cost of §17,000, which is one of 
the great enterprises of the city. Since that 
time he has confined his practice to surgery. 
Our subject is a Republican in his political 
views, and has held the office of Health Of- 
ficer of the city and Pension Examiner of the 
Government. He is still unmarried, and re- 
sides at home with his mother. 

|ROF. G£(JRGE C. COMSTOUK, widely 
^ and favorably known in educational and 
scientific circles, who has been for sev- 
eral years the efficient director of Washburn 
oljservatory, Madison, Wisconsin, was born 
in this city February 12, 1855. His parents, 
Charles H. and Mercy (Bronson) Comstock, 
were born on the Western Reserve, in Ohio, 
where his father was reared. The Professor's 
mother removed with her parents to Michigan 
when she was a child, where she attained her 
growth, and was educated. His father, a 
merchant by occupation, was married in Ra- 



cine, Wisconsin, whence he afterward re- 
moved to Adrian. 

The subject of this sketch was the oldest 
of f(mr children, and was eleven years of age 
when his j>arents removed to Adrian, Michi- 
gan, and in the public schools of that city he 
received his preliminary educaticjn. In 1873 
he entered the Michigan University at Ann 
Arb(ir, taking what was then denominated 
the Latin scientific course. He graiiuated at 
that notable institution in 1877 with the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Philosojihy, and was 
then made private assistant of the director 
of the observatory. After this, he was em- 
ployed with a corps of civil engineers on the 
coast of the great lakes for the ne.xt four 
years. In the fall of 1879 he came to Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, where he became assistant 
director of Washburn Observatory, under 
Messrs. Watson and Holden. He later at- 
tended lectures in the law class of tlie uni- 
versity two years, and was admitted tn the 
bar of Madison in 1883. He passe<l the fol- 
lowing year in W^ashington, District of Co- 
lumbia, wliere he was engaged on the Nauti- 
cal Almanac. In 1885 he was called to the 
chair of Mathematics and Astronomy in the 
Ohio State University at Columbus, where he 
spent two years. He then accepted a c;dl to 
the Wisconsin University as assistant director 
of Washburn C)bservatory and Professor of 
Astronomy. In 1889 he was made full di- 
rector of the Washburn Observatory, which 
position he has sifice filled. 

Besides his educational and scientilic 
labors. Prof. Comstock has contributed many 
valuable articles to the scientific and astro- 
nomical journals. He has also written a 
work on the " Method of Least Squares," 
published in 1890. 

As a conscientious and able worker, no one 
stands higher in educational and scientific 



253 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



circles than tlie subject of this sketch, who 
brings to his position the ripe knowledge of 
years of experience and study. 



^ON. KOMANZO BUNN, United States 
District Judge for the Western District 
of Wisconsin, and at present lecturer 
on Federal Jurisprudence in the Evanston 
(Illinois) College, is the subject of this sketch. 
Searching the streets of Athens with a lan- 
tern, Diogenes illuiiiine<l a truth of his own 
discovering, namely, that honest men are the 
rarest as well as most precious of jewels, and 
we have discovered that those who shine in 
the Republic, none have a higher worth than 
the executers of the law. Prominent upon 
the roll of prominent and good men we find 
the name of Judge Romanzo Hunii, whose 
lionorable career as a jui'ist, barrister and lec- 
turer has extended over many years, and has 
been closely and laudably connected with the 
courts of Wisconsin. Judge Bunn is liter- 
ally a self-made man, and chiefly educated by 
his own efforts. The path of his early life 
was not strewn with roses, and he has won 
his way on the upward course of an honor- 
able career of a most worthy citizen through 
many hardships, but is now enjoying himself 
and reaping the benefits of a well-nmnded 
life, surrounded by a host of friends, and 
honored and respected by all. His palatial 
home is situated on tlie magnificent residence 
street, the Langdon, in the city of ^fadison, 
and overlooks the silvery lake of Mendota. 

Judge I'linn was born in Otsego county, 
Is'ew York, on September 24, 1829. He was 
oidy three years of age when his parents 
moved to Cattaraugus county. New York, 
where his early years were spent upon a farm, 
and he grew up with only ordinary educa- | 



tional advantages, and as he expresses it him-, 
self, — " Just about as poor as one can be." 
However, he was not lacking in energy and 
ambition, and through his own efforts re- 
ceived a practical education, first in the pub- 
lic schools and then at Springville Academy, 
New York, working his way through school 
bv teachiuir, but always resrrettiuff that he 



>}' 



ay,. 



had not the opportunity to take a regular 
college course. While in school and teaching 
school, young Bunn was giving some atten- 
tion to Hlackstone, and after the style of 
most young men of his day; seeking to be- 
come lawyers, he first entered the office of 
McAckeron & Myers, at Elyria, Ohio, in the 
spring of 1849, at the age of nineteen. In 
the spring of 1850, he entered the law office 
of William II. Wood, at Ellicottville, New 
York, a very excellent lawyer, and now, and 
for many years past, the trustee of the (?ouch 
estate in Chicago. Here he jnirsued his 
studies, practicing the law, some in the 
courts of justice of the peace and teaching 
<luring the winters, until the fall of 1853, 
when he was admitted to the bar, and im- 
mediately found a partnership with Mr. Wood, 
which continued until they both removed 
West in the autumn of 1854. 

In 1854 Mr. Bunn wedded one of the fair 
daughters of his native county, named Sarah 
Purdy. She had been born, reared and edu- 
cated in the same county, ami had come of 
stock in which flowed some of the best blood 
of New England and of New York, in which 
latter place both parents died. The Judge 
anil his young bride were of ambitious na- 
ture, ami decided to join those who were 
making history and taking part in the devel- 
opment of the great West. Consequently 
they started for Wisconsin, and before snow 
had fallen in the winter of 1854-'55 they 
had established themselves in a small house 




j: cm 



y-tnc'f . 



DANE COUNTY, WlSGONblN. 



IVi 



ill the then comparatively new town of Gales- 
ville, Wisconsin, and where young Ennn 
signified liis willingness to conduct the legal 
affairs of the people of the town. Here be- 
gan his career. At first his prospects were 
not very inviting, but honest integrity won 
him friends and brought him business. Al- 
ways prompt and universally polite, he pos- 
sessed those qualities which help any man to 
success. After si.x years of industrious labor 
in Galesville, he was induced to locate at 
Sparta, which was the seat of justice of 
Monroe count}', where he soon became a 
prominent member of the bar, and his career 
as a jurist began. In 1800, before he had 
left Trempealeau county, Mr. I'linn repre- 
sented the jieople of his district in the Assem- 
bly of tliat year. From 18G1 he was in 
active practice as an attorney at Sparta, with 
good success. In 1868 he was elected Cir- 
cuit Judge for the Sixth Circuit of Wisconsin, 
and was re-elected in 1874, and held the 
office until October, 1877, when he was ap- 
pointed l)y President Hayes to tht^ office of 
United States Judge for the western district 
of Wisconsin, and has to his own credit, and 
with great distinction for his wise and hon- 
orable decisions served tiiis district continu- 
ously. The law reviews and the work 
called " Bench and Bar,'' make honorable and 
complimentary mention of him as an able 
and honest jurist. He hi\s not been gres^tly 
interested in local or St^te politics, but affili- 
ates with the Kepublican party. Judge and 
Mrs. Bunn attend the Congregational Cliurch, 
although tl^ey are not; members of it. 

Nothing shows the good qualities of the 
Judge better than his honest, open and happy 
couqtenance, and his pleasant and approach- 
abjeiqanner, treating rich and poor, acquaint- 
ances and strangers witii a like courtesy. The 
Judge's family history dates back some gen- 



erations and seems to have been an admixture 
of New England, New York and Holland 
stock. His father, Peter Bunn, born in tlie 
Empire State, grew up a farmer, fnUowed his 
calling diligently, held some of the local 
offices, and died of a fever in Cattaraugus 
county, at the age of fifty-four years. Al- 
though he came of long-lived, hearty stock, 
he was thus cut down in the prime of life. 
The mother of our subject was named Polly 
A. .lackson, and after the death of her hus- 
band she came to Wisconsin, spent her last 
ye^rs among her children, and died at the 
age of seventy-one years. She had been a 
kind, good wife, an affectionate mother, and 
botii she and her husband had been members 
of the Methodist ('hurcli. 

Judge P)unn and his estimable wife are the 
happy parents of five children, of whom 
Charles W. and George L. are prominent and 
prospering young attorneys '\n St. Paul; John 
M. is employed in a bank in Tacoma, and 
Mary and Fannie remain at home. For seven 
years Judge Bunn was a lecturer in the law 
class of the Wisconsin State University, and 
the Evanston College is to be congratulated 
that it has secured for tlie important subject 
of Federal Jurisprudence so good a lawyer 
as the subject of this sketch. 

fAMES L. O'CONNOR is a native of 
the State of Wisconsin, being born at 
Hartford, Washington county, June 3, 
1859. Flis parents are natives of Ii-eland, 
and are farmers by occupation. They still 
reside on the old homestead, where they have 
reared a family of ten children, five sons and 
five daughters. 

He began his education in the common 
school; afterward spent a term at the Hart- 



254 



BIOORAPUICAL REVIEW OF 



ford liigii school; was then engaged in 
teaching, laboring on the farm, and at sncli 
other occupation as he could lind. lie en- 
tered the University of AYiscoosin in 1876, 
and remained in the nniversity proper for a 
period of three years, lie then entered the 
law school of the State University of Wis- 
coiiriin, from which he graduated in 1880. In 
1881 he formed a partnership with Charles 
N. Brown, and began the practice of law at 
the city of Madison nnder the firm name of 
Brown »& O'Connor. This partnership lasted 
several years. In 1884 he was elected Dis- 
trict Attorney for Dane county. His success 
as Prosecuting Attorney is well attested by the 
fact that he was again re-elected in 1886, be- 
ing the only man elected on the Democratic 
ticket that year. In 1888 he formed a part- 
iiership with Robert M. Bashford. This 
i)artnership still continues. He was elected 
Attorney General of the State of Wisconsin 
in 1890, his opponent being James O'Neill, 
of Clark county. His administration of the 
affairs of the office has been a noted one in 
Wisconsin. In pursuance of a pledge of his 
party, he brought suits against the ex-State 
Treasurers for the recovery of interest re- 
ceived by them on public funds, and recovered 
judgment against them in the Circuit and 
Supreme Courts, in the sum of $700,000. 
Mr. O'Connor was renominated for the office 
of Attorney General, and was again re-elected 
over his old opponent, James O'Neill. He 
has always been identitied with, and interested 
in the success of the Democ^ratic party. 

Mr. O'Connor was married December 25, 
1889, to Miss Anna L. Wood, of Madison, 
Wisconsin. They have one son, Arthur 
James. 




ILLIAM T. FISH, our subject, is 
A/:,\l) one of the substantial men who have 
^-%^ made the city of Madison what it is. 
He was born in Kent, England, January 10, 
1833, a son of Charles William Henry Fish 
and Sarah (Hancock) Fish, natives of Kent, 
where, for four generations, his ancestors 
have lived. By occupation his father was a 
sailor, following the sea for many years, and 
when the war of 1812 broke out he responded 
to his country's call and was with Captain 
Harris in the frigate llussa, until hostilities 
ceased, and on his return was given a com- 
fortable berth by the Trinity House in Lon- 
don, where the lightships and lighthouses 
are managed, and after a service of twenty 
years, lost his life at the locating of Bullock 
Safety Beacon on the Goodwin Sands, — a 
dangerous part of the British channel. Six 
children were born to this family, but onlj- 
our subject and one sister have ever come to 
America. His brother, Charles Edward, 
however, has made a record that should be 
as dear to America as to his native England. 
He belonged to the life-saving service, and 
during the years of hard and faithful toil 
built up a record second to none in the world, 
having .saved 846 lives in twenty-six years. 
He was retired January 1, 1892, with a most 
honorable presentation of medals and the 
U8\uil pension ac-cordud brave officers by the 
English Governnii'iit. 

In one of the charity schools of England 
our subject received his education, and when 
twelve years of age he lost his father, and 
was thus thrown upon his own resources. At 
first he entered an office as page, but he 
sensibly changed this life for that of an ap- 
prentice to a stonecutter, at which business 
he continued for nearly seven years. In 1852 
he came to the United States, locating in the 
vicinity of New York city, where he re 



JJANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



255 



mained a couple of years. He then made a 
visit to England, but returned to the United 
States, this time locating in Illinois, where he 

o 

eugaffed in work as a luason and stonecutter. 
He was one of the builders of the courthouse 
at Woodstock, Hlinois. 

In 1856 our subject came to Madison and 
found work immediately at liis trade. In 
1859 he was selected as foreman for the work 
on the eastern wing of the capitol at Mad- 
ison and manacred this part of the work until 
1861. His skill soon became known, and the 
work he has done testifies to his ability to 
perform. He has built many of the finest 
buildings in and about the city and was the 
builder and contractor selected by Governor 
Rusk to complete " Science Hall " of the 
university. Also he was the main contractor 
of the insane asylum located at Elgin, Illi- 
nois, a building which cost a quarter of a 
million of dollars, and was the contractor of 
the asylum at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. For 
many years he was engaged on public build- 
ings in the capital of the State, one large 
commission being the building of the rotunda 
of the State capitol. He also erected the 
Congregational church, an elegant structure. 
Wingra Park is one of the most Iteauliful of 
the suburbs of the city of Madison, and our 
subject was the originator of the plan for lay- 
ing it out, and has erected beautiful residences 
out there. He owns property there and the 
residences are commanding high ju'ices. 

The marriage of our subject took place in 
this city, l)y Rev. Mr. Britain, January 1, 
1854, to Miss Harriet J. Wharmby, a native 
of England, who came to this country when 
she was four years of acre. Ten children 
have been born into the family of Mr. Fish, 
but four of them have )>assed away, the living 
ones being, Isabelle, William, Harriet, Jane, 
Victoria and Paul Wellington. Mrs. Fish still 



remains to direct the home of our subject, 
William is a merchant in Monroe, Wiscun>in; 
Victoria is in the high school and several of 
the family are married. Mr. Fish is no pol- 
itician. He belongs to the Masonic fratern- 
ity in Madison, also the Odd Fellows ami 
Knights of Pythias. 

Mr. Fish is president of the Madison Land 
and Improvement Company, and vice-presi- 
dent of the Northwestern Building and Loan 
Association and also holds other offices of 
honor and trust. For eleven years he was 
connected with the tire department of this 
city; for two years he was chief engineer and 
two years more assistant chief. For four 
years he served in the City Council, and dur- 
ing four months, when the late Mayor Smith 
was ill and absent, he sei'ved in the place of 
his Honor. 

Financially, our subject is classed with the 
solid men of Madison, and socially he is es- 
teemed by the whole community. 

ENERAL HENRY HARNDEN, the 
prosperous proprietor of the Hickory 
'i fai-m, where he has become noted for 
his success in breedintr fine Jersey cattle, is 
the subject of this notice. He is the ^on of 
Jonathan and Rhoda Ilarnden, and was iiurn 
March 4, 1823, at Wilmington, Massa- 
chusetts. His ancestors were of Puritan 
stock, who came to America about 1860, with 
the early pilgrims, and settled at Andover, 
Massachusetts. They were prominent in 
the early history of the colonies, especially 
that of Massachusetts bay colony. Young 
Harnden had grown up, as many another Mas- 
sachusetts boy, among the hills of his native 
State. Many of his ancestors on his mother's 
side were seafaring men, and from often 



256 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



hearins bis uncles relate their wild advent- 
nres and hairbreadth escapes by sea he early 
inherited a passion for a sailor's life. After 
leaving school at the age of eighteen he was 
given an opportunity to make a voyage, on 
which he visited the coast of Africa, doubled 
cape Horn, stopped at many of the islands of 
the Pacific ocean, and coasted along the west 
shores of South America, from cape Horn to 
Mexico, returnino; after an absence of five 
years to his father's homo at Wilmington. 
Afterward he made several voyages to the 
West Indies and the southern ports, was in 
Mexico in the first summer of the Mexican 
war and witnessed the dobarking of a part of 
General Taylor's army at I'razos, Santiago, 
and also assisted in bringing back the 
wounded of Palo Alto to New Orleans. 
Losing his health that summer he decided to 
make a change in this life, believing that he 
needed less exposure, and therefore engaged 
in clerking in a store in Lowell, Massa- 
chusetts. 

In the spring of 1850 he went overland to 
California and engaged in gold mining. 
While crossing the plains the party had sev- 
eral encounters with the hidians, who were 
at that time quite troublesome on the frontier. 
Not meeting with expected success in mining 
he came back to Boston, via cape Horn, his 
former experience being of great use in ob- 
taining a position for him on the vessel at 
high wages. In 1852 he removed to Wis- 
consin and settled in the town of Sullivan, 
Jetierson county, when the country was very 
new, and for a time engaged in farming and 
lumbering. Here he owned and operated a 
sawmill until the breaking out of the llebel- 
lioii. Our subject had come of lighting 
stock and those who were opposed to human 
slavery. In politics, he was first an Abolition- 



ist, later a Free-soiler, and finally a Repub- 
lican. 

At the breaking out of the war he called 
his mill hands, quite a large numl)er, and 
told them that the mill must stop, as he was 
going to enlist, and he advised them to do 
the same, which they did to a man. At the 
first assembling of the First Wisconsin Cav- 
alry, at Ripley, he enlisted as a private, but 
was soon promoted to be Sergeant, and then 
Captain of Company L, which rank he held 
when the regiment left the State. Colonel 
Edward Daniels was in command. The regi- 
ment was first sent to Benton barracks, 
Missouri. In 1862 the regiment was sent to 
cape Girardeau, Missouri, and later they 
pushed into the interior to Bloomfield and to 
St. Frances river, and then to Arkansas, 
bringing up at Helena so decimated by sick- 
ness and death, that at one time but three 
officers and sixty men were able to ride on a 
scouting expedition, Captian Ilarnden being 
one, and in command. While in the Depart- 
ment of Missouri ami Arkansas tlie Captain 
participated in quite a number of engage- 
ments with the enemy. At one time, when 
on a scouting expedition witli 100 men, lie 
suddenly came upon a party of about liiO of 
the enemy. In the charge which resulted 
the enemy fied with great loss, but not a man 
was lost of the Wisconsin squad. In April, 
1863, the regiment was transferred to the 
Army of the Cumberland, with General 
Rosecranz, and from that time until the close 
of the war they were identified with the army 
and participated in all the battles and 
marches. In May, 1864, Captain Harnden 
was promoted to be Major, and then Lieu- 
tenant (/olonel, but all further promotion was 
prevented by the Colonel being confined in a 
rebel prison; the Lieutenant-Colonel com- 
manded until the close of the war. March 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



257 



15, 1865, he was commissioned brevet Colo- 
nel and Brigadier-General. He participated 
in some thirty actions, was twice wounded in 
battle, and was once severely injured by his 
horse falling upon him. His first wound 
was received while leading a ^cavalry charge 
near Dallas, Georgia, while he was serving 
under General Sherman. This was a very 
severe wound, as by it his shoulder was shat- 
tered, the ball being fired at him when only 
three feet away. This was in May, 1864, 
and after several weeks in the hospital at 
Chattanooga, he was able to be moved to his 
northern home. After recovery he rejoined 
his regiment and was placed under Major- 
General Wilson, in pursuit of Hood, and was 
with General Wilson at Nashville, Selmaand 
Montgomery, Georgia. The First Wisconsin 
Cavalry helped capture F. Tyler, at West 
Point, and here General Harnden was wound- 
ed in the thigh by a riHe ball. While at Ma- 
con, Georgia, in 1865, he was selected by 
General Wilson to take a detachment and 
cross the country toward Savannah and head 
ofE Jeff Davis, who was reported to be mak- 
ing his way south through South Carolina in- 
to Georgia. The duty was so well performed 
that it resulted in the capture of the rebel 
chief, at Irviugville, south Georgia. At the 
capture of Davis an unfortunate affair hap- 
pened, which was afterward the cause of some 
controversy between the General and Lieuteti- 
ant-Colonel Pritchard of a Michigan cavalry 
regiment, but this was finally settled by Con- 
gress dividing the reward for Davis equally 
between the two parties. Congress exoner- 
ated General Harnden from all blame in the 
collision in the two regiments, in which two 
men in the Michigan regiment were killed 
and several wounded, and also several of the 
Wisconsin men were wounded. The close of 
the war found General Harnden in command 



of a regiment at Edgefield, Tennessee, where 
the regiment was mustered out. 

Immediately following his discharge and 
return to Wisconsin, he was elected in the 
fall of 1865 to the Assembly from the third 
district of Jefferson county. In the Legislat- 
ure he was Chairman of the Committee on 
Military Affairs and did gooil service. In 
18(57 he was appointed by Governor Fair- 
child as one of the trustees of the Orphan's 
home, and was made financial agent of the 
institution by the Board of Trustees, and as 
such he did himself credit. Later he resigned 
to take the office of Assessor ami Collector of 
the Second Collection District of Wisconsin, 
and held this office for years, wlien the law 
changed the office, and in May, 1873, he was 
appointed United States Collector of Internal 
Revenue, and tliis office he held until a few 
years ago. 

Our subject has been an active member of 
C. C. Washburn Post, G. A. K, No. 11, and 
is a member of the Loyal Legion of tiie De- 
partment at Milwaukee, and is a Master Ma- 
son. General Harnden is justly proud of his 
military record. His foi'efathers were Revo- 
lutionary soldiers; his grandfather was a 
Lieutenant and his brother was a Captain in 
the Continental army, and one of his uncles 
was wounded in the great sea fight between 
the man-of-war Hornet and the British ship 
Peacock, and two of the General's brothers 
and thirteen of his nephews were in the 
United States service, military and naval, in 
the war of the Rebellion. 

In December, 1848, General Harnden was 
married to Miss Mary A. Lightner, the 
daughter of John Lightner, Esq., of Boston, 
Massachusetts, and four daughters have been 
born of this union. 

E'er three years our subject has been in the 
o-rocery liusiness on West State street in 



258 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Madsion, and between that and his fanning 
and breeding intei'ests, the General forgets 
the horrors of war, remembering only the 
honors that have come to him and the peace 
which his country enjoys through the valor 
of sucli as ho. 

pSIUAM N. MOULTON, a well-known 
IW) c'fizen of the city of Madison, Wiseon- 
^&i sin, holiis the position of State Carpen- 
ter, having been appointed to this office by 
Governor Peck for the past two years. He 
has held several important positions in the 
city prior to this, having been its Mayor for 
one term in 1885, and Alderman of the Third 
and Fourth Wards for several years. Ue also 
has been a leader in a local way, and is now 
one of the prominent residents of the place; 
has hosts of friends, being the kind of person 
who knows, not only how to make, but also 
to keep them. He has always taken an active 
interest in school, being a member of the 
Board several years, and performs his part 
in all that concerns the advancement of the 
place. 

Mr. Moulton came to this city in 1854, 
and since that time has been closely connected 
with the building interests here, iiaving been 
the contractor for very many of the public 
and also the private buildings of Madison. 
He liad the carpimter contract for the north 
wing of the State capitol, and has built many 
of the stately and beautiful homes of this 
city. In his business enterprises he has 
shown much good judgment, has been emi- 
nently successful, and has made money. At 
one time he owned a good farm in Burke 
township, residing there nine years, at least 
his family did, as he did business in the city, 
but now Iiis residence is a beautiful one at 



the corner of Jenifer and Spaight streets, 
overl(K)kinir lake Monona, where he has been 
located for the past nine years. 

The birth of Mr. Moulton took place in 
East Hartford, Connecticut, August 1-1, 1818, 
and was reared and educated there, learning 
his trade in East Hartford, doing business on 
his own account before coming to Madison. 
His ancestry was good, of New England par- 
entage. His father, Spencer Moulton, was 
born in New Jersey, and spent the most of his 
active life in Hartford as a paper-maker, 
but died in West Springfield, Massachusetts, 
at the age of sixty-eight years. 

The mother of our subject survived him 
two years, dying at the same place and at 
about the same age. Her maiden name was 
Chloa Williston, and her birth occurred near 
the same place where she died in West 
Springfield. Formerly she had been an Epis- 
cojjal Methodist, but in later years embraced 
the Wesleyan Methodist faith, as did her hus- 
band. 

Onr subject is one of twelve children, 
being the eldest, and two sons and two daugh- 
ters are deceased, and three sons and five 
daughters are yet living, averaging over sixty 
years of age. One brother, Abertus, is a 
resident of Oakdale, California; anotiier lives 
in l''aulkton. South Dakota, a fai'Mier there. 
The five sisters are all married and scattered 
over the country, in Iowa, New Jersey, and 
three in Massachusetts. 

The marriage of our subject took place in 
Madison, Wisconsin, with Mrs. Ellen Cook, 
a native of Lyndon, Vermont. She was born 
and educated there, came West a young 
woman with her parents in the early fifties, 
and has since Iier marriage been a true and 
trusty helpmate to iier husband. She is a 
woman of many charms of character, and has 
a host of friends in \\w city. Her kindness 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



259 



and generosity are well known. She is the 
cheerful, happy mother of two children: Nel- 
lie, the wife of Charles Robbins, now living 
in the city of Madison, a bookkeeper for the 
Western agency for steel plows; and Fred N. 
a mechanic. Mrs. Moulton was the daugh- 
ter of Daniel and Mehetible (Cass) Bowman, 
who now are both deceased, having passed 
away some dozen years since in advanced 
age. They were natives of Vermont, spend- 
ing some of their latter years in Massachn- 
setts, before their removal to Madison. 



^fOHN M. OLIN.of Madison, Wisconsin, 
"M, one of the most prominent and snccess- 
^K, fnl members of the Dane county bar, 
was born in Lexington, Richland county, 
Ohio, Jnly 10, 1851. His parents were 
Nathaniel G. and Phtebe II. (Roberts) Olin, 
the father being a native of Shaftsbury, and 
the mother of Manchester, Vermont. Reared 
on a farm in < )hio, his primary education 
was secured by attending the neighborhood 
schools three months of the year, and working 
on the farm the remaii'.der of the time. After 
reaching his fourteenth year he attended the 
Belleville liigh school two years, and follow- 
ing that, attended the private academy of 
the Rev. Daiiey, at Lexington, Ohio, for 
six months. He next spent two years at 
Oberlin College, Ohio, and in 1878 graduated 
at Williamson College, with honors, having as- 
signed him oncommencementone of the philo- 
sophical orations, and was chosen by the faculty 
of the college as a member of the Phi Beta 
Kappa Society. 

Following his graduation he held the posi- 
tion of principal of the Belleville high 
school, which was followed by a term as 
princi)>al of the Mansfield schools. In the 



Fall of 1874 Mr. Olin came to Madison, and 
took a position as instructor in the depart- 
ment of Rhetoric and Oratory, in the schools 
of the city. In the fall of 1878 he took a 
course in the law department of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, and graduated in 1879, 
with the degree of A. M., in a class of seventy- 
six students. After his admission to the 
bar he opened an office in Madison, and began 
the practice with a partner. His partnership 
continued during two years, since which time 
he has practiced alone, until January 1, 1892, 
when he associated with him, Harry L. I]ut- 
ter. 

On June 14, 1880, Mr. Olin was married 
to Miss Helen Remington, of Baraboo, Wis- 
consin, the daughter of Cyrus C. Remington, 
a well-known attorney of that place. Mrs. 
Olin graduated at the University of Wis- 
consin, class of 1870, taking first honors. 
The success of Mi'.'Olin at the bar has been in 
many points remarkable. In a comparatively 
brief time he has risen from the point of a 
beginner to the position of one of the leading 
members of an able bar; and that, too, un- 
aided. Coming into the field as a young 
and inexperienced practitioner, at a time 
when the Madison bar was consiilered an ex- 
ceptionally strong and brilliant one, he en- 
countered contemporaries, who were not oidy 
hi.? seniors in years and experience, but were 
gentlemen who had for years enjoyed strong 
reputations, and were resting secure in the 
laurels already won, while he had neither 
name nor position. But he diligently applied 
himself to his work, and step by step has 
won his way up to a professional reputation 
for ability, integrity, and learning of the 
highest order, and has secured a conspicuous 
place in the front ranks of the leading mem- 
bers of the bar, of not only Madison, but of 
Wisconsin. During his brief professional 



260 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



career Mr. Olin has achieved an elevated posi- 
tion as a learned and profound lawyer, and 
most successful advocate, and iu legal argu- 
ments few lawyers among his contemporaries 
have proved themselves his equal in clear- 
ness of statement, logical reasoning, and im- 
pressive diction, and few surpass him in his 
ability as an orator. With the eminent suc- 
cess already achieved while still young, it is 
easy to understand the hopes of his friends 
and admirers in foreshadowing and predict- 
inif a l)rilliant future for Mr. Olin in the 
legal |)rofeS8ioii. 

Personally, Mr. Olin is a most congenial 
and agreeable character. Of a manner 
rather quiet and retiring, he yet possesses a 
power back of this tliat is comprehensive, 
clean-cut and vigorous. Ilis time is given 
to his profession, to the exclusion of political 
ambition, though in 1886 he was the candi- 
date of the Wisconsin Prohibition party for 
Governor. 



[AMUEL IIIGHAM, vice-president of 
the Fuller & Johnson Manufacturing 
Company of the city of Madison, Wis- 
consin, a very prominent citizen, is the sub- 
ject of the following sketch. 

Mr. Iligham was born in Geneva, Ontario 
county. New York, September 23, 1847, a 
son of Henry and iSarah (Roberts) Iligham. 
These parents were both born and brought up 
in Stockport, England, and his father was en- 
gaged in tlie manufacture of cotton goods in 
his native country. About 1842 Mr. Ilig- 
ham, Sr., came to the United States, first set- 
tling in Geneva, New York, and following 
the occupation of farmer, moving to Madi- 
son, Wisconsin in 1850. He is now living 
with his wife, after a married life of fifty- 
three years, at the age of seventy-eight years. 



Seven children were born to them, five sons 
and two daughter, as follows: Mary Ann, 
who married Mr. Joshua Smith; Elijah, a 
resident of Oakland, California; Sarah E., 
who married Mr. Tillotson and resides at 
Baraboo, Wisconsin; John, who resides in 
Oakland, California; William Henry, who 
resides in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and 
George C, who is a resident of the same 
place. 

Mr. Iligham was a resident of New York 
when our subject was born and the latter was 
two and one-half years of age when the family 
removed to Madison, Wisconsin, in iSSOand 
located in Madison township, in Dane county, 
on a new farm, but later removed to section 
6 in Fitchbnrg township, in 1854. Our sub- 
ject was given a public school education in 
the district schools of Madison and Fitchbnrg 
townships, working on the farm in the sum- 
mer and attending school in winter, and was 
prepared to enter the University of Wiscon- 
sin in 1865, passing some three years in that 
institution. In 1868, he left school and went 
to Hudson, Wisconsin, and there engaged in 
milling and manufacturing lumber, and at 
this place he remained in business some five 
years. 

Following this life in northern Wisconsin, 
our subject went to Cannon Falls, Minnesota, 
and then to Rod Wing, Minnesota, and there 
engaged in the sale of huuber and agri- 
cultural implements. In souie of these en- 
terprises his brother, William II., was a part- 
ner. Until 1883 he remained there and 
then sold out as he saw greater opportuni- 
ties in Madison for his abilities to become 
known. He purchased an interest in the 
Fuller & Johnson Manufacturing Company, 
manufacturers of plows, cultivators, corn- 
planters, mowing machinery, hay rakes, har- 
rows, etc. His experience and training so 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



2«1 



well fitting him for the management of this 
line of busines, he was at once chosen vice- 
president of the company, which office he has 
held ever since. This company is one of the 
largest and best known in the Northwest. 
To this prosperons and growing business Mr. 
llighani devotes all his time, but he is also 
largely interested in other enterprises, among 
them the Higham Brothers' Hardware Com- 
pany of Grand Forks, North Dakota, being 
the president of the company, Init the busi- 
ness being carried on by his brothers, who re- 
side there. These large corporations require 
their ofHcers to be shrewd, farseeing business 
men. Such is our subject. 

In Minnesota Mr. Ilicrham was called 
upon to serve his fellow-citizens in many offi- 
cial position, but since his residence in Wis- 
consin his personal business has claimed the 
greater part of his time. His marriage took 
place in September, 1873, with Miss Clara 
James, of Wellsville, New York, who was 
born in Warren, Pennsylvania, and was there 
educated. She is still living, but the one 
daughter, Gertrude O., born in 1880, was 
taken away by death April 2, 1891. The 
family have been active members of the Con- 
gregational Church and to this denomination 
Mr. Higham has been liberal and attentive, 
doing his whole duty as a Christian and good 
citizen. 

IROF. STEPHEN MOULTON BAB- 
COCK, wlio occupies the chair of Agri- 
cultural Chemistry in the University of 
Wisconsin, is a native of Bridgewater town- 
ship, Oneida county. New York, born Octo- 
ber 22, 1843. His parents, Peleg B. and 
Cornelia (Scott) Babcock, were both born 
and reared in (^noida county, and his father 



was by occupation a farmer. His grand- 
father Babcock was born in Connecticut and 
early in life niove<l to Oneida county, New 
Y^ork. Peletr B. Babcock and his wife had 
two children: Stephen M. and Linn I>., the 
latter being now engaged in the mercantile 
business in St. Louis, Missouri. Their father 
died in New York in 1857, and their vener- 
able mother is a resident of Madison, Wis- 
consin. 

Professor Babcock's education was begun 
in the common schools of his native county. 
He spent two years at Clinton Liberal Listi- 
tute, Clinton, New York, and then entered 
Tufts College, College Hill, Massachusetts, 
four miles from Boston, where he took a 
classical course and graduated in 1866 with 
the degree of B. A. After workint; three 
years upon his farm in Bridgewater he re- 
moved to Ithaca, New York, and took a post- 
graduate course of four or live years in Cor- 
nell University. At the end of that time he 
was made instructor in cliemistry, and occu- 
pied that position in the university during 
1876-'77. after which he resigned, went to 
Germany and for two years devoted himself 
to the study of his chosen science — chemis- 
try — in the University of Gottingen, return- 
iuij to America in 1879. Again he was an 
instructor in Cornell University one year. 
In 1882 he was appointed chemist at the 
New York Agricultural Experiment Station 
at Geneva, which position he occupied five 
consecutive years. 

He was called by the Board of Regents of 
the University of Wisconsin, in 1888, to the 
chair of Agricultural Chemistry, and is now 
in his fifth year in the work. He has written 
a number of papers which have appeared in 
the reports of the Agricultural Experiment 
Stations of New York and Wisconsin, and, 
in connection with Dr. Caldwell, of Cornell, 



263 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



he published a work on Chemical Qualitative 
Analysis. Dr. Babeock is best known as the 
inventor of the milk test, which bears his 
name; this test being at the present time ex- 
tensively used in this country by milk inspec- 
tors and by factory men to determine the 
quality of milk, lie is a member of the 
American Association f(jr the Advancement 
of Science, and of the Society for the Promo- 
tion of Agricultural Science. 

Professor Babcock is unmarried. 

fUDGE HARLO S. ORTON, Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Wiscon- 
sin, and one of the most highly honored 
citizens of the capital city, is a native of the 
old Empire State, having been liorn in Ni- 
agara county, New York, on November 23, 
1817. Ilis parents, Ilarlo N. and Grace 
(Marsh) Orton, were natives of Vermont and 
Connecticut, respectively, and both were of 
that good old New England stock whose 
worthy characteristics are so indelibly 
stamped upon their descendants. The grand- 
fathers of our subject, as well as his paternal 
great-grandfather, were ministers of the Bap- 
tist Church, and both great-grandfathers 
fought in the American army in the Revolu- 
tionary war. Three sons and two daughters 
were l)orn to our subject's parents, but of the 
entire family only himself and one sister, Mrs. 
H. Mason, of Iowa, survive, all having passed 
away at different periods. The maternal 
grandmother lived to an extreme old age, dy- 
ing as late as 1884. 

The boyhood days of our subject were spent 
upon the farm in helping with the work in 
season and'attending the neighboring common 
school in winter. At the age of thirteen 
years he went to Madison, New York, where 



he attended Hamilton Academy and the Madi- 
son University, taking a (ioinplete course in 
each institution and graduating from the lat- 
ter in 1837, when twenty years of age. The 
young graduate next came West to Bourbon 
county, Kentncky, where for one year he had 
charge of the Paris Academy. Ilere he con- 
tinued his law studies begun in Hamilton 
Academy. In search of a location he went to 
La Porte county, Indiana, in the fall of 1838, 
making the entire journey on horseback 
through the primeval woods. Locating in 
that county he continued his preparations for 
the legal profession and in the following 
spring he was admitted to the bar. That sum- 
mer the young and ambitious law fledgling de- 
cided to locate in I'orter county, Indiana, and 
before the autumn leaves were falling he was 
practicing law in Valparaiso, and enjoying the 
distinction of being the only lawyer in the 
county at that time. In 1843 he was ap- 
pointed Probate Judge of Porter county by 
Governor Samuel Bigger, and he continued 
to discharge the iluties of that oflice until 
184:7 conducting quite an extensive law prac- 
tice at the same time . 

In 1847 Judge Orton removed to Milwau- 
kee, while Wisconsin was yet a Territory, and 
in that city he practiced law until the election 
of the second Governor of the State (Gover- 
nor Farewell), when he came to Madison as 
the private secretary of the Governor. He 
remained on the Governor's staff for two years 
efhciently discharging the many important 
duties of his position. In 1849 he w-as ad- 
mitted to the bar of the Supreme Co\irt of 
Wisconsin, since which time he has been 
present at every term of that court, first as 
a lawyer and for the past fourteen years as an 
honored judge of the court. 

In 1854 Jmlge Orton was elected to the 
State Lcirislature and was re-elected in 185!> 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



2G3 



and 1871, serving three terms in all in tliat 
body with distinction and much usefulness to 
his constituents and the entire State. In 
1859 he was unaminously elected Judge of 
the Circuit Court, and was re-elected to the 
same office witliout a dissenting voice, serv- 
ing in that capacity until 1866, when he re- 
signed. 

From that time on Judge Orton devoted 
liitnself to his practice, which was in all the 
different courts, and met with success in a 
high degree his name lieconiing one of the 
best known in the legal profession in the 
State, and thus was established a reputation 
which led to his election in 1878 to the Su- 
preme Bench, which election was unanimous 
and was followed in 1888 by re-election. 
Judge Orton was one of the organizers of tiie 
State Historical Society, and introduced the 
bill authorizing the formation of the same 
while a member of the JjCgislature. Since 
1884 he has been the society's vice-president. 

Judge Orton was married in July, 1839, 
to Elizabeth C. Cheney, who was born in 
Maryland, and is the daughter of William 
Cheney, a prosperous planter of that State, 
now deceased. Six children have been born 
to their union, of whom three sons and one 
daughter are now living. They are: O. B. 
Orton, an able lawyer of Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana;(). II. Orton, aprominent citizen of Beloit, 
Wisconsin; llarlo N., a practicing physician 
of Minneapolis, Minnesota; and O. C, now 
the wife of Henry Coe, of Indianapolis. 

In years Judge Orton is the oldest Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Wisconsin Supreme Court 
and in length of service is the junior of Chief 
Justice Lyon by only a short time. His ca- 
reer on the bench has been marked by a dis- 
play of ability second to none and he has made 
a name which will always live in the judicial 
annals of his State. He has all his lite lieun 



a close student, and being possessed of a dis- 
criminating mind his decisions have always 
been clear and pointed, and seldom, if ever, 
reversed by a higher court. Quick to see the 
points of a case he is always ready to give 
prompt decisions with superior judgment. 
As an attorney. Judge Orton was able and 
forcible and successful and durin<r his lonar 
experience as a member of the bar held a po- 
sition in the first rank of the able lawyers of 
the State. 

Socially Judge Orton is one (jf the most 
pleasant and congenial of men. Easy of ap- 
proach, always courteous and kind, well 
versed in general literature, and a good con- 
versationalist, he is a most pleasant companion 
as well as a learned iiidcre. 

Originally a Whig in politics, the Judge 
joined the Republican party on its organiza- 
tion, but now affiliates with the Democracy. 

fM'fSl I^^N^^^M DOYON, the generous 
lliriirl ''oDor of this memorial volume, was 
^i^^®boi-n at P^ranklin, Franklin county, 
Vermont, December 18, 1845. His parents 
were John and Arvilla Doyon. He lived on 
a farm an<l was brought up to steady and 
hard labor, attending the district school win- 
ters. In 1865 he left the farm and attended 
the New Hampton Institute for three years. 
Again he worked on tiie farm or was superin- 
tendent of a cheese factory summers, and 
taught school winters. In 1869 he engaged 
in the mercantile business at Milton, Ver- 
mont. He was married to Miss Amelia 
Ilerrick, at Milton, October 19, 1869. His 
children were born at Milton. In 1878 he 
came to Irnton, Wisconsin, where he had 
the general supervision of a furnace, store, 
mill and larije farm. He came to Madison 



264 



BIOGRAPHICAL HE VIEW OF 



in 1881, and since November, 1883, has been 
vice-president and acting president of the 
Capital City Bank. In December, 1887, he 
was elected by the Common Council a mem- 
ber of the Board of Education, taking his 
place in January, 1888. lie was re-elected a 
member of tlie Board in December, 1890. 

He was elected Mayor of tlie city in April 
1888, receiving a majority of more tliaii 600. 
In 1889 he was the candidate of all parties 
and was re-elected without opposition. 

At an open meeting of C. C. Washburn 
Post, Monday evening October 6, 1890, Mr. 
Doyon presented this memorial volume to 
the post. 

John Doyon, the father of M. Ransom 
Doyon, was born iv. Montreal, in 1817. He 
removed to P'ranklin, Vermont, in 1833. 
He was a carpenter and farmer. Enlisted as 
a private in Company F, Tenth Regiment, 
Vermont Volunteer Infantry, August 18, 
1862, and was mustered out September 1, 
foUowini;. This rei'iment was assigned to 
the Third Army Corps and sent from Wash- 
ington to re-enforce McClellan's army at 
Antietam. Later the Third corps became a 
part of the Sixth corps. For a time it lay at 
the mouth of Monocacy, where a fort was 
built. It was ordered to join Burnside at 
Fredericksburg. In the battle that followed 
Mr. Doyon was wounded in a finger. He 
was in the battle of Chanceliorsville. At 
Gettysburg his cotntnaml was stationed on 
Little Round Top, where he looked on the 
advance of Pickett's division. In 1864 he 
was engaged in the movements of the Army 
of the Potomac, from the wilderness to the 
James river. The Sixth corps was afterward 
transferred to the Shenandoah valley, and 
Mr. Doyon was engaged in the battles of 
Wiiiciiester and Fisher's Hill, September 19, 
and 22, and in the expedition to Staunton. 



The Army of Sheridan returned to the 
lower valley. The Si.xth corps was afterward 
transferred to the James River and took part 
in the capture of Richmond and of Lee's 
army. It was stationed for a time in the vi- 
cinity of Danville, Virginia, but marched to 
Wasliiiigton and took part in the grand re- 
view. The Tenth Vermont Regiment re- 
mained in the vicinity of Washington until 
June 24, when it was mustered out of service. 

Mr. Doyon was with his command at the 
railroad depot for transportation to his home, 
but was too ill to go, and was taken to the 
hospital, where he died befo re midnight, 
June 24, 1865. He was buried at Arlington. 
The number of his grave is 12,224. 



fEREMlAII RICHARDS, a prominent 
and influential lumber dealer of Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, was born in Exeter town- 
ship, Penobscot county, Maine, July 4, 1826, 
son of Jeremiah and^Bloomy F. (Wing) Rich- 
ards. His parents were born, reared and 
married in Kennebec county, Maine, their 
ancestors being of English descent, and among 
the early settlers of New England. The 
Richards family were identlied with the agri- 
cultural interests of Maine, while the Wings 
were lumbermen. When a boy, the subject 
of our sketch decided to be a lumberman. 
He spent his summers working in mills, and 
dnrinrr flie winter months attended the die- 
trict schools, until be readied his majority. 
His whole life has been devoted to his chosen 
occupation. He has lived in various States 
of the Union, has met and overcome misfor- 
tune, and now, as age advances, is still ac- 
tively identified with business interests, and 
is one of the wealthy men of the city in 
which he lives. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



2G5 



III the spring of 1848, Mr. Richards went 
to Georgia, whei'e he was for three years en- 
gaged in the milling husiness. and from 
there, in 1851, went to Florida, remaining in 
that State until 1861. He spent eight years 
near Tallahassee, and was afterward at Jack- 
sonville. On account of the war and the 
loss of property by fire, he returned to his 
native State, landing there with only $10. 
This money was used for doctor bill and 
medicine for his sick wife, and he soon found 
himself in debt. There he obtained employ- 
ment in a sawmill at §16 per month, running 
the same saw he began at when a boy. He 
remained in Maine and Massachusetts two 
years. In 1868 he came West; lived at 
Lyons, Iowa, one year; in Dixon, Illinois, 
one year, having charge of a lumber yard; 
and in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, one year, 
where he boUijht a mill and was in business 
for himself. In 1866 he acjain went to Flor- 
ida, and at Cedar Keys built a mill for an- 
other party, remaining there one year. Next 
we find him at Galveston, Texas, where he 
established a lumber yard, and while there 
had an attack of yellow fever. Again coming 
North, he spent one year in Maine, one year 
in Lyons, Iowa, and from there came to 
Dane county, Wisconsin. He purchased a 
lumber yard in Oregon, Wisconsin, in 1870, 
resided there until JNovember, 1881, and then 
came to Madison, where he has since made 
his home. Now in ])artnei'ship with A. P. 
Lovejoy, of Janesville, Wisconsin, under the 
lirm name of Lovejoy & Richards, he has 
lumber yards in nine different towns, and at 
another place has an interest in a yard, the 
firm being Lovejoy, Richards & Ringham. 
Mr. Richards has the personal supervision of 
these ten yards, which are situated at the 
following named places: Argyle, Blanchard- 
ville, Jquesdale, Dodgeville, I3arneveld, Blue 



Mounds, Mount Horeb, Stoughton, New 
Glarus and Brooklyn. He sold his yard at 
Oregon in May, 1891, after having operated 
it for twenty-one years. 

Mr. Richards was married August 20, 
18-49, to MaryE. Hartt, of Savannah, Geor- 
gia. Mrs. Richards was born in New York 
city, but was reared in Georgia from iier 
sixth year. They have had tiiree children. 
One daughter died in infancy, and anotlier, 
Florenco, at the age of eigiit years. Their 
only son, Walter C, is a resident of San 
Diego county, California, engaged in raising 
lemons. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richards have a pleasant 
home on Jenefer street, where they are sur- 
rounded with all the comforts and luxuries 
of life. They are attendants at the Unita- 
rian Church, and he is a Freemason. 

^ON. JOHN B. CASSODAY, Associate 
'iitil) ''^"*^'''''''' *^'^ '^'^ Supreme Court of Wis- 
vd consin, was born in Herkimer county. 
New York, July 7, 1830. About three years 
after his birth his father died, and he witii 
his mother moved with her parents to Tiotra 
county, Pennsylvania. He began life as poor 
as the poorest of boys, but the same indus- 
try, good judgment and well-directed ambi- 
tion, which made him one of the foremost 
lawyers of AVisconsin, carrietl him through 
his early struggles. Besides occasionally at- 
tending district schools for a few months and 
working for his board he attended one term 
of the village school at Tioga, and one term 
at Wellsborough Academy, before he was 
seventeen years old. For the next four years 
he was engaged in various kinds of manual 
labor in order to gain a livelihood, occasion- 
ally teaching school in winter. Afterward 



266 



BIOOBAPHWAL HE VIEW OF 



he attended two terms at the Knoxville, 
Pennsylvania. Academy, and tlien two years 
at the Alfred Academy, Xew York, from 
which he irraduated. He then went to the 
Michii^an [Jniversity, where he took a select 
coarse, wiiich was snpplemented by a short 
term at the Albany Law School and reading 
in a law otiice at Wellsborough, Pennsyl- 
vania. Uesirinfr to find a wider held, he 
went West in 1857, and settled in Janesville, 
Wisconsin, whore he entered the law otfice of 
Judge Conger, who was a prominent local 
legal light, and pursued his law studies there 
until 1858, when he became a member of the 
firm of Bennett, Cassoday & Gibbs, which 
continued for over seven years, during which 
time he served as circuit judge of the 
Twelfth Judicial District. From 1865 to 
1867 he was alone in his practice, when the 
firm of Cassoday & Merrill was formed, 
which lasted five years. That firm was suc- 
ceeded by Cassoday & Carpenter, the late 
Senator, now deceased, and continued until 
Judge Cassoday was promoted to the Su- 
preme Bench. 

Prior to this election he had been some- 
what prominent and active in local and 
national politics. He had been a Republi- 
can ever since the party was organized. In 
1864 he was a delegate to the Baltimore 
convention which renominated Lincoln, and 
was placed upon what was that year the 
most important committee, that of creden- 
tials. In 1864 he was elected to the Assem- 
bly, and during that session served with 
credit on the Judiciary and Railroad com- 
mittees; and again in 1876 he was elected to 
the General Assembly from his district. He 
was then chosen Speaker of tliat body, with- 
out a dissenting vote from iiis party, and in 
this place he displayed his native ability, 
serving with decided distinction. In 1879 



he stumped the State for the Republican 
campaign, making many forcible and telling 
speeches for his party, and the same year was 
chairman of the Republican State Conven- 
tion. In 1880 he was a delegate at large to 
the convention at Chicago, and was chairman 
of the delegation. He presented to the con- 
vention the name of the late E. B. Wash- 
burne as a candidate for President, in a 
speech that was worthy the man and the 
occasion, and later, after supporting his 
favorite candidate as long as there was any 
hope, he announced the vote of the Wisconsin 
delegation for James A. (Tarfieid, which broke 
the dead-lock and resulted in the nomination 
of that gentleman. lie took an active part 
in the campaign, making speeches over the 
State, as he had up to that time in almost 
every presidential election since the organi- 
zation of the Republican party. On Novem- 
ber 11, 1880, he was appointed Associate 
Justice on the Supreme Bench to till the 
vacancy caused by the promotion of Chief 
Justice Cole to the office made vacant by the 
death of Chief Justice Ryan. Judges Cole 
and Cassoday were elected by the calls of the 
bar and the people, without regard to party, 
and excepting a few scattering ballots re- 
ceived the entire vote of the State, Judge 
Cole having 177.522. and Judge Cassoday 
177,553. In 1889 lie was re-elected with 
tluf entire vote of tiie State, receiving the 
largest ever eiven in tiie State to one man. 
In the American Law Review, of July, 1892, 
we find the followinij: "The law school of 
the University of Wisconsin is in many re- 
spects very favorably situated. The univer- 
sity is located at the capital of the State, 
where the Supreme Court, the courts of the 
United States, and also the State courts of 
nisi prius for Dane county, hold their ses- 
sions. The Legislature also meets there, and 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



2G7 



the presence of these courts has enabled the 
regents to attach to the faculty several emi- 
nent judges, among whom may be mc-u- 
tioned Mr. Justice Oassodaj, of the Supreme 
Court of Wisconsin, whose opinions have 
been long distinguished for soundness, and 
whose conclusions for the thoroughness of 
their search." Mention is made in the same 
work that the decisions of the Supreme Bench 
of the State have placed it third among its 
sisters in value, and the standing of its de- 
cisions is ranked next to New York and 
Massachusetts. 

The Chicago Legal News publishes many 
legal extracts of the judges of this court. 
As a lawyer, Judge Cassoday was one of tlie 
brightest and most successful in the State. 
From the outset of his career he showed a 
clear, analytical mind, well balanced, cool 
and cautious, but the success he obtained 
could only come from downright iiard study 
and work. While in practice he was de- 
voted to his profession, thorough and method- 
ical in the preparation of his cases, and 
skilled and judicious in their management. 
Always true to his client, and equally true to 
himself and the court, intensely anxious to 
succeed, but always just and courteous to his 
opponents. lie took luitUing for granted, 
but went to the bottom of every (juestion, 
and the members of the bar who attempted 
to rake after him found but scant gleaning. 
In his arraignments, his clever manner of 
presenting each particular case, and his com- 
plete mastery of the questions involved, gave 
him a rare power, and caused him to be 
listened to by court, jury and bar, with the 
utmost attention and respect. While making 
his profession a general practice, he was 
especially interested and successful in wills, 
patents and trademarks. As a politician he 
was sagacious and unflinching in his fidelity 



to the interests of the people and the funda- 
mental principles of the Republican party. 
He is an American and a liepublican of the 
best sort, coupled with a thorough compre- 
hension of all the great fundamental ques- 
tions of the times, which combine to make 
him a clear, accurate thinker, most effective 
in argument. Since 1886 Judge Cassoday 
has been a law lecturer in the law school of 
the university, and his present theme is wills 
and constitutional laws, of which he is com- 
plete master. His lecture to the law class of 
lSS4r portrayed his idea of the true lawyer, 
and was a masterpiece. 

As a man Judge Cassoday is exemplary in 
all walks of private and public life. He 
is a Ciiristian gentleman and an honest man. 
He has an educated conscience, a large heart 
and a ])ractical sympathy, a tender regard for 
young men who are struggling for an educa- 
tion and a higher life. He is an attractive 
man personally, his somewhat deep-set, sharp 
and steady eye, firm lips, strong chin, and 
high, well-proportioned forehead, all are out- 
ward signs of this rare man, and with his 
untiring industry and a continuation of his 
present good health, must exercise a marked 
influence in molding and building up the 
jurisprudence of the State. 

fRANK A. TURNER, a telegraph oper- 
ator of Stoughton, was born in Bran- 
.f don, Vermont, September 23, 1832, a 
son of Solomon and Rhoda (Westcott) Tur- 
ner, also natives of that State. The father 
was a boot and shoe maker by occupation. 
When our subject was aliout eleven years of 
age the parents removed to Washington 
county, New York, and in 1855 came to 



268 



BIOOHAPUICAL REVIEW OF 



Dane county. The mother is deceased, and 
the father now resides in Stoughton. 

Frank A., the eldest of four children, at- 
tended the conimou schools in both Vermont 
and New York, also a select school in the 
former State one year. After completing 
his education he began farming in Dane 
county, Wisconsin, and later embarked in the 
grocery business in Stoughton, which he con- 
ducted alone with the exception of two years. 
Mr. Turner then began the study of teleg- 
raphy in the city, under O. M. Turner and 
11. H. Giles, remaining with the former ten 
years, and with the latter only a few months. 
He was then engaged in the grocery business 
three years, and in July, 1881. was employed 
as agent for the Chicago, Milwaukee it St. 
Paul Railroad, where he has ever since re- 
mained. 

Mr. Turner was married May 16, 1865, to 
Mary H. Westcott, of Dunn township, Dane 
county, and a daugliter of John S. West- 
cott, a farmer by occupation. Mr. Turner 
atbliates with the Democratic party, has 
served as president of the Village Board, and 
as Supervisor of Dunkirk township. Socially, 
he is a member of the Masonic order, Ke- 
gonsa Lodge, No. 73. 

lALPlI L. J3ABC0CK. a farmer of 
Dane county, Wisconsin, was born in 
Madison county. New York, August 
10, 1859, a son of Ilaraden R. and Adelia 
I)..nnet (Beebe) Babcock, both born and 
reared in that county, where they still reside. 
Tlie I'amily are retnarkahle for their longev- 
ity, the paternal grandmother having lived to 
the age of ninety years, dying in 1891. The 
parents of our sul)ject reared a family of three 
children, two daughters and oue son. Net- 



tie, the eldest daughter, is married, and 
resides in Attica. New York; Lois is the 
wife of Professor Longworthy, a professor 
of the Colgate University at Hamilton, that 
State. 

Dalph \j. the only son, was reared on his 
father's farm, and was given a common school 
education, also attending the Colgate Acad- 
emy and Colgate University. In 1880 he 
left his native State and came West, locating 
in Albion township, Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin, which he has made his permanent abode. 
Mr. Babcock has been a popular, progressive 
and successful farmer, and has in his charge 
212 acres of the fertile loam so characteristic 
of his adopted township. lie raises a variety 
of crops and also live stock. He is a be- 
liever in the McKinley high tariff, is Chair- 
man of tiie township Board of Supervisors, 
and has been Side Supervisor for the past 
seven years in succession. 

Mr. Babcock was married November 1, 
1880, soon after his arrival in Albion town- 
ship, to one of its fairest daughters. Miss 
Martha L. Longworthy, who was born and 
reared in this township, and was given a col- 
legiate education at AUiion, Wisconsin, and 
Rockford, Illinois. To this union has been 
given one son, Harrold H., born November 
14, 1884. 



«|^^^-- 



I^RA 11. GERARD, a lumberman of 
ii. Dane county, Wisconsin, was born in 
Sparta, Middlesex county, Canada, 
March 9. 1850, a son of Norman and Jane L. 
(Brown) tierard, natives of Vermont and 
New York, respectively. When our subject 
was si.x months old, the parents removed to 
Winnebago county, Wisconsin, where the 
father engaged in lumbering. The mother 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



200 



died in 18(11, and tiie father now resides at 
Centralia, tiiis State. 

Era H. Gerard attended the conmion 
schools, and after completing his education 
began work in a shingle mill at Appleton, 
Wisconsin. Two years later he was employed 
in his father's general store at Omro; two 
years afterward took charge of his father's 
shingle mill; and in 1872 began the lumber 
business in Wood county, haviini; erected two 
mills while there. In 1880 Mr. Gerard be- 
gan business independent of his father, open- 
ing a retail lumber trade in Wel)ster City, 
Jowa; in 1881 sold out and went to Austin, 
Minnesota; three years afterward embarked 
in the same business in Centralia, Wisconsin, 
anil in 1886 came to Stouirhton. He now 
conducts a general sash, door, blind and lum- 
ber trade. 

Mr. Gerard was married, April 28, 1872, 
to Harriet M. Grout, then of Omro, Wiscon- 
sin, but a native of Canada. She is a daugh- 
ter of E. P. Grout, engaged in the mercantile 
business. Our subject and wife have two 
children: Ora B., aged seventeen 3'ears; and 
Milo C, aged si.\ years. Mr. Gerard is a 
Kepublican in his political views, but has 
never sought office. Sucially, he is Secretary 
of Ketronsa Lodcfe of Stoutrhton. 



I^EVEK H. SEVERSON, of Stoughton, 
Dane county, was born in Grimsrud, 
Tillemarken, Norway, November 2, 
1840, a son of H'elge Sigiirdson and Birgit 
Olsdatter, also natives of that country. They 
came to America iii 1842, locating in Racine 



county, Wisconsi 



'1, 



engaged in farming two years 



where the father was 
They then 

went to the settlement of Koshkonong, Dane 
county. 

19 



Sever H., the eldest of three children, who 
grew to years of maturity, spfiit his early 
life on a farm, and attended school about 
three months in each lantjuaee. At the a^e 
of seventeen years he left home and was 
employed as a clerk in a Mr. Blackman's 
store at Stoughton. Two years later he 
engaged in the same business with A. Peter- 
son, but one year later, in 1860, sold his 
interest to James G. Baker and went to 
Pike's Peak, Colorado. He was engaced in 
mining there six years, after which, in 1866, 
he came again to Stoughton, entering the 
lumber business in the spring of 1867, and two 
years afterward he entered into partnership 
with C. A. Bronson & Co. Mr. Severson sub- 
secpiently bought his partners' interests and 
continued the business alone for the follow- 
inir nineteen years, havinir had the largest 
lumber trade in Stoughton. In the spring of 
1886 he sold out to Lovejoy & Richards, and 
then entered the leaf tobacco business, and 
was also employed in collecting old accounts; 
in IS'JO embarked in the grocery and tobacco 
trade; was later engaged in collecting old 
accounts; and in the spring of 1891 opened 
a sample room in tiiis city. Owing to the 
village having passed an ordinance prohibit- 
ing the sale of liquor he discontinued the 
business after one year. In the spring of 
1892 Mr. Severson engaged in the marble 
business. He is at present publishing a series 
of articles of his experience at Pike's Peak, 
and his book will be finished in about two 
months. 

May 24, 1866, our subject was united in 
marriage with Gurine Peterson, and they 
had four cliildren: Ilattie P>elle. Henry ('., 
Abraham Lincoln, and Theo Benjamin. The 
mother died November 4, 1884, and January 
1, 1866, Mr. Severson married Rari Peter- 
son. He affiliates with the Republican party. 



;o 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



has held the office of Trustee of Stonghton, 
ami has also refused many offices. Religiously, 
he is a member of the Lutheran Cliurcli. 



fAMES E. FISHER, the oldest furni- 
ture dealer of Madison, was lx)rn in 
Nottingham, England, Octol)er 2, 
1836. Uis father Edward Fisher was born 
in Wales and was there reared. When a 
vouuf man he moved to Nottingham to 
engage in the manufacture of lace, in wliich 
he became very successful and continued his 
business until 1845, when he came to America 
and located at Madison. About 1847 he 
returned to Nottingham, England, and re- 
mained two years, when he again made the 
journey to America, accompanied by his 
family, consisting of a wife and three chil- 
dren. They embarked from Liverpool on the 
sailing vessel Plymouth Rock and landed at 
Boston thirty-five days later. From that city 
the little family made their way, via railway 
to Buffalo and thence on the lakes to Mil- 
waukee and from there by teams to Madison. 
At this time Madison was a very small 
village and not a line of railroad was in the 
State of Wisconsin. The greater part of the 
State was uninhabited except by the Indians. 
There were no convenient markets and pro- 
duce was very cheap, consequently money, 
scarce. Teams sold for twenty-live dollars if 
good security was given. Mr. Fisher had 
money of his own, so engaged in the profit- 
able business of loaning money to those less 
fortunate and continued it until his death, 
which occurred in 1852. The maiden name 
of his wife was Charlotte Dutton, of the same 
city as her husband. She died in 1885 after 
rearing the following children: Angelina, 
Anna and James E. 



Our subject was the only son and received 
his earlv tdncatiou in the schools of Not- 
tinirliam and after cominjj to Madison 
attended the public school for some time; 
After his father's death, he left school to 
learn the trade of cabinet-maker and served 
three years' apprenticeship, after which he 
worked for a year, until 1857, when he 
engaged in business for himself and has 
continued to carry on business in the same 
block ever since.. He has been in the mer- 
cantile business for a period of thirty-five 
years, a longer business career than any other 
man in Madison, Philo Dunning excepted. 
lie has erected a tine new brick block, three 
stories high, on his old site in which he 
carries on a flourishing business. 

Our subject was married in 1885, to Mary 
G. Rundle, born in Saratoga, New York, and 
she has borne him one chikl, Edward Jan)e9. 
Mr. Fisher is a member of the Episcopal 
Churcli, in which he is an influential person. 
In politics he is a stanch Republican, l)ut 
has never sought for political distinction or 
office, prefering to use his influence as a 
private citizen. 



-|^«^^- 



OLONELGEORGEW. BIRD.— 

Among the most prominent and suc- 
cessf\il members of the Madison bar is 
Colonel George W. Bird, who was born in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on July 28, 1837, the 
son of Colonel A. A. and Charity (Le Claire) 
Bird. The family came to Madison during 
the same year of our subject's birth, and in 
this city he was reared to manhood. lie 
graduated from the University of Wisconsin 
in June, 1800, having taken the ancient 
classical course. As one of a committee 
with Senator William F. Vilas, he revised 



D.INE VOUKTY, WISCONSIN. 



2.1 



the constitution and by-laws of the Hespe- 
rian Society, one of the leading literary so- 
cieties of the university, of which both were 
ineiubers. He was also chairman of the 
committee of that society that conducted the 
controversy with the Athenian Society in 
1860, well remembered liy the older students, 
as it excited much interest on the Hill at the 
time. He preserves in careful keeping many 
interesting mementoes of the university's 
early daj's; among others, the original draft 
of a poem written by the first graduate, 
Charles T. Wakeley, and famous in college 
circles at the time; the students' original 
address of regrets to Chancellor Lathrop on 
liis retiring from the institution. The hitter 
is in the handwriting of Colonel Vilas and 
signed by nearly all the students, but became 
so worn in passing from hand to hand for 
signature that it was discarded and one on 
parchment more carefully and elegantly pre- 
pared was presented to the chancellor, and 
this one preserved by the Colonel. He has 
also copies of the mock and other commence- 
ment schemes of early days. 

He commenced the study of the law in the 
office of Smith, Keyes & Gay, July 5, 1860, 
and after two years' study, was admitted to the 
bar of the Circuit Court of Dane county, then 
presided over by Judge Harlo S. Urton, 
now an honored justice of the Supreme 
Court. Subsequently lie was admitted to 
practice in the Supreme Court and the Fed- 
eral Courts, including the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 4'Tio'ig the noted cases 
with rt'hich he has been connected as leading 
counsel and attorney may be mentioned the 
following: The Watertown Bond Litigation, 
which involved something over $3,000,000, 
and continued some fifteen years. It was 
prosecuted through all the State Courts, Cir- 
cuit and Supreme, and also the Federal Courts, 



District, (Jircuit and Supreme of the United 
States. Colonel Bird eonducteil the defense 
for the city, and was entirely successful at 
every step, thus finally relieving the city of 
an immense and crushing debt. The ablest 
legal talent of the C(_)unti-y was arrayed against 
him in the progress of the litigation, among 
otliers Senator Matthew H. Carpenter, Senator 
William F. Vilas, Senator Edmunds of Ver- 
mont, G. A. Jenks of Pennsylvania, ami Jen- 
kins, Winkler and Flanders of this State. 
The defense of the Jefferson and Waterloo 
Bond Litigatiitn was also intrust(M_l to (!olonel 
Bird, and resulted successfidly for those 
municipalities. 

In the Curran murder case, originating in 
Portage and tried in Waupaca county, he 
was employed by the county to assist the 
district attorney. The case excited great 
interest throuorhoiit tlie State. The Curran 
brothers, Henry and Jolin, prominent capi- 
talists at Stevens' Point, were charged with 
the murder of W. W. Haseltine, a leading 
lawyer of that city. John Curran shot and 
instantly killed the latter on one of the main 
streets of the city in the forenoon of town- 
meeting day, 1888, and Henry Curran was 
claimed to have aided and assisted in the 
shooting. The defendants admitted the shoot- 
ing, but claimed that it was done in self- 
defense. The trial lasted upward of two 
weeks and involved the relation of the parties 
and their conduct toward each other reaching 
over a period of ten to twelve years. A very 
strong case of self-defense was made out by 
the proofs and an acquittal on that grouinl 
followed. 

Colonel Pird was also associated witii Col- 
onel John C. Spooner and General C. E. 
Estabrook in the Wisconsin gerrymander 
cases, in which was settled the important 
principle tliat courts are properly clothed 



272 



BIOORAPHIGAL REVIEW OF 



* witli jiirisclictioi) to pass upon the constitn- 
tioDiility of Mpportioninent laws. Tliat deci- 
sion is considered of vital importance to tlie 
continued existence of free popular govern- 
ment. The Colonel made extemled research 
and e.xamination into tlie principles of law 
involved, and his arguments were pronounced 
by the court, it is said, among the ablest ever 
made before it. 

He was also the attorney for X. S. and 
Walter S. Greene, the owners of the Milford 
Water Power, in the defense of the milldam 
litigation against them. It was the most 
important litigation of the kind ever insti- 
tuted in the State. More than a dozen suits 
were pending at one time in the different 
courts, State and National, anil involved in 
their trial the condition of the country for 
thirty miles about the mill power since 1837. 
The defense was entirely successful in every 
case, the right to maintain and use the dam 
as it was being maintained and used being 
fully estaljlishod by the judgment of the 
court. Colonel Bird was also the attorney 
for the det'endants in the Watertown, Jeffer- 
son, Ixonia and other important milldam 
litigations. 

He resided at Madison until 1863 when he 
removed to Jefferson, Jefferson county, and 
continued in the practice of his profession 
there until December, 1886, when he moved 
back to Madison, where he still resides. In 
May, 1864, he enlisted in Company D, For- 
tieth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and was 
Second Lieutenant of that company. He was 
married October 2, 1864, by Rev. N. E. 
Cliapin at Aztalan, Wisconsin, to Miss Maria 
S. Sawin, who was born July 12, 1845, at La 
Porte, Indiana, and wliose mother taught the 
iirst school in the city of Madison. Four 
children, all l<orn in Jefferson, were the fruit 
of this marriage: Claire Bray ton, born Octo- 



ber 27, 1868; Guy Sawin, April 16, 1871; 
Hobart Stanley, Septeml)er 10. 1873, and 
Maria Louise, April 5, 1876. 

Colonel Bird was County Superintendent 
of Jefferson county for four years, from Janu- 
ary, 1866, to January. 1870; was private 
secretary of Governor Taylor from 1S74 to 
1876; was chairman of the town of Jefferson 
and member of the County Board two years, 
and has been a delegate in four Democratic 
National conventions. 

Duiing the Taylor administration, he ke])t 
a diary of large dimensions in which were 
entered all that occurred in his ])resence in 
the capitol or elsewhere respecting public 
affairs. All conversations heard or partici- 
pated in by him with public men in the e.\- 
ecutive office and other dej)artments are en- 
tered at length, and the doings and schemes 
concocted and carried out. or attempted to be 
carried out, in the State House during that 
two years, are there given in full. This diary 
would make an interesting ciiapter in the 
history of tliat period. In a conversation 
there recorded, between Judge Sloan and the 
Colonel, which the writer was permitted to 
bear is an interesting account of the Potter- 
Prior affair at Washington, Judge Sloan 
then bein<»' a member of Congress and of 
Potter's so-called body guard. The history 
of the railroad war, connection of prominent 
men therewith on botli sides and what they 
said about it are also i^iven. 



illlLlP i,()Kl\(i SPOONER, for 
many years a distinguished member of 
the Wisconsin bar, was born at New 
Bedford, Massachusetts, January 11, 1811, 
and died at Madison, Wisconsin, November 
2, 1887. About 1825 iiis family removed to 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



273 



Ohio, wliere they reuniined until 1829 or 
1830 and finally s^t^ttled at Lawi'enceburwh, 
Indiana, from which place Mr. Spooner came 
to Madison, June 1, 1859. 

September 11, 1839, he was married to 
Miss Lydia Lord Coit, a daughter of the 
Hon. Roger Coit, of Plaintield, Connecticut, 
"A fit companion for such a man" as has been 
elsewhere recorded of her, and they had seven 
children, four of whom survive their honored 
fathei-, namely: John C, of Hudson, Wis- 
consin, who for six years so ably represented 
his State in the United States Senate; Philip 
L., Jr., first Insurance Commissioner of Wis- 
consin, an office held l)y him for nine years, 
also a Mayor of the capitol city; lioger C, 
Assistant Insurance Commissioner and twice 
elected Chairman of the Dane county Re- 
publican committee; and Mary C, wife of 
Dr. J. W. Vance, who was through all the 
years of her father's failing eyesight, as an- 
other has so beautifully and truthfully said, 
"Like unto the daughter of the immortal 
Milton," in her loyalty and devotion. The 
mother and wife died August 28, 1881. 

On the death of Mr. Spooner interesting 
and appropriate proceedings were held in the 
Circuit Court for Dane county, in the Ihiited 
States District Court and in the Supreme 
Court of the State, in which his brethren 
of the legal profession, united in sincere 
encomiums upon his sterling traits of char- 
acter, as a man and citizen and his emi- 
nent ability as a lawyer. The panegyrics of 
these gentlemen, who knew him so well as a 
lawyer, and loved and respected him so sin- 
cerely as a citizen, are placed upon the rec- 
ords of the courts, in which he and they 
practiced together, and are enduring me- 
morials of his life and service, an exemplar for 
the coming generation of lawyers and an 
open record to all. No better and truer ac- 



count of Mr. Spooner's citizenship and of the 
estimation in v^liich he was held by his co- 
laborers in the profession could be obtained, 
than by transcribing some extracts from the 
spontaneous and heartfelt tributes of his 
memory, the voluntary offerings of those 
who best knew his personal virtues and ex- 
alted legal attainments. 

The late Judge A. J5. Braley said of him: 
"As a lawyer he possessed immense strength 
and exhibited consummate ability. He was 
logical, critical and clear. He was always 
cool, calm and collected, never aiming at or- 
nament, but went straitiht to the center. 
The ample resources of his intellect were al- 
ways at his command. Words and sentences 
flowed from his lips with wonderful deliber- 
ation. He was slow in his utterances, but 
his language was marked with that careful 
precision, wdiich indicated thought and prep- 
aration. The fabi-ic of his arguments was 
always erected upon solid masonry. He laid 
his foundations deep, and then built layer 
after layer, until when he had tinished you 
saw before you a beautiful superstructure, 
systematic, and logical in all its proportions. 
He never seemed to pause to catch a word, 
but every sentence he uttered w'as formed 
and constructed before it came to his lips, 
and when it was spoken it often surprised 
you with its emphasis. Judge Spooner's 
mind was essentially and exceptionally pure, 
and the habits, actions and manifestations of 
his life were marked by that same purity. 
He was not only a very able man, but an ex- 
ceptionally good one. No acts of dishonor, 
no questionable habits, no words even of im- 
purity can be conjured up to his long life to 
cast a single blemish u])on his noble mem- 
ory. Wliat a proud fame he has left as a 
rich hei'itage for his children! Far better 
than goods or lauds, money or bank stock, 



274 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



for these things will pei-ish aiui fade away, 
while a pure and honest name remains for- 
ever. It is pleasant to be able to say such 
things of the dead." 

The late Hon. Alva Stewart, Judge of the 
Circuit Court for Dane county, said from 
the bench: "As a lawyer I had known Mr. 
Spooner for about a (quarter of a century, 
and almost from the time he made this city 
his home. What I say of him will relate 
only to him after he came here. I remem- 
ber well the tirst time 1 ever saw him. 1 
then heard him argue a ease in the Supreme 
Court. 1 was sitting by the side of Chaun- 
cey Abbott, now dead, but then one of the 
most prominent lawyers of the Madison bar, 
then, as now, amons; the ablest bars in the 
State— and ho said to me, as Judge Spooner 
arose, and commenced addressing the court: 
'Listen to him and see with what wonderful 
clearness he will present his case.' I did so 
and found that the prediction of Mr. Abbott 
was correct." 

Hon. J. 11. Carpenter, Judge of the 
County Court of Dane county, and president 
of the Bar Association of that connty, said: 
that, " as a lawyer, in some respects he was 
without a peer. The legal points in a cause, 
as represented by the facts never escaped his 
attention. Ih; was so constituted that he 
could examine with patience all the facts for, 
and against his client in a cause, and protect 
the client's interest as few lawyers are able 
to do. llis life was an exemplification of a 
Christain character worthy oF our admiration. 
He could state a legal proposition with re- 
markable accuracy and precision, and could 
fortify his proposition with logic as nearly 
inexorable as human intellect is permitted to 
make it. As a citizen he was quiet and un- 
obtrusive, but here also he acted well his 
part. To the claims of charity he gave 



freely of his substance. In his home he was 
chief, loved and revered. Judge Spooner 
prepared for the end of this life and the be- 
ginning of the next." 

Plon. I. C. Sloan, a member of the law 
faculty of the State University gave this 
high testimony: "In my judgment Judge 
Spooner was a remarkable man, and one pos- 
sessed of extraordinary courage. lie illus- 
trates as well the great merit and strength 
that exists in repose of character or that re- 
sults from a well-balanced mind, — faculties 
harmniously arranged in rehition to each other. 
He settled here in early days and from that 
time his reputation ever grew. Perhaps his 
strides of advancement were not as rapid as 
other men, but withal his gi-cat mind grew 
as time went on. Judge Spooner possessed 
what is called a legal mind, — a mind that 
leads to the front ranks in the profession of 
law. He possessed the reasoning faculty in 
a high degree and thereby he was cotnpletely 
enabled to compare, measure and weigh 
questions and solve legal problems. The 
word of censure I have never heard spoken 
of Judge Spooner, but as a man he was re- 
vered and honored. In the legal profession 
he stood in the front ranks, not only of the 
State, but of the country. No client's rights 
suffered that were intiiisted to the hands of 
Judge Spooner and as an example for young 
men of the legal profession to follow he was 
pre-eminent and without a peer." 

Gen. E. E. Bryant, dean of the law de- 
partment, said: "He had the first requisite 
of a great lawyer, a character above reproach, 
above suspicion, free from tiie frailties that 
sometimes mar great talents. As the true 
Christian exemplifies his religion, so Mr. 
Spooner in his life and his intercourse and 
dealings with his fellow-men illustrated that 
high sense of duty, that Imnor. justice, con- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



sideration of the rights of others, whicli are 
the essence and sjjirit of tlie hiw. To him 
tlie law was the rule of conduct, and to irs 
mandates he conformed his life in the spirit 
of true obedience. He rendered to every 
man his due in leu^al right, in courtesy, in 
recognition, in kindly intercourse, in charity 
and sympathy. And so his life was l)lame- 
less. Not ostentatiously nor by profession, 
but by daily walk and life he lived the Chris- 
tian gentleman, and showed always how well 
the kindly grace, the honorable bearing, the 
guileless spirit, can blend with the courage, 
the force and the aggressiveness in profes- 
sional encounter of the truer lawyer, lie 
was all his life a student. In his practice he 
was famed no less in Wisconsin than in In- 
diana and Ohio, where his earlier profes- 
sional life was spent, for his studious prepara- 
tion of his cases. When dean of the faculty 
he could never do enough probing to the 
bottom and leading his students to do so, for 
the true rules and doctrines of the law. 
Even when in the late evening of life he had 
retired from practice and from connection 
with this college, he still loved to study cases, 
and for pastime kept informed on the im- 
portant cases before the courts. In profound 
legal learning he is among the very first who 
have adorned the legal bar of the State. 
His knowledge was comprehensive, accurate 
and critical. He knew the law, its principles 
and doctrines. He knew what was in the 
books and he had reflected long and patiently 
upon it, until his mind was a rich storehouse 
of judicial lore, all arranged and at com- 
mand. In the preparation of his cases he 
opened the way for success. He deemed it 
his dutv to examine a case thoroughly. In 
his investigation he viewed the case thor- 
oughly from all sides. He studied it from 
the adverse side to find its vulnerable points. 



He cross-examined his client and witnesses 
in the council room with relentless scrutiny, 
and drew from them every point and detail 
of their knowledge. He viewed the case in 
all its aspects and was guarded from attack 
from every quarter. He was rarely ever sur- 
])rised. Every contingency had been pro- 
vided for, every assault anticipated; and the 
antagonist soon found that an alert, wary 
and thoroughly equipped master was against 
liim. He went into the court thoroughly 
informed as to the facts of his case and as to 
the law. In tiie courtesy of the l)ar his 
bearing was admirable. Gentle, unostenta- 
tious, he was fair to his opponent and con- 
ducted a legal conti-oversy as it should be 
conducted, without irritating personalities, 
or the querulous or cpiarrelsome spirit so of- 
ten annoying to courts, jurors antl witnesses. 

"In legal arguments he was the admiration 
of the bench and liar. To him all men 
loved to listen, and his students hung upon 
his words. He was one, who by long and 
laliorious ascent had climbed to those high ta- 
blelands of the law, where men see with 
clarified vision, in all its symmetry and 
beauty, the broad domain of jurisprudence. 
Such men, venerable in years, imbued with 
the learning, the spirit and the ethics of the 
law, seem like seers and prophets, in the. ri- 
pened wisdom gained by so long study of the 
noblest science within reach of finite minds." 

Hon. Orsamus Cole, then (!hief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of AVisconsin, bore this 
high testimony of the legal abilities of Mr 
Spooner: '-Indeed he might be said to be 
master of every branch of law. He certainly 
was distinguished for great learning and at- 
tainments. In arguing causes his manner 
was calm, deliberate and unimpassioned. 
II is language was clear, plain and forcible. 
He never indulged in rlietoric or any appeal 



276 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



to the emotions. He had great powers of 
analysis and possessed the rare faculty of be- 
ing able to grasp a legal or abstract proposi- 
tion and iiolding it before the mind, 
so to speak, as one might a visible object 
before the eye, contemplating it from all 
points of view, eliminating whatever was 
immaterial or non-essential and finally ex- 
tracting the real principle, the heart and 
core of the matter and applying it to 
the facts of his case. He was a consum- 
mate master of pure reasoning; his proposi- 
tions were bound together like chain armor; 
by close, severe logic; and one who would 
overthrow his propositions must have strength 
to crush the entire argument, for the propo- 
sition could not be answered iu detail." 

Judge Pinney, now an Associate Justice 
of the Supreme Court, at the memorial ex- 
ercises before the 'Circuit Court of Dane 
county, in a long and appropi-iate tril)ute to 
Judge Spooner, said: >'The many graduates 
of the law school, now active, useful and in- 
fluential members of the profession in the 
Northwest will cherish his memory with an 
affectionate regard, and long remember the 
painstaking accuracy and clearness of state- 
ment, and facility of illustration, which 
characterized him in all his personal inter- 
course, and social and business relations. 
Judge Spooner never souglit office or noto- 
riety, lie was ever modest and unobstrusive. 
His enjoyments were in the home circle, 
with his books, his studies and his cliosen 
friends. Mo official position, none of the 
dignities and honors so much sought after 
and struggleil for in life could have added 
anything of wui'th to his character, or the 
true rei;ard and esteem in which he was held 
by all who knew him. In his arguments in 
court he was careful, accurate and exhaustive. 
His manner was earnest, serious and always 



considerate and respectful, and we bear 
in kindly remembrance the pleasure, satis- 
faction and advantage, which we have de- 
rived from our personal and professional in- 
tercourse with him, and the benefit the bar 
has received as a whole, ou account of his at- 
tainments as a lawyer, and his personal in- 
tegrity and example." 

Mr. T. J. Lamb, of the Madison bar, very 
feelingly said: "1 count it one of the pecul- 
iar and happy privileges 1 have enjoyed, 
that at a comparatively early period in my 
professional life, I was associated with Judge 
Spooner for a number of years on terms of 
the closest intimacy in the practice of our 
profession. During those years 1 think I 
came to know our deceased brother well. I 
can speak with the assurance of accurate 
knowledge of those qualities of character in 
the man, that now claim, for his surviving 
associates and this court, those tokens of re- 
spect and honor we now and here offer to 
his memory, — the eulogy of deserved praise. 
1 shall not attempt discussion of the many 
noble and honorable qualities of head and 
heart and life, which distinguished our de- 
parted brother, although I may say that in 
ruling his own spirit and fashioning his own 
life, with a nice regard to its force and effect 
on his own character, and the character and 
welfare of all his neighbors, and those whom 
he might influence, he was the peer of any 
of his contemporaries. He loved justice and 
was always ready to yield it to an opponent, 
as well as to demand it for his client. It was 
frequent saying with him that one should 
demand nothing more than was his right, 
and be content with nothing less. His sense 
of honor was lofty, and not only were his 
acts honest, but the very habit of his tiiought 
was righteous. I do not think the logic of 
his activities could work on any other than 



DANE COUNTY, WISGONnTN. 



377 



the strait;ht and honest lines of truth. Act- 
nateil and coutroUed by these and kindred 
qualities of character in his intercourse, and 
contests with his brethren at the bar, and in 
advocacy before the tribunals of the State 
and nation, it is not strange that he passed 
tlirough a long and busy life in active prac- 
tice, without making an enemy, but on the 
contrary always winning the respect and re- 
gard of his brethren at the bar and golden 
opinions from the judges who heard his 
masterly arguments and witnessed the ex- 
ertion of his splendid al)ilities in behalf of 
those whose rights he championed before 
them. A beautiful and noble spirit has 
gone from among us, but there remains, and 
will ever remain to those who know his 
worth and life a fragrant memory, the recol- 
lection of a pure and noble life lived among 
us, sullied by no deserved reproach, — dimmed 
by no unworthy deed." 

Mr. Spooner was of English extraction, 
his ancestors having been of the old Plymouth 
colony, among the little band of pilgrims 
who early came to this country to be the 
founders of a great nation, a band, "who 
builded better than they knew," while the 
ancestors of Mr. Spooner's beloveil wife, tlie 
Colts, are of Welsh extraction, and as llil- 
dreth has it, to be reckoned "among the 
Puritan families of New England." 

The writer of this sketch first became ac- 
quainted with Judge Spooner during the 
time his eldest son was Assistant Attorney 
General in our capitol and he used often to 
observe how the son conferred with the fa- 
ther upon the various difiicnlt legal questions 
which came up for consideration before the 
State Law Department. Certainly he could 
have found no riper, or safer counselor, yet 
somehow, the reliance of the young lawyer 
upon the riper experience of his father 



brought to mind the beautiful and suggestive 

lines of Schiller: 

"How beautiful and granil 'tis, band in hand 
With a dear son, t.> tread youth's rosy patli, 
Again to dream once more tlie dream of life. 
How sweet and great, imperishable in 
The virtue of a child, to live for ages, 
Transmitting good unceasingly! How sweet 
To plant what a dear son will one day reap,— 
To gather what will make him rich,— to feel- 
How deep will one day be his gratitude!" 



^ZPtA W. RICHMOND is a successful 
farmer and stock-raiser of York town- 
ship, Dane c(junty, Wisconsin, who 
makes a specialty of the breeding of Galloway 
cattle. He is the son of Peres 15. Rich- 
mond, and the grandson of Brightman Rich- 
mond, the latter a farmer, late of Livingston 
countv, New York, and a native of Massa- 
chusetts. Brightman had been edtu-ated for 
the law, and been admitted to the bar, but 
bucolic life had greater charms for him. He 
married Lucy Osborne, who bore him five 
children, namely: Peres 1!., the fatlierof our 
subject; Lucia, wife of Daniel Bosley, de- 
ceased, lives in Livingston county. New 
York; Caroline M., wife of Nathan Piatt, 
living at Hornellsville, New York; Edwin 
R., married, deceased; and Elizabeth, wife of 
A. Spinnings, living near Mt. Morris, Liv- 
ingston county. New York. 

Peres B. Richmond was born in Livingston 
county. New York, May 30, 1809; received 
a good education, having a common school 
and academic training; was reared a farmer, 
made two trips to Ohio, and then located some 
land, which he subsequently sold. Peres was 
married March 12, 1835, to Miss Harriet 
Warner, of Lima, New York, and in the fol- 
lowing year removed to Allegany county. 
New York, where he bought 100 acres of 
laud; improved it to some extent, with 



378 



BIOaBAPHIGAL REVIEW OF 



orchards, good buildings, etc.; lived upon it 
for eleven years, meeting with fair success; 
then, in 1847, he sold it and went to Milwau- 
kee, by canal to Buffalo, and by the lakes 
for the remainder of the distance, leaving 
his family behind, as he was prospecting only; 
visited a brother in Milwaukee, and then 
went to York township, Dane county, Wis- 
consin, where lie bouiiht 400 acres of Gov- 
ernment land on sections 3 an 4, less forty 
acres, which were improved; this being the 
same farm that is now occupied by our sub- 
ject, and the one upon which his father 
afterward settled. lie also bought forty "acres 
in Porthind, and as many more near Water- 
loo, his total investment being about §'1,800. 
This was in June, 1847, and as soon as he 
had completed his purchases he returned to 
New York; in the fall came to Milwaukee, 
and was in the merchandise business with his 
brother in the winter of 1847-'48. In the 
Spring of 1848 he bought a pair of horses 
and a wagon, with which he drove across the 
country to New York, taking with him a 
crazy woman and child, whom he left at an 
asylum in New York, and arrived after 
tiiirty days, about April 1, at his home. He 
started on his return trip in September, ac- 
companying the family, by the canals and 
the lakes, and upon arrival at Milwaukee, 
took the family to York township, having for 
their occupancy a house of hewn logs, one of 
tiie best at that time in the county. The 
date of their settlement was October, 1848. 
Promptly the work of improvement went on; 
crops raised, wheat being the principal grain; 
barns and other outhouses and fences iiad to 
be built. Considerable teaming was done, 
no less than seven trips to Milwaukee having 
been made the first winter, sleds being used; 
wiieat Ijringing from forty to fifty cents per 
bushel. 



The family of the father of our subject 
occupied the log house until 1862, when he 
built the present comfortable frame residence. 
In the year 1882 he moved into Columbus; 
poor health causing him, ia 1887, to go to 
New York, but he returned the following 
year, August 23, 1888, and he died in the old 
home, and was buried October 3, 1888, in the 
cemetei-y at (Jolumbus. The mother of our 
subject died August 24. 1884, at Red Cloud, 
Nebraska, while on a visit, her body being 
brought back and interred in the cemetery 
at Columbus. She was the mother of seven 
children, namely: Lucy J^., wife of O. A. 
Southmayd, living at Helena, ilon tana; Ezra 
W., our subject; Caroline M., married Sam- 
uel C. Smith, was a widow and died; Daniel 
B., died at six months old, in New York; 
George B., married Alice Policy, living at 
Phcenix, Arizona; Edward A., married Car- 
rie McGuire, now at Sabetha, Kansas, he 
dying at Geuda Springs, Kansas, September 
20, 18G9; and Fred O., married Hattie Mil- 
lett, living at Sabetha, Kansas. 

Oursubject was born in Granger, Allegany 
county, New York, September 11, 1837; was 
brought up on the farm and came West with 
the family in 1848; went to school in New 
York, and was taught by a master at home; 
was a pupil in the old log cal)in on section 
4, York township, and attended college one 
year. After this he taught school in the town 
of Columbus, when twenty years old, and 
later, in Missouri — twelve terms altogether; 
while teaching at the former place he formed 
the acquaintance of Eliza Bowen, who)n he 
married November 28, 1861. She was a na- 
tive of Ithaca, New York, born August 9, 
1841; her people natives of New Jersey, and 
her ancestors being from France and Eng- 
land. Her parents removed to Wisconsin 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



279 



in 1842, settling near Jaiiesville, and now 
live near Columljus, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Ricbinond taught school for three 
winters after his niarriatre, making his home 
at Columbus; then lived there for five years, 
moved on a farm in York Centre, boucrht 160 
acres there, on section 15, which he improved 
and settled upon in the fall of 1866, contin- 
ued there until March, 1867, and then sold 
out. This step jiroved a prrititalile one, as he 
made $700 profit, the farm being an im- 
proved one. lie next bought sixty-five acres 
in the town of Sun Prairie, on section 24, 
the same being improved; and here he made 
his liome about fourteen years, his farming 
proving quite protitable. Then he came to 
the old homestead, consisting of 287 acres, 
his father havini>; removed to Columbus, 
farmed it under a lease until he came into 
ownership from the estate. Mr. Richmond 
has kept the farm up in excellent shape, 
doing general farming until 1883, when he 
bought a herd of seven Galloway cattle, one 
male and six females, imported, which he has 
kept pure; has registered and selected the 
best for breeders; has sold a great many, and 
now has a great, fine herd of fifty recorded 
animals, one of the very best in the country. 
Mr. and Mrs. Richmond have live children, 
all living, as follows: Mabel, born May 30, 
1869, at home; Hattie, born May 15, 1873; 
Bradford B., born February 23, 1875; Eliz- 
abeth, born January 2, 1877; C!arrie A., 
born July 10, 1880; all living at home. 

Mr. Richmond has 272 acres of good, 
well-improved land, to which he has given 
careful and close attention, making his busi- 
ness steadily profitable. Henry Sherman 
owns the eighty acres located by his father 
on section 4, and David Lasky owns sixty 
acres of the old home tract, located by his 
father at an early day. Mr. Riclimond is a 



Republican in politics, and while too busy to 
bold office, is ready in liis loyalty to the 
party. Mr. and Mrs. Richmond, as well as 
Misses Mabel and Hattie, are memliers of 
the Presbyterian Church. 



fOIIN DOHM, Postmaster at Springfield 
C'ornei-s, Dane county, AViseonsin, was 
born in Wilkes Barre, Luzerne county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1846, a son of John and 
Theresa (Stab!) Dohm, natives of Westphalia, 
Germany. The father was married previous 
to his union with the mother of our subject, 
and they had one son and two daughters. In 
In 1836 he came to America, and two yeai-s 
after landing in New York he sent for his 
wife and four children. They afterward re- 
moved to Pennsylvania, where the father 
worked at the stonemason's trade; next 
came by water to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 
then by team to Dane county. They re- 
mained on a farm seven miles south of Madi- 
son one and one-half years, and in 1848 pur- 
chased a small place one-half mile south of 
Springfield Corners, where both afterward 
died of cholera. The father died August 4, 
1854, aged sixty-one yeai-s, leaving his widow 
with eight children. The mother died Au- 
gust 11, same year, leaving five of her own 
children. Our subject was then eight years 
of age and being one of the younger chil- 
dren, lived among friends two years. The 
children were then brought home and were 
taken care of by the elder brother, William 
A., and a sister, Emily, wife of Valentine 
Hack. 

John Dohm, the subject of this sketch, 
was early inured to farm labor, and received 
f)ut few educational ailvantages. At the age 
of sixteen years he left home and worked as 



280 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



a farm liand for 812 per month. At the at^e 
of eighteen years he enlisted in the late war, 
in the Forty-fifth Wisconsin Infantry, Com- 
pany K, under Captain Lasche. He took 
part in no battles, and was mustered out of 
service with his regiment, July 17, but on 
account of sickness at Nashville, Tennessee, 
did not reach home until the followincr Au- 
gust. His half i)rutiH'r, Peter Doliin, was an 
early volunteer from Pennsylvania and was 
slain in battle. His sister's husband, Valen- 
tine Hack, a volunteer in the i^^inth Wiscon- 
sin Infantry, was also killed, leaving his 
widow with one son. After the close of the 
struggle Mr. Dohm followed the blacksmith's 
trade in Springfield Corners two years, next 
farmed on rented land, and in 1871 began 
teaming in Madison; and next was employed 
as a sewing-machine agent, but in which he 
lost money by the failure of his employer. 

In 1876 he was employed by the Singer 
Sewing Machine Company at Dane station. 
He followed the same business in Lodi a 
short time, and in 1880 opened a blacksmith 
shop at Dane station, with a partner. In 
1885 Mr. Dohm opened a shop at Springfield 
Corners, which he continued until 1890, and 
then was obliged to quit the business on ac- 
count of rheumatism. He next bousrht a 
part of his present building of Theodore Sick, 
for which he paid $900, and where he now 
has a good public hall, a large hotel and a 
saloon. For a time he has also been engaged 
in the sale of agricultural implements. Mr. 
Dohm has served as Deputy Sheriff four 
years, as Township Treasurer three years. 
School Trustee six years, and he has held the 
office of Postmaster since 1888. 

June 9, 1868, our subject was united in 
marriage with Mary Klief, a native of this 
township. Her parents came to this country 
from Germany, in 1847, and both died on 



their farm in this county; the father at the 
age of seventy-four years, and the mother, at 
the age (>f sixty-one years. At their death 
they left two children, a son and a daughter. 
Mr. and Mrs. Dohm are members of the 
Catholic Church, and the former is a Repub- 
lican in his political views. 

'OHN W. GREEN, of Middleton, Dane 
county, Wisconsin, was born in Sheffield, 
England, November 1, 1846, a son of 
Thomas and Ann (Kay) Green. The father 
was born in Wadsley, a suburb of Sheffield, 
England, and was engaged in the saw trade, 
as were also his ancestors for several genera- 
tions before him. He died in Sheffield at 
the age of thirty-four years, and his wife de- 
parted this life at the same place, aged 
twenty-nine years. They were the parents of 
seven children, four of whotn still survive, 
three sons and one daughter. 

John W., the subject of this sketch, re- 
mained at home until twelve years of age, or 
until his parents death, then spent two years 
in a boarding school, after wliich he served 
an apprenticeship of seven years in a grocery 
store. His parents had inherited the estate 
in England known as Farrier's Arms, which 
afterward became the property of our sub- 
ject. He also received an interest in twelve 
tenement houses in Sheffield, opposite Sir 
John Brown's immense works. This Sir 
John was knighted by the Queen of England 
on account of his ingenuity in inventing 
different devices used in his works. While 
serving his apprenticeship in the grocery 
store, Mr. Green also studied nights, and the 
bitys there associated themselves together in 
a kind of night school, occupying the large 
building known as the Mechanics Institute. 



DANK COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



281 



Tlie more enligliteneil ones were selected as 
professors or teachers, and our suhjcct was 
placed at the head of a class, teaching short- 
hand, etc. He could then take down 125 
words a minute. At that time he also 
studied French and Latin, and is now as pro- 
ficient a scholar as one-half of tlie college- 
bred men. After serving liis a])prentice8hip 
Mr. Green worked on a salary one year, 
travelino;, bookkeeping, etc., for the house, 
receiving about $300 a year. In September, 
1868, he came to the United States. He 
first worked three months in Dayton, Green 
county, Wisconsin, then worked by the 
month seven years for R. Green, of Middle- 
ton, Dane county. lie then bought a one- 
fourth interest of Mr. Green, and in 1886 he 
purchased the entire business, where he has 
ever since remained. lie handles grain, 
wool and fai'm machinery, and notwithstand- 
ing the encroachmetits of railroads on his 
territory, and consecjuently more com]ietitive 
points, he still ships more wool and grain than 
any other shipper on the i^rairie du (!liien 
division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul railroad. He is assisted in his Inisi- 
ness by Solomon Freenian, a colored man of 
rare intelligence, who was given his freedom 
more than half a century ago by Abraham 
Bush, formerly of Middleton, now deceased. 

In his political views Mr. Green affiliates 
with tlie Republican party, and his first pres- 
idential vote was cast for U. S. Grant. He 
has served as a member of the School Board. 

In 1868, in England, our subject was 
united in marrian-o with Miss Annie Morton, 
who was born in that country .January 10, 
1848, a daughter of Henry and Sarah (Skin- 
ner) Morton. The father a silversmith by 
trade, has followed that occu])ation through 
his entire life, acquiring a business of his 
own about seventeen years ago, which he 



lias conducted very successfully at Shef- 
field, England. His parents, .lohti and 
Mary Morton, were born in l^irmingham, 
England, and died in Sheffield, that coun- 
try, the father at the age of seventy-two 
years and the mother at eighty-eight years. 
They were the parents of seven children, 
three now living. The mother of Mrs. Green 
died in England, in 1884, aged sixty-one 
years. She was a daughter of Matthew and 
Alice (Wells) Skinner, natives of Sheffield, 
where they both died, aged between seventy 
and eighty years. The Mortons are descended 
from a noted family in England. Mr. and 
]\Irs. Green have seven cliildron, as follows: 
Emily S., born March 10, 1860; Mary E., 
November 29, 1870; Bertha M., Marcii 17, 
1873; Morton K., December 6, 1876; WiU- 
ard S., October 20, 1878; John IL, Se]item- 
ber 14, 1882; and Ethel B., October 12, 
1885. Mr. Green reflects his learning and 
ambition in his family, as not only his wife 
is a highly refined and accomplished lady, but 
his children are exceptionally brilliant. One 
daughter. Bertha, received a first-class certifi- 
cate for teaching school at the age of sixteen 
years, graduated at the high school ot Mid- 
dleton, ami also took first prize in the Fresh- 
man contest at the Wisconsin University at 
Madison; and Emily has considerable musi- 
cal talent, with a large local reputation as ;i 
singer. Mrs. Green is a meiiilier of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

I^ON. JOHN S. FRARY, a prominent 
resident of Oregon, Wisconsin, is the 
subject of the present sketch. He was 
l)orn in Haverhill, New Hampshire, October 
26, 1821, his father, Elisha, having been born 
in Connecticut, and his grandfather, also 



282 



BIOGRAPniCAL REVIEW OP 



Elisha, was of the same State. Tlie grand- 
father was a miller by trade aud followed this 
occupation in New Hampshire and Vermont. 
He resided in Haverhill some years, but 
spent his last ^-ears with a daughter at Nor- 
wich, Vermont. 

The father of our subject went to New 
Hampshire when a young man, and he and 
John Page, who later became Governor of 
the State, went into the woods together, and 
went into the manufacture of shingles, which 
they rived by hand and carried them on their 
Lacks from their camp to the nearest road. 
Later our subject engaged in milling, and 
operated mills in New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, spending his last yeai's in that State. 
The maiden name of the mother of our sub- 
ject was Mary Stearns. She was born in 
Vermont, and died in Orange county, in that 
State. The parents of our subject reared 
eleven children, as follows: Nathaniel E., 
Mary A., Lucy, Harriet, Susan, John, Jede- 
(liali. Sarah, Elisha S., Eliza and Albert. 
The latter went South l)efore the war, and 
was at Charleston when the first gun was 
fired at Fort Sumter, was forced into the 
rebel army and was killed. Elisha served in 
the Union army. 

Our 8nl)ject commenced when young to 
earn his own living, and at ten years of age 
commenced work in a woolen mill, where at 
first he earned one dollar a week, working 
himself up rapi<lly until he was, at the age of 
sixteen, foreman of the mill in Watcrvillc, 
Vermont, where thirty men were em])loved. 
When he was seventeen he went to Boston, 
and was employed clerking until 1843, when 
he came to the Territory of Wisconsin. He 
first made a visit to his Vermont home, and 
then removed by stage to Whitehall, New 
Yoi'k, then went on by way of ( 'luitnplain 
and Erie canals to Buffalo, by lake to Mil- 



waukee, and thence to Oregon, which he 
reached after a journey of eighteen days \n a 
lumber wagon. 

At that time Madison was a hamlet, and 
the surrounding country was but sparsely 
settled, and the most of the land was owned 
by the Government. There was but one 
building in the place where the flourishing 
town of Oregon now stands. He made claim 
on a tract of land on sections 24 and 25, in 
what is now the town of Oregon, and cut 
down four trees to make a good foundation 
for the log house he proceeded to erect. This 
he did to secure the claim, and that winter 
he employed himself in cutting down trees 
and in splitting rails with which to fence his 
land, and in the spring of 1844, he returned 
for his wife, and they went togetiier to the 
little western home and began housekeeping. 
He cleared about twenty acres and lived there 
two years, when he sold and bought 160 acres 
on section 24 of the same town, erected 
another log cabin, and began the improve- 
ment of the second farm, going through with 
all the same experiences as at first. He had 
to lianl his grain to market at Milwaukee. 
At this place he lived eight years, and then 
had a good opportunity to sell and bought 
another ItJO acres on section 3 of the same 
township, and resided there until 1885, when 
he sold that and came to Oregon, where he 
has since lived a retired life. 

Our subject married, in 1843, Miss Rhoda 
P.. Martin, a daughter of S. Martin. They 
have four living children: Alice, Luella C, 
Orelia B. and Louis A. Alice died at the 
age of twenty years; Luella marriuil W. 11. 
liruce, and has three children named Alice, 
Nellie and John, and this Alice married 
Charles Hersey, ami has a child named Bruce, 
the oidy great-grandchild in the family. Ore- 
lia married DeWitt C. Saulsbury, and has 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



283 



three children, Grace, Winnie and Philip S. 
Louis graduated from the Oregon High 
School and then from Rush Medical (Joilcge, 
Chicago, and now practices medicine in Ore- 
gon, lie married Dora Kingsley. 

Our subject has been a Republican since 
the forination of the party, and has tilled 
many of the positions of trust. In the fall 
of 1864 he was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture, and served his constituents faithfully. 
lie was an Odd Fellow, and a member of 
Oregon Lodge, A. F. & A. M. 

lEORGE P. DELAPLAINE, a native 
WSlir of Philadelphia, son of Joseph and Jane 
Ann Delaplaine, came to Milwaukee in 
December, 1835, accompanying Captain Gar- 
ret Vliet, a United States Engineer, who, 
during the year 1836, subdivided into sec- 
tions Government lands situated in the land 
district of Milwaukee. 

Mr. Delaplaine settled in Milwaukee and 
during the year 1837 had charge of the mer- 
cantile business of Mr. Solomon Juneau, an 
early pioneer of that locality, agent of the 
American Fur Company. He moved to 
Madison in June, 1838, and became secre- 
tary to the United States Comtnissioners of 
Public Buildings, who were then construct- 
ing the Territorial capitol. Subsequently he 
was appointed by Governor Henry Dodge, 
Auditor of Pul)lic Accounts for the Territory 
of Wisconsin, following which h(> served as 
private secretary for (liovernor Dodge, and 
then in 1848, upon the admission of Wiscon- 
sin as a State, acted in the same capacity for, 
Governors Nelson, Dewey and William A. 
Barstow. 

In 1861 lie was appointed on the military 
stafi' of Governor Alexander Randall, and 
since then has resided in Madison. 



His father, who was an autlior ami pub- 
lished in iMlo " Delaplaine's Repository of 
the Lives and Portraits of Distinguished 
American Characters," died in Philadelphia, 
in 1824. The subject of this sketch was 
married in 1841, to Miss Eineline T. Smith, 
by whom he had four daughters. 



^ 



^ 




ll^ILBER W. WARNER, one of the 
WW successful and prominent represent- 
itive business men of Madison, Wis- 
consin, where lie has the leading and most 
extensive music house in the city, was born 
in Lockport, Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
December 20, 1850. His parents were Will- 
iam C. and Susan (Partridge) Warner, the 
father a native of New York State and the 
mother of England; she, however, coming to 
the United States when sixteen years of age. 
The Warner family is an old one, both in 
tliis country and England, the genealogy be- 
ing easily traced back to 1600, at which time 
the family was found living at Gloucester, 
England. In about 1625 Arnold S. Warner 
came witli his family to the American colo- 
nies, settling in Massachusetts with the Pur- 
itans. The family went from Massachusetts 
to Connecticut in aiiout 1696, and the old 
homestead of tlie Warners at Chester, Con- 
necticut, is still extant. For the past eight 
generations they have lived in the old home- 
stead ; and in Saybro(jk township, that State, 
are buried the great-grandfather and other 
members of the family. In 1780 the grand- 
father retnoved to the State of New York, 
locating in Cambridge. Prior to the war of 
1812 he was an innkeeper at Rome. He 
served with the American army throughout 
that struiTtrle as a farrier, renderinjf more 
service individually in that capacity than he 



284 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



could probably have done as a soldier in the 
ranks. He was a man of powerful build and 
of herculean strength, and lived beyond the 
alloted " three-score years and ten." The 
maternal side of our subject's family was 
also well known, they came from I^e (irave, 
Bedfordshire, England, in 1785, and first lo- 
cated in Cortland, Kew York, where mem- 
bers of the family reside at the present time. 
They were educated and cultured people, sev- 
eral of whom were members of the clergy. 
William C. Warner was born at Rome, New 
York, in 1813. lie received only a common 
school education. The marriage of he and 
his wife took place at North East, Pennsyl- 
vania. To their union nine children were 
born, five of whom are living, the surviving 
ones being: Edwin, a contractor of Madison, 
Wisconsin; Frank, a merchant of Sumner, 
Washington; Anna, wife of E. Dane, an ex- 
tensive cranberry grower, of Mather, Wis- 
consin; and Ella, wife of C. A. Kyan, for- 
merly of Baraboo, Wisconsin, but now a 
ranchman of considerable prominence of 
Slautrhter, Washington. 

The father came to Wisconsin in 18i)2, and 
located at Baral)oo, where he died July 24, 
1882. He was a prominent business man 
and at one time was a miner in Colorado. 
He also served a term as Postmaster at Bar- 
aboo, Wisconsin, during President Buchati- 
an's administration. Our subject was three 
years of age when he came with his parents 
to Wisconsin. After attending the schools 
of narai)0O he entered the preparatoi'y de- 
partment of the University of Wisconsin, 
where he remained three years, leaving as a 
member of the sophomore class of '77. When 
he was twelve years old his father removed 
to CTilpin county, Colorado, wliere he engaged 
in mining. Although but a boy young Wil- 
h)er possessed a remarkable faculty for locat- 



ing valuable mines and was the discoverer of 
some of the most valuable mines ever located 
in those localities. As an evidence of his 
ability and value in this direction his father 
declined an offer of $50 per week for his serv- 
ices in locating lodes. 

While at Central City our subject discov- 
ered the famous " Wilber '' mine (named for 
him), which in six months from the time of 
its discovery sold for 820,000. At the time 
of the location of this mine, Dr. Updegraff, of 
Baraboo, purchased a half interest in it for 
$25. Two years were spent by our subject 
in Colorado. Before he was twenty-one 
years of age Mr. AV^arner made three trips 
across the country by team to Colorado. He 
also located the celebrated " Idaho," from 
which mine was taken the finest specimen of 
silver ore exhibited at the Centennial Exposi- 
tion at Philadelphia, in 1876. Upon leaving 
the university our subject began his business 
career as a salesman in the music store of 
H. X. Clark, in Madison, which business was 
established by the W. W. Kimball Company. 
His rise in business was rapid and after 
one year as salesman he was given charge of 
the establishment. During the first ten 
years of his career he indorsed paper to the 
amount of $60,000, all of which he paid at 
par with interest. Beginning with a capital 
of S300 in cash, he has, by industry and en- 
terprise, and the exercise of his naturally tine 
business talents, built up a trade of consid- 
erable magnitude, easily establishing himself 
at the head of his line in Madison and Dane 
county, and by the practice of only honest 
and legitimate methods and principles, has 
at the same time made for hiiuself a splendid 
reputation financially and socially. In all 
his life he has never failed in discharging an 
obligation, meeting all when due, and his 
trade have come to rely implicitly upon his 




^-^rrn Jr. yo-iied-. 



DANE COUNTY, WT8G0NSIN. 



28", 



won! tlie same as his Iiond. lie cdiitiiiiics to 
deal witli the W. W. Kimball Company, 
mainly in pianos and organs, and aside from 
his large retail business has an extensive job- 
bing trade. He is a thorough and practical 
business man in all that term implies, and 
gives all his attention to his trade. lie takes 
little or no interest in politics, never permit- 
ting his name to be used in connection with 
any public office. He is posse sed of ex- 
traordinary talent and fitness for his line of 
business, and with his splendid executive 
ability, could handle with ease a much larger 
house than that warranted by Madison. But 
he has not allowed liusiness to absorb all of 
his time, to the exclusion of the pleasures of 
life. I'eing of a geuial and pleasant temper- 
meiit he has quite a circle of friends and ac- 
quaintances. He is quite a linguist and 
speaks flnently both the French and (xerman 
languages. He has a taste for art and paint- 
ings. 

Mr. Warner was married on May 13, 1875, 
to Miss Medora A. Finster, of Pulaski, New 
York, who is the daughter of Sherman W. 
Finster. Mrs. Warner, who is a charminf 
and accomplished lady, was educated at the 
Pulaski Academy. One son has been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Warner, Paul S., born 
August 21, 1876. He is- attending the Mad- 
son Iliijh School. 

|URU W. JONES, a rcsidetit of Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, was born at Union, 
Rock county, Wisconsin, March 9, 18-16, 
a son of William and Sarah M. (Prentice) 
Jones, natives respectively of western Penn- 
sylvania and western New York. The father 
died in 1855, and the mcither afterward mar- 
ried Levi Leonard, a pioneer of Rock county. 

20 



They now reside at Evansvillc, in that county. 
Our subject had oiui sister, who mari-ied .1 . .'\. 
Pettigrew. but is now deceased. 

Purr W. Jones spent his early lib^ on a 
farm, and afterward attended the Evansville 
Seminary, lie then entered tin; Un'iversity 
of Wisconsin, at which he graduated in 1870, 
and the following year finished th(; law course 
of that university. Mr. Jones also taught 
school several winters to assist in defraying 
his expenses at school. After leaving the 
university he entered the office of Colonel 
Vilas; in the winter of 1871-"72 began the 
practice of his jtrofession at Portage, (Joluni- 
bia county, W^isconsin, and a short time alter- 
ward formed a partnership wifii Alden S. 
Sanborn, of Madison, wl^o was later elected 
County Judge. This partnership lasted a 
number of years, after which our subject 
practiced alone until 1874. Since that year 
he has been associated with General A. C. 
Parkinson and F. J. Lamb, although he iKnv 
has no partner. 

In 1872 Mr. Jones was elected District 
Attorney of Dane county, on the Democratic 
ticket, which position lie held lour years; in 
1882 he was elected a member of Congress 
for two years, from the old Third (yongres- 
sional District, which was hopelessly Republi- 
can. In 1884 he was renominated, but was 
defeated, his party being in the minority; 
but he ran largely alusad of his ticket. Al- 
though ii] Congress but a single term, the 
record shows that he took an active part in 
the debates and public business, and part of 
the time lie was the acting chairman of the 
important Committee on War Claims. Put 
his Congressional career was cut short by the 
rtstoration of peace in the Republican ranks, 
and the election of Hon. R. M. La Follette 
in 1884. For the past two years Mr. Jones 
has served as City Attorney of Madison, and 



•iMI 



BIuailM'UlCAL REVIEW OF 



fur tlie past seven years has been one of the 
faculty of the law de])artment in the Wiscon- 
sin University, and is lectnrer on Domestic 
Relations and the Law of Evidence and Cor- 
porations. 

Mr. Jones was married in December, 1873, 
to Olive L. Hoyt, a daughter of L. W- Hoyt, 
late of Madison, and to this union has been 
born one child, Marian 15. Except duriuo; 
the time Mr. Jones was in Congress, he has 
always devoted himself exclusively to his 
chosen profession, and has won the reputation 
of being one of the leading lawyers of his 
State. In every political campaign he has 
been in great demand as a public speaker, 
and has often delivered public addresses on 
other occasions. 

Our subject was the chairman of the last 
Democratic State Convention, and his name 
has often l)een mentioned in connection with 
other public honors, which he has declined to 
accept. Although Mr. Jones has been drawn 
into considerable prominence in political 
affairs, he has never sought or asked a nomi- 
nation for any public office, and his tastes 
are those of the lawyer and student. He has 
always been devoted to the interests of his 
city and community, and hardly any measure 
of improvement during the last twenty years 
can be mentioned with which he has not been 
identified. The Madison Times says: "His 
successes as a lawyer have already won for 
him a wide reputation, which extends beyond 
the borders of "Wisconsin, and although 
pitted against the ablest counsel that money 
could employ, lie has been eminently success- 
ful in his causes, many of which involved 
largo amounts of money. He is universally 
liked by all the students because of his learu- 
ing, clarity of exposition, and courteous, 
gentlemanly demeanor." 



^ipSON. SEREXO W. GRAVES.— A well- 
%W\ known historian has said that the most 
"^i obscure resident of a community, if he 
has reached mature life, has had experiences 
which, if truthfully told, would both interest 
and instruct his fellow-creatures. No doubt 
this is true, and how much more is it true of 
one of the most prominent residents uf a 
community who for many years has taken a 
prominent position and has faithfully per- 
formed the many public duties intrusted to 
his care. In calling attention to the subject 
of this sketch we find that his life has been 
full of change and that he occupies a prom- 
inent position in his county, possessing tiie 
esteem of his fellow-citizens and the respect 
of all with whom he has come into contact. 

Sereno W. Graves was born in Berkshire, 
Franklin county, Vermont, October 11, 1810, 
a son of David J. (t raves, who was born in 
Leominster, Massachusetts, and his grand- 
father Captain Peter Graves was, as far as 
known, born in the same place and com- 
manded a company in the Revolutionary 
war. Captain Peter spent his last years in 
Leominster, and his wife, was married a 
second time to Colonel John Poynton, and 
spent her last days at Weatherstield, Vermont. 

The father of our subject was tliree years 
old when his father died and his mother 
married again two years later and removed 
to Vermont and located at Weatherstield and 
here our subject's father was reared. After 
marriage he removed to lierkshire and 
bought timber land and built the log house 
in which our subject was born. Mr. Graves 
resided at this place until 1832, when he lost 
his farm and returned to Weatherstield and 
lived thvire until 1S47. at which time he 
removed to Wisconsin ami spiTit his last 
days in the town of Rutland. He was twice 
married, the maiden name of his first wife, 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



the mother of our tiubject, being Polly Leland, 
who was born in Grafton, Massachusetts, a 
daughter of Joshua and Tliankful Leland, of 
Ciiester, Vermont, lint she died on July 4, 
1817. The maiden name of the second wife 
of our suiiject's fatiier was Sally Colboth, 
of Vermont and she died in Rutland. Four 
children were born of the first marriage and 
live by the second. 

Our subject was reared and educated in 
his native town. There were no railroads in 
that section of cor.ntry nor any of what we 
at tl\is time regard as the necessary adjuncts 
of civilization. Tlie people were mostly poor 
and lived upon tiie products of the land, but 
the meagerness of tiieir li\es made them all 
the more interested in the lives of others and 
neighborly kindness and interest were the 
rule amono; all. What nolile men and women 
liave come from the secluded portions of the 
New England States, and what wonderful 
marks they have left behind them! 

Thrifty habits were inculcated in both 
sexes and the industrious mother of our 
subject labored without ceasing, spinning 
a!id weaving, and all of her family were 
arrayed in garments, not only made by her 
own skillful hands, but the cloth was also 
produced in the same manner. Money was 
scarce and debts were paiil in cattle and 
stock. The pioneer schools were taught in log 
cabins, with only the merest excuses for 
teachers and with no opportunities at all for 
anything beyond the most pi-imjtive inethods. 

When eighteen years qf i\ge our subject 
went to Chester to live with his grandfather 
Leland, where he remained until tlie death 
of this kind man two years later, at which 
time he returned to Weathersfield and lived 
with his aunt, attendinu- the farm and going 
to school. This last occupation was very con- 
genial, as he hail a very intelligent under- 



standing and was most anxious to learn. 
Four years passed by in this way and tluMi 
our subject started out in life as a teachei-, 
following tliis profession in the winters and 
farming during the summers until 1841, 
when he bought a farm in Weathersfield and 
lived upon it until 1S43, when he sold it and 
June 10, 1844, accompanied liy his wife he 
started for the far-away Territory of Wis- 
consin, feeling snre that the great West held 
possibilities which a resident in the East 
could never reach. The trip was commenced 
by team to Troy, New York, where the travel- 
ers took the Erie canal foi- their i-ide across 
the State ami upon landing in l>utialo took a 
steamer to Milwaukee, landing there June 
26. He left his wife in Milwaukee with 
his cousin, D. A. J. Upliam, and started 
to seek a location for a permanent home, 
accompanied liy Jonathan Lawrence and 
his son Frank, and finally drifted to Dane 
county. At that time the country was luit 
sparsely settled and liut tiiree families lived 
in the town of Rutland. All the land was 
Government land, and our subject selected a 
tract that is now included in his present 
farm. 

Our subject walked to Milwaukee, from 
there to Waukeska and there worked 
through harvest. September 1 he hired a 
horse and buggy and drove to iiis frontier 
home, and his wife was pleaseil with the land. 
Here he concluded then to settle and his wife 
returned to Milwaukee and entered the land, 
consisting of 280 acres: then Mr. Graves 
bought a pair of oxen and a cow, commencing 
to cut and hew logs for the new house. Before 
long a comfortal>le log cabin was erected and 
that same fall housekeeping was begun en 
the place. Tliis log house has been replaced 
by others since, but Mr. Graves has resided 



288 



BIOGIiAI'niGAL UK VIEW OF 



on the old farm since, althoucrh lie rents the 
land. 

In 1841 our subject was marrieci to Miss 
Malinda Blakcsley, born in Weathersfield, 
wliere siio died in December of the same 
-year. In 1843 he married Meivina Dennison 
a native of Ludlow, Vermont, hut she died 
in Rutland December 28, 1845. In 1846 
he married Mary (Read) Dudley, a native of 
Plaintield, New Hauipshire, a daughter of 
Silas Read and widow of Charles Dudley. 
Mr. and Mrs. Graves have three living chil- 
dren: Ellen, who married La Salle C. Brewer 
of Evansville; Marinda, who married C. A. 
Cole of Evansville; and Leland, the efficient 
manacrer of the farm. 

In public life our sul)ject has become well 
known in the State in which ho has lived. 
In 183() he joined Captain Aldricli's company 
of State Militia and was made Second Lieu- 
tenant, but in 1837 the company was dis- 
banded, l)\it that same year a petition was 
made to the Legislature that another company 
mif^ht be organized. The petition was granted 
and when the company was organized our 
6ul)ject was made Captain and later was made 
!Major and was still later promoted to be 
Colonel, holding that position until his de- 
parture for the West. 

Soon after locating here Mr. Graves 
became interested in public aifairs, his intel- 
ligence and active mind requiring him to be 
more tlinn a mere tiller of the soil. Formerly 
he was a Whig in politics and may be said 
to have been one of the founders of the 
Republican party. Since those early days in 
the Territory he has been called upon to fill 
various (>ffices of trust. For si.xteen years he 
was County Surveyor, and Deputy. Seven 
times has lie beun elected on the Town and 
County l)oard of Supervisors. In 1848 he was 
elected Justice of the Peace and with the 



exception of one year has served as such since. 
Also his time has been required as Road Com- 
missioner and as Town Clerk. In 1861 he 
was honored further by being elected to the 
State Legislature, and in all of these positions 
he has l)orne his part as a man of honesty and 
strict integrity. 

IPsON. GEORGE W. STONER,one of the 
\'m\ oldest residents of the city of Madison, 
"^•Is Wisconsin, is the subject of the present 
brief notice. A residence of so many years in 
a locality, which has changed as much as lias 
this portion of Dane county, must have had 
many interesting experiences and, if space 
could be awarded in a work of this kind, no 
doubt the personal adventures of our honor- 
able subject would fill the book from cover to 
cover. When he located here, the great city, 
which is now known the world over, was but 
a settlement of two log houses. 

Our subject was born at Euclid, near Cleve- 
land, Ohio, September 14, 1880, and is the 
eldest son and fifth in order of birth of seven 
children, four girls and three boys, born to 
John and Magdalena Stoner, natives of Mary- 
land and Tennsylvania, respectively. John 
Stoner grew up in MaryliiiKl and learned the 
trade of cabinet-maker, which he followed for a 
time in Pennsylvania. He enlisted in ihi: 
war of 1812 and served to its close, after 
which he was iriarried, and with bis young 
wife removed to Ohio. They continued to 
reside there until all their children but one 
were born, when the limited products derived 
from a few acres of heavily timbered land 
became insufficient for the support of a large 
and growing family, and they sought the broj^d 
and fertile prairies of the, then, far West, and 
in 1837, started overland to the Territory of 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



289 



Wisconsin. The last child born to them was 
the first white male child bom in this city, 
and was named Madison Stoner, In honor of 
the place. He is now living in Denver, Colo- 
rado, being connected witii the health de- 
partnient of that city. John and Magdalena 
Stoner, the parents of our subject, started 
here in the most primitive style and were 
obliged to undergo many hardships, endure 
privations and self-denials, which should make 
their memory honored by those who have 
come later and now enjoy the lienefits of civ- 
ilization, which could only have been secured 
by the efl'orts of the pioneers. Their lives 
ended here and they passed away respected 
by all who knew them. John Stoner was one 
of the first cabinet-makers in Madison, and 
was prominent in the management of affairs 
pertaining to the growth and development of 
this new city and county. He was the first 
Treasurer of Dane county, and is yet remem- 
bered as a man of unsnllied character, thor- 
oughly honest in all his dealings with man- 
kind, and strictly temperate in all his habits, 
havinjj never indulged in the use of tobacco 
or strong drink of any kind. In politics he 
was a firm Jackson Democrat. 

The family removal took place from Euclid, 
now Lake county, Ohio, when our subject 
was seven years of age, the trip being made 
overland and consuming just four weeks. 
They arrived in the new location September 
6, 1837, at four o'clock in the afternoon, this 
being the first wagon that had ever come 
through from Janesville, Wisconsin. They 
had to drive through the oak openings and 
open prairies without a road or trail of any 
kind, guided only by the aid of blazed trees 
made by a party of surveyors who had run a 
line through but a short time before. Arrived 
in Madison, they were fortunate in securing 
a rudely constructed log cabin, witli an oak 



shake roof, without a floor, door, or window, or 
even a fireplace, for which they paid the sum 
of $200 in cash. This cabin was built before 
tiie town was laid out, and after a survey had 
been made, proved to be in the center of North 
Hamilton street, near Fourth Lake, wliere it 
remained for many years, until ordered re- 
moved by tile street superintendent. This 
was antedated by but few in tliis locality, and 
was one of the first houses from which grew 
the city of Madison. 

Our subject was one of tlie first pupils at 
the State University, having attended scliool 
in the red brick in 184!J, where tlie high 
school building is now located. In this con- 
nection may be appropriately mentioned a 
narrow escape from drowning, which he sus- 
tained. On the afternoon of September 1, 
1852, while out alone on one of our beautiful 
lakes in a fine new sail-ljoat, and when near 
the center of the lake, a severe wind storm 
suddenly sprang up, capsizing his boat, which 
being heavily ballasted with stone, rapidly 
sank to the bottom, leaving Mr. Stoner to the 
mercy of the swells and l)linding storm, witii 
nothing to cling to but an empty gallon jug, 
tiglitly corked. To this he clung with death- 
like tenacity for over three hours, and was 
driven by the furious wind and rain for a dis- 
tance of three miles, when a dark object at 
last loomed in sight, which proved to be the 
shore. The boat has never been recovered and 
still reposes at the bottom of the lake. Mr. 
Stoner owes his rescue from a watery grave 
to his perfect coolness in the face of danger, 
self-possession and the agency of the jug. 

After completing his education he went, in 
1855, to Prairie du Chien, where he engaged 
in the land agency and insurance business for 
five years. He then joined the " innumerable 
throng " in pursuit of gold, crossing the plains 
to Pike's Peak in 1860, and visited, what is 



290 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



now the city of Denver, Colorado, before there 
was a house in tlie place. Remaining there 
thronirh one season, he I'etnrned home, where 
he continued to reside for many years, filling 
various clerical positions in the different State 
departments about the capitol. In 1869 he 
was elected Clerk of the Circuit for Dane 
county, the duties of which office he dis- 
cliarired with credit to himself and entire sat- 
isfaction to the members of the bar. lie has 
been Enrolling Clerk of one l)ranch or the 
otiier of the Wisconsin Legislature for more 
than twenty years, having first been appointed 
in 1859. under L. H. D. Crane, Chief Clerk 
of the Assembly. He has filled every cleri- 
cal position in that body except that of Chief 
Clerk. He was also Enrolling Clerk of the 
lower honse of the Colorado Legislature for 
three successive winters, and is thoroughly 
conversant with the duties of that important 
office. 

Twelve years of the adventurous life of our 
subject was spent in Colorado, roughing it 
amid the mountain wilds and snow-clad peaks 
of the old Rockies, engaged in mining and 
mining enterprises, with varied success. 
Leaving a temperature of sixty degrees below 
zero, with the snow from three to four feet 
deep, in the Gunnison country in the winter 
of 1888, in three and a half days' travel he 
was enjoying the Halian skies of Southern 
California, where flowers were in full bloom, 
grass several inches high, and lawns as fresh 
and jireen as in midsummer in the Northern 
States. This sudden transition was truly 
wonderful and can better be imagined than 
described. Here he was engaged for four 
years in the lumber business and the cultiva- 
tion of fruit. He obtained 160 acres of choice 
Government land in Fresno county, one of the 
richest and most productive portions of the 
State. This he designs devoting exclusively 



to fruit. His experiences on the frontier of 
the far West are of the deepest interest, as he 
has had some remarkable escapes and has 
traveled over a large scope of territory. He 
is a prolific writer for various periodicals, and 
his clear, terse style makes his letters from 
the far West very interesting. 

In the fall of 1857 our subject was married 
to Miss Abbie Noonan, a native of Montgom- 
ery county, New York, and a sister of .1. A. 
Noonan, formerly Fostmaster of Milwaukee, 
who was one of the most prominent politi- 
cians in the State, now deceased. Mrs. Stoner 
is a lady well-known in Madison and among 
her neighbors near No. 146 East Gorham 
street, where she now resides. Her home is 
regarded with the greatest afl'ection on account 
of her neighborly kindness and sytnpatliy. 

Mr. Stoner still retains a warm love for his 
old Wisconsin home, around which cluster so 
many cherished memories of early pioneer 
days. He is one of five of the oldest inhabi- 
tants left in Dane county, and is highly es- 
teemed by all his old friends and associates. 

,,^^ANIEL HUMPHREY, of Mazo Manie, 
Dane county. Wisconsin, was born in 
Rrescott, Ontario, Canada, January 7, 
1820, a son of James and Mary (McDougal) 
Humphrey. The mother was born in Glen- 
gary, Ontaiio, of Scotch parentage, and the 
father was a native of Johnstown, New York. 
They were the parents of twelve children, 
ten of whom lived to years of maturity. 

Daniel Humphrey, the subject of this 
sketch, received a good education and was 
reared on his father's farm. At the age of 
eighteen years he began Inmbering in Can- 
ada, rafting his products to Quebec, which 
he continued about tiiree years, and for the 



DANE COUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



291 



follosv'inir three years was engased in tuwing 
lumber from Montreal to Quebec. He was 
next employed in constructing the road from 
Ogdensburg to Boston, next received tlie con- 
tract for grading and ballasting the Prairie 
du Ohien division, in 1858 assisted in grad- 
ing and relaying a railroad track from Ha- 
vana to Matanzas on the Island of Cuba, 
and remained there until the news arrived of 
the bomliardment of Fort Sumter. Mr. 
Humphrey then embarked for his native land, 
on the Quaker City. He came immediately 
to his farm of 260 acres in Wisconsin, which 
he had purchased while grading the i-ailroad 
in this State, and engaged in agricultural 
pursuits from 1861 to 1888. In the latter 
year he sold his farm and erected his resi- 
dence on a part of the old homestead, where 
he lias since livcil in retirement. At one 
time Mr. Humphrey erected a cheese factory 
on his place, and after running it a number 
of years sold out to a stock company. He 
reserved considerable stock and was elected 
president of the concern, which position he 
held about ten years. He is a lover of good 
stock and at one time raised large numbers 
of Ilolstein cattle and blooded horses. 

Our subject was married at Janesville, 
Wisconsin, February 26, 1855, to Sophronia 
Hamilton, a native of Allegany county. New 
York, but who removed to Milton, Wiscon- 
sin, with her parents when a child. Mi', and 
Mrs. Humphrey have one child, Jennie, now 
the wife of W. M. Curtis, a lumber dealer of 
Mount Horeb, Dane connty, Wisconsin. Mr. 
Humphrey gives but little attention to pol- 
itics and has never sought public ofHce. Both 
he and his wife are members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church of Mazo Manie. 



fDWARD SHAKP, a plasterer, living 
at No. 228 Mills street, Madison, Wis- 
consin, came to this city in 1860, and 
began work as a journeyman at his trade, 
being for some years in the employ of James 
Levesey, leaving him in 1853 to go into busi- 
ness for himself. For inany years he had a 
number of men working for him, doing a 
large amount of conti'act work in plastering, 
among other jobs doing jiart of the plastering 
of the State capitol and of tiie insane asylum, 
and foui' of the university buildings. These 
were his largest public contracts, but he has 
done very many private ones in the city of 
Madison. Mr. Sharp retired from active 
business about five years ago. He was born 
in Hastings, Sussex county, England, May 
26, 1818, of pure English stock, his people 
being numerous in Hastings, where his par- 
ents lived and died at an advanced age. 

Edward Sharp, father of our subject, was, 
throughout his life, a sailor on fishing smacks. 
His father, Edward Sharp, Sr., owner of many 
fishing boats, lived and died in Hastings, 
England. The latter's father likewise lived 
and died there. The grandfather of our sub- 
ject, Edward Sharp, Sr., was married to a 
Hastings lady, of good family, whose father 
was a prominent owner of trading vessels, 
plying between London and Hastings. Ed- 
ward Hastings. Jr., father of our subject, was 
married to a girl of Rye, England, whose 
maiden name was Elizabeth Nash, and whose 
forefathers were for years in the Government 
service, being the managers of Government 
cutters that looked after smugglers, etc. She 
died of consumption, when about forty years 
of age, being nearly or quite the last of a 
family that was wiped out by that dread 
disease. 

Our subject was brought up to the trade 
of a plasterer, serving about seven years under 



298 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



a Mr. Thorn, of Hastings. When twenty-two 
years old, having completed his term of serv- 
ice, he went to London, where he worked at 
his trade, six years as a journeyman, three 
years as foreman and four on his own ac- 
count, when he came to the United States, 
taking passage at Liverpool December 10, 
1849, and landing at New Orleans February 
14, 1850. From the city last named he pro- 
ceeded up the Mississippi to St. Louis, where 
he worked at his trade, and in the following 
August took his family to Dane county, Wis- 
consin, locating them on a farm in Sun Prai- 
rie township. Ue then returned to St. Louis 
and continued to work at his trade until tiie 
following spring, when he rejoined his family, 
who had lived in a neighbor's granary for 
some months or until a small house could be 
built on the new farm; but soon after his re- 
turn Mr. Sharp decided to give up farming 
and return to his trade. Our subject has 
been successful ever since, having laid up a 
goodly sum for his last years, the reward of 
skilled work and of faithful attention to busi- 
ness. 

Mr. Sharp, our subject, was married De- 
cember 25, 1833, at Hastings, to Miss Ann E. 
Watkinson, born May 6, 1810, in Linconsliire, 
daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (llallj Wat- 
kinson, natives of Lincolnshire, but who re- 
moved to Hastings when Ann Eliza was a 
child. Mr. and Mrs. Watkinson came with 
their dangiiter and their son-in-law, Mr. 
Sharp, to the United States in 1849, subse- 
quently living with their children until their 
deatli. the wife and mother passing away soon 
after their landing at St. Louis, at tiie age of 
about fei.xty years; but Mr. Watkinson lived 
until 1881, when he died at the home of his 
daugliter, Mrs. Sharp, in Madison, aged 
ninety-four years and five months. Mr. and 



Mrs. Watkinson were members of the Meth- 
odist Epi.^copal Church. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sharp, of this notice, have 
lived together as man and wife for fifty-nine 
years, in love and affection, the peace and 
happiness of their home being a truth worthy 
of record as example for others. They are 
parents of three children, namely: William 
W., who died when past three years of age; 
Lydia, wife of Tliomas Winterbottom, a plas- 
terer, living at Rockford, Illinois; Emma W., 
wife of William Grime, a farmer, living in 
Burke township, Dane county, Wisconsin; 
also an adopted son, John, a plasterer, hus- 
band of Mary (Hray) Sharp, residing at the 
home of tiie sulnect. Edward Sharp was for- 
merly a Republican, but is now a I'rohibi- 
tionist. He has been a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church since 1829, and his 
wife has been of the same connexion from 
early childhood. 

tA N S I N G W. H O Y T, now deceased, 
died at his liome in the city of Madison, 
Wisconsin, September 30, 1892. He 
was one of the pioneers of Madison, was 
born in Onondaga county, JS'ew York, June 
26, 1817. His father. Philander Hoyt, was 
a native of Stamford, Connecticut, or of Dan- 
bury, the same State, and came of old New 
England stock. He grew up a farmer and 
later married Miss Perces Wilcox, who was 
born in Great Parrington, Massachusetts, 
and came of Massachusetts parents. After 
marriage. Philander Hoyt and wife settled 
in Onondaga county, New York, and there 
engaged in farming, but in 1822, Mr. Hoyt 
died , being only thirty-two years of age. 
During life he had been prominent in local 
affairs and had taken great interest in the 



DANE COUNTY, M'ISCONtiTN. 



293 



Presl)yterian (church. The Iloyt family 
were all members of that tleiiomination. 
After his death, Mrs. Hoyt married a second 
time, in Onondaga county. This alliance 
was with Deacon Erastus Baker, and they 
afterward lived in the same county until 
their decease. Mr. Baker lived to be about 
seventy years of age, and his wife, about 
lifty-six. They were prominent members of 
the I'resbyterian Church. 

Our sniiject was but live years of age when 
his father died and he was reared by his 
mother, becoming her support in later years. 
She had been a teacher, was a woman of rare 
gifts and was extraodinarily familiar with the 
poets of her time. After her second mar- 
riage, he set out for himself having received 
his education in the schools of the county 
and at Homer, New York. Later, when of 
age, he went to Bergen in Genesee county, 
New York, and there became a clerk in a 
store, later becoming a partner when the firm 
was known as Hubbard & Hoyt, continuing 
for some years. Prior to this he had been a 
teacher for some time in the public schools. 
He started out a poor boy and all that he 
ever possessed he made for himself. For 
many years he literally followed the scri|)- 
tural injunction of giving one tenth of his 
income to charity and the church. 

Our subject came west to Wisconsin in 
1849, and after some months spent in Mil- 
waukee, in the fall of 1850, he came to Madi- 
son, where he remained until his lamented 
decease. He became interested in difi'erent 
business enterprises, in which he was success- 
ful, and had built for a residence one of the 
most beautiful liomes which adorn the bluff 
overlooking lake Monona, whei-e he spent 
the last twenty-one years of his life. He 
was one of the first members of the Congre- 
gational Church of Madison, and for more 



than forty years was a Deacon in that de- 
nomination. He had held the office of 
Treasurer of Dane county, for years was a 
Republican and later an advocate of temper- 
ance principles. Always self-sacrilicing, he 
thought often of those who lacked the need- 
ful things of lite, and his sympathy was ever 
ready, accompanied with his purse to allevi- 
ate their wants. 

Oni' subject was one of the liardworking 
men of the world and his means came to him 
by a steady application to business and a 
sterling honesty in all of his dealings. The 
first marriage of Mr. Hoyt was in Bergen, 
New York, to Miss Louisa G. Pierson, who 
was born and reared in that State, a daughter 
of Rev. Josias Pierson who was, foi- more 
than sixty years a pastor of a Pi-esbyterian 
Church in the State of New York and who 
died in Bergen when full of years. Mrs. 
Louisa Hoyt died in Bergen in the prime of 
life, after the birth of two daughters, who had 
passed away before her death. Mr. Hoyt 
was married a second time in La Fayette, 
Onondaga county, New York, to Miss Mellie 
Williams. She was born and reared there 
and was educated. She was the intelligent 
and amial)le daughter of Dr. Chauncey and 
Betsey (Cole) Williams, natives of Great Bar- 
rington, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, 
respectively. 

Dr. and Mrs. Williams were married in 
La Fayette, New Yoi'k, and settled there, 
whei-e the Doctor practiced liis profession for 
about fifty years, dying when sixty-seven 
years old to a day. His wife surviveil him 
a little more than a year, dying at the age of 
sixty-three years. 

Mr. Hoyt was associated in business with 
the well-known firm of Fuller & Williams, 
and for some years was a partner of John A. 
Johnson. He was one of those modest, un- 



294 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



assuming men whose deeds of kindness and 
self-sacritice in every relation or life are well 
remembered by those who knew him. Mrs. 
lloyt is the only sur%'iving member of the 
four children born to her parents. Her old- 
est brother, Chauncey L., was for many years 
a partner in the firm of Fuller & Williams, 
of this city; Olive C, died at the age of 
twenty-four years; and Henry C. died at the 
age of sixty-three. 

Mrs. Iloyt has three children: Olive, who 
is the wife of Hon. B. W. Jones (see biogra- 
phy); Frank W., married to Miss Mary C. 
Clark, a daughter of J. T. Clark, of I'ortage, 
Wisconsin; and Howard H., a resident of 
Milwaukee, who married Miss Mary ^lit- 
chell, daughter of Rev. James Y. Mitchell, 
of Pennsylvania. 

jOBERT STEELE, the subject of sketch, 
was born in Ro.xbury, Delaware county, 
New York, November 18, 1832, is the 
son of James and Jane Steele, and the grand- 
son of Robert and Nancy Steele, both natives 
of Armagh county, Ireland, who emigrated 
to America in 1801, on the ship Stafford. 
This vessel was more than nine weeks mak- 
ing her passage from the coast of Ireland to 
Philadelphia, and more than 100 of her pas- 
sengers died of yellow fever. Mr. Steele was 
stricken down with the disease soon after 
landing, and while unconscious was robbed of 
all his money. Robert Steele and Nancy 
Dunshee were married in Kortright, Dela- 
ware county. New York, in October, 1802. 
James Steele, their second son, was born Jan- 
nary -i, 1805, and was married to Miss Jane 
Cowan, a native of Scotland, in Middletown, 
Delaware County, New York, March 4, 1830. 
They settled on a farm in the town of Rox- 



bury, where they resided until they removed 
to Wisconsin in 1848. They bought a farm 
of 320 acres of Government land in the town 
of Dane, Dane county, where they resided 
until the time of their death. Mr. Steele 
died February 4, 1887, aged eighty-two 
years, and Mrs. Steele died May 16, 1889, 
also aged eighty-two years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Steele raised a family of eight 
children, six sons and two daughters. One 
son died in infancy, and William at the age 
of four years. They brought six children to 
Wisconsin with them, five of whom are now 
living: Eliza, the wife of William Rapp; 
Robert, the subject of this sketch; and Sam- 
uel D., the youngest of the family, who re- 
sides on the old homestead of 525 acres. All 
reside in the town of Dane, Wisconsin. 
Nancy M., was married to James Hallett in 
June, 1861. and died in February, 1865; she 
resided in Dane also; Herman N., resides in 
Custer county, South Dakota; and James W., 
resides in Seneca, Kansas. 

Mr. Steele was one of the pioneers of 
Western, Dane county; and Robert, his eld- 
est son, worked diligently with his father in 
improving the farm and making a comfort- 
able home for the family', and at the same 
time improving the meager opportunities 
there were at that time for securing an educa 
tion by going to the district school a few 
months in the winter seasons. In the spring 
of 1856 he commenced improving the farm 
where he now resides, on section 16, town of 
Dane; and on the 18th day of June of that 
year was united in marriage to Miss Rhoda 
A. Bower, a daughter of Rensselaer and 
Christiana Bower, natives of Orange county. 
New York, who was born in Little Britain, 
Orange county. New York, March 23, 1835, 
and died in Dane, Wisconsin, February 2, 
1864. Tliey had four children: John Wes- 



DANE COONTT, WISCONSIN. 



295 



ley, Anna Josephine, Robert Benson and 
William Washington. 

Mr. Steele was married the second time to 
Miss Mary Hanley, Auirust 7, 1866, who was 
born in Limerick county, Ireland, 1843. 
She was brought to America when an infant, 
l)y her parents, James and Catherine llanley. 
By his second marriage they have three cliil- 
dren: Daisy, James Eddy and Samuel llan- 
ley. Six of his children are now living. 
Anna Josephine, the wife of W. H. Bitney, 
died February 5, 1884. 

Mr. Steele entered the military service of 
United States in August, 1862, and was com- 
missioned by Governor Salmon Second Lieu- 
tenant Company 11, Twenty-third liegiment 
Wisconsin Volunteer Lifantry, and in Janu- 
ary, 1862, was promoted First Lieutenant. 
He participated in the battles of Chickasaw 
Bluff, Arkansas Bost, the bombardment of 
Grand Gulf, Fort Gibson, Champion Uills, 
Black river, and the siege of Vicksburo'. 
He saw at a distance of a half mile the meet- 
ing of Generals Grant and Peml)erton, when 
the terms of the surremler of Yicksburg were 
agreed upon. His regiment, the Twenty-tiiird 
Wisconsin, formed a part of the Thirteenth 
Army Corps, and was transferred to the De- 
partment of the Gulf soon after the surren- 
der of Vicksburg, and he took part in about 
all the campaigns in which his regiment was 
engaged up to the time of his resigiuition on 
account of sickness, on July 4, 18()4. His 
health having improved, he assisted in re- 
cruiting Company C, Forty-second Kegiment, 
Wisconsin Volunteers, fie was commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant of that organization 
by Governor James T. Lewis in September, 
18()4. The Forty-second Regiment was as- 
signed to duty at Cairo, Illinois, and re- 
mained tiiere until tlie close of the war. 
Lieutenant Steele had command of his com- 



pany during his service in the Forty-second 
Regiment, his Captain, G. H. Hum])hery, 
being on detached service. At the close of 
the war, in 1865, he came home with ids 
company and returned to the pursuits of civil 
life. 

Mr. Steele has been elected Assessor of his 
town four times. Supervisor once, and Chair- 
man of the Board of Supervisors five times. As 
a member of the County Board he has always 
been placed on important committees, often 
acting as chairman. He was once a defeated 
candidate for County Treasurer, and again 
defeated for member of the Assembly, but al- 
ways received the full sti'ength of his ])arty 
vote. In Politics, Mr. Steele is a Republi- 
can, and is thoroughly posted on all political 
questions of the day, and is always ready to 
give a reason for the faith that is in him. 

Mr. and Mrs. Steele are both members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. He has 
been an active worker in the church over 
forty years, and most of the time a member 
of the official board. 

Mr. Steele resides on the same farm on 
which he settled in 1856. His farm now 
contains 320 acres, well improveif. He has 
a tine residence, erected in 1891 by his son, 
William W. He carries on general farm- 
ing, having his farm well stocked with horses, 
cattle and hogs of improved breeds. Mr. 
Steele loves a country life, and thinks the oc- 
cupation of a farmer the most independent, 
and will bring as much happiness to the home 
as any other calling in life. 

/^LISIIA W. KEYES was born January 
^M^ 23, 1828, in Northfield, Washington 
"C^l county. Vermont. He was the third 
son of Cajitain Joseph Keyes, one of the 



296 



BIOOBAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



earliest pioneers of Wisconsin Territory, who 
came to the Territory in 1836 and made a set- 
tlement; in the spring of 1837 moving his 
family here. On May 2, 1837, the family 
left Northtield to meet the husband and 
father somewhere on the route to the Terri- 
tory, proceeding by wagon to Burlington, 
thence by steamboat to Whitehall, and there 
taking the canal as far as Utica, from which 
place they proceeded by stage to Bingham - 
ton, Xew Vork, meeting Captain Keyes at 
that place, and where the family remained 
a short time. From there they removed to 
Buffalo by wagon, whence the trip was made 
across lake Erie, to Detroit; and from De- 
troit overland to Milwaukee, passing around 
the head of lake Michigan, through Chicago, 
and arriving at Milwaukee on June 17, 1837. 
where the family took up quarters in a frame 
house on the corner of Broadway and Oneida 
streets, which had been constructed previously 
by Captain Keyes. During the summer, the 
subject of this sketch attended school in the 
old courthouse, a select school kept by Eli 
Bates, who became quite prominent in busi- 
ness circles before his death. 

In the latter part of September following, 
the family removed to the township of Lake 
Mills in Jefferson county, where Captain 
Keyes had made a claim the year previous. 
At the time of their arrival there was but 
one other family in the township. A log 
house was soon constructed, which sheltered 
tlie family for a number of years. Captain 
Keyes built the first schoolhouse in the town- 
ship, at his own expense, and hired a teacher, 
who was Miss Ilosey Catlin, afterward the 
wife of La Fayette Kellogg, of Madison. 
Tliis school was tirst opened in 1840, which 
E. W. K. attended. In 1841, a school was 
opened in Aztalan, two miles and half dis- 
tant, taught by Mrs. J. F. Ostrander. which 



was attended by Mr. Keyes. The next win- 
ter the school system of the Territory was 
organized, and school was held in the new 
village of Lake Mills, which Mr. Keyes at- 
tended. The education which Mr. Kejes re- 
ceived was mainly in the common schools, 
although he attended several terms later at 
Beloit Seminary. Previous to 1848 Captain 
Keyes had constructed a sawmill and grist- 
mill at Lake Mills, but in this year he made sale 
of the same, reserving land for a large farm 
adjoining the village plat, now known as the 
Phillips" farm, to which the family removed, 
and where, until the year 1849, the subject 
of this sketch was engaged in breaking up 
the land and in fencin": the same, and in gen- 
eral farm duties. It was his ambition to de- 
vote his life-work to the business of farming, 
but at this time there were no railroads in 
the country, and there was a very poor mar- 
ket for every product of the farm, Mr. 
Keyes, as a boy, having frequently drawn 
wheat to ^Milwaukee, and sold it for fifty 
cents a bnshel; butter and cheese, which were 
products of the farm to quite an extent, were 
not worth over six or seven cents a pound, 
and pork and beef in about the same propor- 
tion, farming was decidedly unprofitable, and 
Captain Keyes, who, for a few years, had left 
the farm fully in the charge of his son, E. 
W. Keyes, and had built a sawmill and grist- 
mill, and started the new village of Cani- 
bridge in Dane county, became discouraged 
at the prospect, and the Cambridge venture 
having proved a failure, he was obliged to sell 
out his farm in Lake Mills, and did so in the 
year 1^49, removing thence to Menasha, 
Wisconsin. It was with great reluctance 
that Mr. Keyes and his mother, who liad 
had charge of the farm almost from its com- 
mencement, consented to its sale, and were 
induced to do so only on account of the poor 



LANE VOUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



297 



prospects of profit on tlie farm. This was 
the turning point in Mr. Keyes' life. Up to 
tliis time lie thoui'ht farming would be his 
life-work. 

In the spi'ing and summer of 1850 he 
again attended Beloit Seminary, where he 
had previously been in the winter of 1847- 
'48, and in December of that year, he came 
to Madison, and on the 6th day of that month, 
he was entered as a student at law in the 
office of Collins & Smith, tlie firm being com- 
posed of A. L. Collins, afterward judge of 
the circuit, and George H. Smith, subse- 
quently attorney general of the State. Be- 
fore this, he had devoted some little time to 
reading law, and on October 17, 1851, he was 
admitted to the bar of Dane county, lie at 
once entered upon the practice in a small way. 
In the spring of 1852, he was appointed 
Special Agent of the Post Office Department 
by Postmaster-General, N.K.Hall, under Fill- 
more's Administration, a position which he 
tilled for several months. His duty was to 
collect money from postmasters by drafts 
drawn in his favor by the Postmaster-Geti- 
eral, and to deposit the money so collected in 
the sub treasury at St. Louis. These collec- 
tions were made principally in Illinois and 
Wisconsin; the travel was almost wholly by 
stage, although the trips to St. Louis were 
made mostly by steamt)oat. After this em- 
ployment was linisheil,and the business closed 
up, Mr. Keyes opened an office, and more 
especially devoted himself to his profession. 
In 1853 he was offered a partnership in tiie 
firm with which he had studied law, and the 
firm l)ecaine known as Collins, Smith & 
Keyes, and continued until its dissolution, by 
the election of the senior partner, Mr. Collins, 
to the bench of the Circuit Court, which 
position he entered upon January 1, 1855, 
leaving the firm from that time on, as Smith 



& Keyes. From that perioil until 18f;2, when 
the firm of Smith & Keyes was dissolved liy 
mutual consent, the firm did a very large 
business, by far the largest in Dane county, 
or in the interior of the State. 

During the years 1859-'60 he was Dis- 
trict Attorney of Dane county, having been 
elected t(.» that office in tlie election of the 
fall of 1858. Up to the time of the organi- 
zation of the Republican party, in which Mr. 
Keyes participated, he had always been a 
Whig in politics. In April, 1801, he was 
appointed by President Lincoln, Postmaster 
at Mailison, and was reappointed by Presi- 
dents Johnson, Grant and Hayes, havintr 
ser\-ed continuously in that office over twenty- 
one years. In 18(55 he was elected the first 
Repulilican Mayor of Madison, and was re- 
elected without opposition, in 1806. In 
1877 he was appointed a Regent of the uni- 
versity, which position he held for twelve 
years. He was elected to, and served in the 
Assembly of the State in 1883, and was again 
re-elected Mayor of Madison in 1886. 

Mr. Keyes had been active in politics, 
strongly supporting the war and the suppres- 
sion of the Rebellion, had been a member of 
the Republican State Central Committee sev- 
eral years, when in 1868, he was ajipointed 
by the convention, chairman of the com- 
mittee, serving as such chairman ten years. 
In 1872 Mr. Keyes was a delegate to the 
Republican National Convention, wliich met 
in Philadelphia, and was chairman of the 
Wisconsin delegation. He was afterwar<l 
delegate to the liepublican Convention, which 
met in Cincinnati, 1876, and was again cliair- 
man of the Wisconsin delegation. lie was 
also a delegate to the Republican Convention, 
which met in Chicago in 1884, and at that 
time was also chairman of the Wisconsin 
delegation. At these last two conventions. 



298 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



lie was a strong supporter of tlie nomination 
of Mr. Klaine for tlie pre^iidency. 

In 1879 there was a memorable senatorial 
contest in Wisconsin. The candidates were 
T. ('. Howe, the incumbent, Matt. H. Car- 
penter, who had been defeated for tiie jtlace 
in 1875 by Angus Cameron, and Mr. Keyes. 
Mr. Keyes was very strongly supported by 
tlie members and the Republicans of the 
State. For over 100 ballots of this triangular 
contest he was in the lead, receiving as high 
as thirty-three votes in caucus. Finally he 
withdrew from the contest, and his friend. 
Matt. 11. Carpenter, was nominated by accla- 
mation, and duly elected by the Legislature. 

In 1881 he was again a candidate, and his 
opponent was the Hon. Philetus Sawyer. It 
was thought when the campaign tirst opened 
that Mr. Keyes would be .elected without 
much serious opposition; the party organiza- 
tion was strong for him. and he was sup- 
ported by a large majority of the Republican 
press of the State, but the corporate powers 
within the State, backed by a lavish expendi- 
ture of money, encompassed his defeat; in 
this last contest he received thirty-three 
legislative votes. In 1871 Mr. Keyes was 
appointed Attorney by the Secretary of War 
to represent the United States in the arbitra- 
tion between the Government and the Green 
Bay & Mississippi Canal Company. The 
arbitration consisted of Hon. Paul Dilling- 
ham, of Vermont; e.\-Governor William 
Larrabee, of Iowa; and ex-United States Sena- 
tor, James R. Doolittle, of Wisconsin; the 
latter having been selected by the canal com- 
pany, Mr. Larrabee by the Government, and 
Mr. Doulittle having been selected l)y the 
other two arbitrators. This was a very im- 
portant matter to the Government and to the 
people of the State. It consumed a good 
part of the summer of 1871. the Board of 



Arbitration going over the whole route from 
Green Bay up the Fox to the Wisconsin, and 
down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi, after- 
ward holding session in the Federal court- 
house in Madison, where testimony was taken 
in the case, and the award of the arbitrators 
finally made. The claim was made by the 
attorneys for the canal company, that the 
water route and its improvements were worth 
all they cost, and that for the work, the Gov- 
ernment should pay that much, amounting to 
about §2,000,000. Mr. Keyes made the 
startling claim that the improvement was not 
worth anything, and that therefore the award 
should be for the smallest sum possible, and 
it was made for so small an amount that for 
a time the company refused to accept it; 
Congress finally appropriating about §1-15,- 
000 and succeeding to the interests of the 
Canal Company in this line of water com- 
munication. The people of the State were 
very anxious that the Government should 
come into possession of the works, and they 
knew that a transfer would not be made un- 
less the award was found to be a reasonable 
one, therefore the reason why great effort was 
put forth to bring the award down so low that 
it would not be objectionable to Congress. 
Great credit was given to Mr. Keyes for his 
management of the case from beginning to 
end. 

After Mr. Keyes" defeat for Senator, in 
1881, he retired from active politics, in the 
main devoting himself to the practice of law 
and real-estate transactions. In February, 
1889, he was appointed by Governor Hoard, 
Municipal Judge of Dane county, to till a 
vacancy, and was elected to that position by 
the people of the county in April of that 
year, serving out the unexpired time of Judge 
A. B. Braley, which terminated January 1, 
1893. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



aii'J 



Mr. Keyes was first married iti the city of 
New York, in May, 1854, to Miss Caroline 
Stevens, who died in 18(35, leaving him three 
children, two sons, Joseph S. and Elisha W., 
and a daughter, Catharine. In 1867 he was 
married to Mrs. Louise Sholes, by whom he 
had one son, Louis R. This union was dis- 
solved by the courts, and in 1888 he was 
inarriedto Mrs. Eliza M. Reeves, witli whom 
he now lives. 



fRANK E. FARIvINSOX, uf the city 
of Madison, was born in the town of 
Fayette, La Fayette county, Wisconsin 
Territory, October 16, 1842, and is a son of 
Nathaniel Taylor and Maria Louise (Briijgs) 
Parkinson, natives of Tennessee and New 
York. 

N. T. Parkinson, a mere lad, with his 
father, settled in Wisconsin Territory in 
1827, at Mineral Point; was a soldier 
in tile Black Hawk war, fought in the 
battle of the I'ad Axe; was the first 
Sheritf of Dane county, in 1S3'.I, appointed 
by Governor Dodge, and built the first Dane 
county jail. He was named '• Taylor," at 
the request of General Zacbai-y Taylor, who 
was a near neighbor of his father in Tennes- 
see, and made him a handsome bequest in 
consideration of so naming tlio child. Our 
subject now has b(_)oks in his law library 
l)OUght with money derived from this Taylor 
bequest. 

Mr. F. E. Parkinson was educated at the 
Wisconsin State University, and received the 
degree of Ph. P.. Studied law in Shulls- 
bure, Wisconsin, in the law office of the 
Hon. John K. Williams; was admitted to 
the bar in Wisconsin and Kansas in tlie year 
1872; began practice in the city of Stoughton 



in 1873, and in 1875 formed a copartnership 
with the Hon Alden S. Sanborn, of the city 
of Madison; was Clerk of Stoughton two 
years, and City Attorney of Madison one 
year; was twice a candidate, in 1880 and 
1886, for Judge of the Dane county Munici- 
pal Court; is a Republican and a protection- 
ist, and for twelve years has been secretary 
and attorney of the Northwestern Mutual 
Relief Association, a most successful life 
insuratice company, of Madison, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Parkinson is of the seventh genera- 
tion of English ancestors settled in South 
Carolina; is a grandson of Colonel D. M. 
Parkinson, who was a soldier in the war of 
1812, and fought in the battle of New Or- 
leans; was aid-de-canip to General ])odge in 
the Black Hawk war; was a member of the 
first three Territorial Legislatures, 1836-1840, 
first constitutional convention, and first 
State Legislature in 1849, and introduced 
the first free, or common-school bill. 

Mr. Parkinsim's iri'andfatlier, H. L. Brin-o-s, 
was a son of a Revolutionary officer, a soldier 
in the war of 1812; was superintendent of 
western mail service, and lived during the 
reign of four British monarchs and twenty- 
two American presidents. 

Mr. Parkinson was married December 23, 
1869, to Miss Nellie I'elden, and they have 
twin daughters, ]\[aude and Eve, now eio;ht- 
een years old, an<l members of the senior 
class in the Madison High School, in tiie 
ancient classical course. 

Mrs. F. E. Parkinson is a daughter of 
Merriwether Lewis and Judith (Marshall) 
Belden; was born December 10, 1843, in 
East AYhately, Franklin county, Massachu- 
setts; came in 1849, with her parents to Illi- 
nois, and to Wisciinsin in 1851, and is a 
descendant of Captain Samuel Marshall, a 
soldier of the Revolution. 



300 



BIOGHAPIIWAL REVIEW OF 



Mrs. Parkinson's ancestors came from 
England with tlie Connecticnt colony in 
1(530, and in 1B40 settled in East Whately, 
and took hind under the royal British grant, 
which is still in the family, having descended 
from father to son chrough six generations. 
The Belden homestead, built in 1765, before 
the Revolution, is still a grand old man- 
sion. 

Mrs. Parkinson is ninth in descent from 
Thomas P'ord, who was born at Salcombe 
Regis, Devonshire, England, in 1580, and 
came to America in the ship Mary and John, 
Captain Squebb; sailed froni Plymouth in 
March, and landed in Boston, May 30, 1630. 
It is written of Thomas Ford that he was 
" a man of property. Deputy to the General 
Court, and a grand juror." 

Mrs. Parkinson is also eighth in descent 
from Captain Ro^er (Jlap, who also came to 
America in the ship ]\rary and .John. He 
was twenty-one years captain of Castle 
William, in Boston harbor. lie has slept 
two centurie.-, in the old King's Chapel bury- 
ing ground, one of the oldest in America, 
and his name, in (juaint old lettering, can still 
be read on the time-eaten tombstone, and 
ahso on the bronze tablet at the Tremoiit 
street gateway. 

Among Mrs. J'arkinson's relatives may be 
found Anna Belden, who imported the seed, 
raised the first broom corn, and made the 
first corn broom in America; John Fitch, 
inventor of the steamboat; the proprietors 
of the Belden and Leonard silk mills; Merri- 
wether Lewis, the great western explorer; 
Dixon II. Lewis, once a United States Sena- 
tor from Alabama; William Cullen Bryant, 
the poet; the Professors Whitney, of Yale, 
Harvard and Beloit; also Professor Elwell, 
of Amherst; and her father served in the 



Florida and Indian wars under General 
Taylor. 



NDREW C. GARTON, a prominent 
I i/K^K resident of Rutland, Wisconsin, was 
born in JMorwich, Chenango county. 
New York, June 25, 1833. His father, 
{ Jolin Garton, was born in Yorkshire, Enji- 
I land, and his grandparents were natives of 
: England, who spent their entire lives there. 
Four of their children came to America: 
William, Mary, Martha and John. The 
father of our subject was reared on the farm 
in his native shire until his marriage, when 
he came to America, accompanied by his 
bride, and joined his brother William at 
Vernon, in Oneida county. New York. The 
latter conducted a flour mill there, and he 
entered his employment and learned the trade 
of miller, rented from him three years, then 
rented a flour mill for a time, later bought a 
mill four miles from Norwich, which he op- 
erated a few years, and then, on account of 
ill health, sold and bought a farm near Versa- 
lia, where he resided until 1843, when he 
emiiirated to Wisconsin. He traded his 
farm for a tract of land on the line of Rock 
and Walworth counties, and there he built, 
improved the land and resided there a few 
years, then sold and came to Dane county, 
settling on the farm where our subject now 
resides, and where his death occurred, Febru- 
ary 25, 1883, at the age of ninety-two years. 
The maiden name of the mother of our sub- 
ject was Rachel Hostler, born in Yorkshire, 
died April 2, 1888. Both parents were ten- 
derly cared for during the last days of their 
lives in the family of our subject. They 
reared six chihlren. The married luxmes of 
the daughters are: Rachel J. Spurr, Mary 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



301 



A. Welcli, Martlia Duiiljar, Elizabeth Hall 
and Doi'oth-y Foster. 

Our subject was the third child and only 
son, and was only ten years of age when he 
came to the Territory of Wisconsin with his 
parents. The removal was made by the Erie 
canal and lakes to Milwaukee, thence overland 
to Walworth county. At that time the Ter- 
ritory had but few inhabitants. Much of 
the land was owned by the Government, and 
was for sale at $1.25 per acre. He resided 
witli his parents until his marriage, and then 
located in Jetferson county, where he rented 
land for a ^evi years, then came to Dane 
county, and in 1877 settled on the homestead, 
which he now owns and occupies. His farm 
has 120 acres. He has erected good frame 
buildings and made other improvements. 

Our subject was married, January 28, 
1851, to C'atherine Green, born in New York, 
October 11, 1883. Her father, Calelj Green, 
was a native of New York, a son of Jehiel 
and Esther Green. The former moved to 
Medina county, Ohio, from New York, and 
spent his last years in La Fayette townsliip, 
that county. He had been a soldier in the 
Kevolutionary war. He was a chairmaker by 
trade, and when he removed to Medina 
county he was one of the pioneers of La Fay- 
ette township. At that time that section of 
country was a wilderness, and deer, bear and 
other kinds of game plentiful. He traded his 
team for seventeen acres of land, which he 
occupied for a time, then bought a larger 
tract, upon which he resided until 1849, then 
came Wisconsin, via railroad and lake to Mil- 
waukee, and team to Waukesha county. He 
stopped here a short time, then removed to 
Henry county, Illinois. He hail received a war- 
rant of hind for services in the war of 1812, and 
with that he secured 100 acres of land in 
that county. Here he built a log house, lived 

21 



for two years, then moved to Jefferson 
county, Wisconsin, l)ought a tract of heavily 
timbered land, cleared a farm and resided 
there until his death, July 29, 1855. The 
maiden name of the mother of Mrs. Gart<in 
was Catherine Clausen. She was born in 
New Jersey, of Holland ancestry, and died 
in 1882. Mr. and Mrs. Garton had a family 
of seven children, namely: Jennje, Oscar, 
Elmer and Edwin are still living. Henry H. 
died at the age of twenty-six years; David 
F., died at the age of four years and three 
months; Charlies died in infancy. Jennie 
married George Ingles, and lives in Mai'sh- 
field, Wisconsin, has two cliildren, Clayton 
and Hazel. Oscar married Ella Smith and 
resides eight miles from Eau Claire, Wiscon- 
sin, and has seven children, namely: William, 
George, lUirt, Charlie, lioy, David, and an 
infant. Elmer married Nellie Willard, and 
lives in Rutland, and has three children, 
namely: Jennie, Sylvia and Berl; Edwin 
resides at home. 

Our subject enlisted in February, 1865, in 
Company II, Forty-seventh AVisconsin Regi- 
ment, and served until Septeml)er 4, 18(55, 
when he was honorably discharged and re- 
turned home. Mr. Garton is a Republican 
in his politics. 

tNDREW S. PARSONS.— The name of 
Parsons is very familiar in Dane county, 
,,, where membei's of that family have re- 
sided since 18p0. Our subject was born at 
Moravia, Cayuga county. New York, October 
12, 1833, the son of Anson G. and Nancy 
(Thompson) Parsons. His paternal ances- 
tors, Moses and Chloe Parsons had a family 
of twelve children, six sons and four daugh- 
ters of whom grew to maturity (the other 



302 



BIOORAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



two died in infancy), as follows: Daniel, 
known as " Major.'' a fanner and drover, 
died at Forestville, New York; Anson G., 
father of subject, died at Oregon, Wisconsin; 
Aaron, a shoemaker, died at Moravia, New 
York; Warren, died while Warden of the 
Anbnrn, New Y'ork, State prison; Reuben, 
died when a young man; John, a Baptist 
clergyman, died on the Mississippi river, 
while on his way to his home at Minneapolis; 
Sally (means Sarah), wife of Solomon Davis, 
died at Garretsville, New York; Susan, wife 
of Griffin Briggs, died at Garrettsville, New 
York; Eunice, wife of Charles Albert 
Wheeler, died at Garrettsville, New Y'ork; 
Harriet, wife of Nathaniel ^Iswort,. died at 
Garrettsville, New York. 

Tile father of our subject, Anson G. Bar- 
sons, was born in Springfield township, Otsego 
county, New York, September 8, 1789, where 
he grew up to manhood; afterward removed to 
Moravia, New York, and followed the trade 
of carpenter. In his thirty-fourth year, Jan- 
uary 8, 1823, he married, as stated above, 
Nancy Thompson, who was born July 30, 
1802, in New Uampshire; afterward lived in 
Maine until seven years old, and then moved 
to Madison county. New York. Slie was a 
daughter of John and llannah (ilealy) 
Thompson, the father dying August 31, 1818, 
in his fifty-first year, the mother at the age 
of ninety-four years. Mr. and Mrs. Thomp- 
son had three sons and seven daugiiters, 
namely: Abigail, born January 29, 1794, wife 
of Aaron Barsons, diedat Moravia, New York; 
John, born October 11, 1796, a farmer, died 
in Chautauqua county. New York; Betsy, 
born November 20, 1798, wife of John Kelly, 
died at Lancaster, Wisconsin; Washington, 
'.)orn January 20, 1X00, a farmer, died in 
Chautauqua county, New York; Nancy, 
mother of our subject, died at Oregon, Wis- 



consin; Seth, born July 30, 1802. twin 
brother of Nancy, a farmer, died at Ann Ar- 
bor, Michigan; Lydia, born October 13, 1805, 
thrice married, — Asa Foster, James Eddy, 
and Ira Knight; she was accidentally killed 
by the cars at her home, November 28, 1892, 
at Gaines, Genesee county. Michigan; Jane, 
born September 13, 1807, wife of Daniel 
Bush, died at White Water, Wisconsin; Clar- 
issa, born January 12, 1810, widow of James 
Bratt, lives at Fenton, Genesee county, Mich- 
igan; Naomi, born June 1, 1813, wife of 
John Felt, died in young womanhood leaving 
two children. 

After their marriage the parents of our 
subject resided at Moravia, where all their 
children were born, the father pui-suing his 
trade of carpenter until a favorable ojiening 
made him owner of a gristmill at Ledyard. 
New York. Alter operating it for two years 
lie had a mill <at Dresserviile, New York, two 
years and another at Milan. New York, two 
years, going West from the latter place in 
1850, making the journey by way of the 
lakes to Milwaukee and thence by team to 
Oregon, Dane county, Wisconsin. Here he 
purchased a small piece of land on section 12, 
Oregon township, upon which stood a small 
log cabin, now in the village of Oregon. 
Here he followed his trade and farmed his 
land nntil advanced age compelled him to de- 
sist, lie yielded reluctantly, as he was a 
most industrious man and had been very 
healthy ;ill liis life. Finally he passed 
quietly away, February 15, 1881, at the ad- 
vanced age of nearly ninety-two years. His 
wife survived him but a single month, she 
dying March 15, 1881. She was a most zeal- 
(lus Christian and temperance woman and 
was bitterly opposed to slavery years before 
the abolition party came into existence. A 
kindhearted neighbor, she ministered to the 



DANE VOUNTT, WI8CCNS1N. 



■SO-; 



sick with skillful hands, and her friends were 
never weary of tellino; of her goodness and 
kindness. First ('oiigregational and then 
Presbyterian in faith, she and her husband, 
who was an Elder, were consistent members 
of tliat body throughout their lives. The 
husband in the early part of his career was 
a Jackson Democrat, but later became an 
abolitionist, and when tlie liepublican party 
was formed in 1854 promptly joined its 
ranks. 

Our subject had four sisters ami a brotiier, 
as follows: Eliza Ann, born February 8, 
1824, wife of Nelson Winston, living at 
Evansville, Wisconsin ; Jane T., born March 
3, 1826, wife of Ambrose Spencer, died at 
Sparta, Wisconsin, May 13, 1858; Harriet, 
born September 23, 1837, wife of Daniel 
Briggs, living at Ironton, Sauk county Wis- 
consin; Josephine, born November 14, 1829, 
wife of Tristram Story, lives at Evansville, 
Wisconsin; Henry, born April 23, 1843, and 
died June 27, 1847. 

The education of our subject was obtained 
in the public schools of New York State and 
AVisconsin, and then he worked with his fa- 
ther at the carpenters' trade until 1856, 
when he went into the mercantile bnsines in 
Monroe county, Wisconsin, for a time and 
then returned to Oregon, to resume his trade. 
Appointed Deputy Sheriff of Dane county in 
1861 he held that oftice until 1864, when lie 
enlisted as a recruit in Company F, Thii'ty- 
tliird Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. 

Tins regiment made a gooil record in the 
Red river expedition, our subject partici- 
pating with it, guarding the Union retreat. 
In the three days' engagement at Tupelo, 
Mississippi, the Thirty-third fought bravely; 
really, at this time and after in tlie forests of 
Arkansas and Missouri and its swamps, pnr- 
suing Price, seeing its hardest work on a ra- 



tion of one cracker a day for each man and 
many of them barefooted, too. After guard- 
ing; 1,000 rebel soldiers from Warreiisl)urg, 
Missouri, to St. Louis, the regiment went ti> 
Nashville and participated in the battle 
which destroyed Hood's army. The siege 
and capture of the forts at Mobile added fresh 
laurels to the fame of this irallant regiment. 
Then they made a march of 150 miles to 
Montgomery, Alabama, traversing a pine 
•wilderness seventy-five miles in length with- 
out seeing a liouse. When the Thirty-third 
was discharged Mr. Parsons was transferred 
to tiie Eleventh Wisconsin Regiment, return- 
ing to ^[obile, Aialiama, and remained in the 
service live weeks longer. 

Iveturning home our subject worked at his 
trade for some time, was again Deputy Sher- 
iff and also Constable and later engaged in 
farming at Oregon, upon a very superior 
tract of 100 acres, which he sold in 1888. 
He now has a farm of 120 acres on Sauk 
prairie, Sauk county, Wisconsin, and four- 
teen acres located upon a mound in the vil- 
lage of Oregon, upon which he resides. 

Mr. Parsons was married August 31, 1857. 
to Louisa W.. daughter of Stodderd S. and 
Patty (Wait) Johnson, pioneers of 1844. 
She was born in Walton, New York, May 3, 
1834, and her father on January 28, 1807. 
The latter early in life was a clothier but 
later became a farmer. He came to Wiscon- 
sin in 1844, and settled on section 1, Oregon 
townsliip, then a part of Madison township, 
where he purchased 160 acres of land, now a 
part of Oregon village and is very valuable. 
At the time Mr. Johnson reached there the 
country was new and sparsely settled and 
Milwaukee was the chief market. Mr. anil 
Mrs. Johnson were married at Solon. New 
York, January 13, 1831, by the Rev. J. Leon- 
ai'd and had six children, namely: Louisa 



3U4 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



W., horn May 3, 1834, wife of .subject of 
sketch; Gill.ert C, born April 16, 1830. 
died January 5, 1873; Laura, born March 10, 
1840, died April 1. 1841; Riley W., born 
September 12, 1842, married January 16, 
1867, lives in Iowa; Isaac S., born February 
21, 1847, died April 17, 1848. The eldest 
died in infancy. Mr. Johnson lived upon 
the band which he had improved at Oregon 
until his death, November 20, 1879; his wife, 
who was born July 5, 1806, having pi-eceded 
him, she <lying June 21, 1872. 

Our subject and wife have seven children, 
as follows: Minnie M. L., born October 2!), 
1858, wife of Harvey G. Fox, of Brookings, 
South Dakota, has four children, — Bertha M., 
Hubert H.. Merl E. and Forest W.; Hubert 
A., born October 12, 1860, married to Mary 
Barker, has one daughter. Burl, is living at 
AVhite. South Dakota; Elmer S., born Au- 
gust 25, 1862, married to Etta Doughty, liv- 
ing at Milaca, Minnesota; Charles A., born 
December 1§, 1869, married to Estella Wil- 
cox, and has one daughter; he is Station 
Agent for the Chicago & North-Western 
Railroad at Afton, Wisconsin; Laura J., 
born January 27, 1874; Ira S., born March 
26. 1876; and Rena B., born February 1, 
1878. 

The political views of Mr. Parsons are in 
harmony with those of the Prohibition party, 
but he was a life-long (radical) Republican 
from the organization of the party until 1884. 
He is a stanch temperance worker and ab- 
stainer, and has been an active member of 
the Good Tem|)lars since 1855, being a char- 
ter member of the first lodsje in Oregon and 
has ever since maintained member.-jhip in the 
order, and is now a memi)er of Capital Lodge, 
No. 1, I. O. G. T., at Madison; lias held all 
of the offices of his lodge and was State Dis- 
trict and Lodge Deputy for years. He is also 



an ancient Odd Fellow and a member of 
the G. A. R., and has been a member of the 
Cadets of Temperance, Sons of Temperance, 
and Temple of Honor. For man}' years he 
was an energetic Sunday-school worker. 

HARLES W. NETUERWOOD.— Our 

subject, the Postmaster at Oregon, Dane 
county, Wisconsin, a prominent Repub- 
lican and a highly respected citizen of that 
county, was born at Watervliet, New York, 
January 14, 1848. He is the son of Joseph 
Netherwood, who was born at Iluddersfield, 
England, in February, 1817, where he grew 
up to the trade of a woolen manufacturer, 
becoming proficient in all its i)ranches. There 
he married Emma liarraclough, born in his 
native place and his companion when he 
crossed the ocean in 1842, and settled near 
Albany, New York. Employment was found 
by him in various mills along the Hudson, 
but chiefly at Troy. Ills skill was fre(]uently 
called into play to get new mills into opera- 
tion, there being but lew of tbcin when he 
first arrived. The great West attracted him, 
and taking his family he proceeded by way of 
the lakes to Detroit, thence by rail to Ciii- 
cago and to Footville, Wisconsin, and to Dane 
count}' by team. Here he bought eighty 
acres in the north half of the northwest quar- 
ter of section 34, adding forty acres adjoining, 
later. By industry he improved it into one 
of the finest farms in the county and sold it 
at a good price in 1883, when he removed 
tQ the village of Oregon, at which place he 
still resides. His worthy and beloved help- 
meet died in 1885, aged si.xty-nine yeai-s. 
Coming to the United States a very poor 
man, by haid work he has amassed a compe- 
tency. He was made a citizen at Troy, New 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



305 



York, and at once allied liiniselt" with the 
Whig party, being loyal to it as long as that 
party liad an existence, transferring his alle- 
giance to the Republican party at its birth. 
In no sense a seeker after public otiice, he 
had, none the less, an active interest in its 
success, doing all in his power for its success. 
Just as earnest was he in his Christian life 
and work, being a consistent member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Six children 
came to bless his home, viz.: Edwin, a resi- 
dent of llolyoke, Massachusetts; Eliza, wife 
of J. H. Martin, of Chicago; Emma, a teacher 
in the public school at Oregon; Ada, wife of 
J. H. Richards, of Brooklyn, and two died in 
infancy. 

Our subject attended sucli parish schools 
as the country afforded in his youth, until he 
was ten years old, and then went into a fac- 
tory, subsequently attending one term in a 
parish school; and this is all the education he 
received in the State of New York. After 
coming West he managed to go to school in 
the intervals of farm work. He was moved 
by patriotism and enlisted in Company E, 
Twenty-third Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry; 
went from Camp Randall to Cincinnati, to 
protect that city from the raid of John Mor- 
gan; saw service in Kentucky; joined Sher- 
man at Memphis and was attached to Creueral 
A. J. Smith's division of the Thirteenth Army 
Corps; made a great march on Christmas 
Day, 1862; participated in aa engagement at 
Haines' Bluff" and in the fight at Fort Hin- 
man, when the Federals captured 6,000 pris- 
oners. His regiment wintered at Young's 
Point, where disease made great ravages, 
large numbers dying as the soldiers patroled 
the river, only 250 of the entire regiment 
being able to carry muskets, the remainder 
being sick or wounded. Breaking camp in 
the spring of 1863 the regiment went to 



Vicksburtj, takinir part in that memorable 
campaign, participating in all the battles, in- 
cluding Champions' Hill. In that fight he 
was picked up for dead, after being struck by 
a piece of iron fii-ed from a cannon. The 
commander of the battery informed him after 
the war that he had loaded his guns with bits 
of a locomotive, broken up for the purpose. 
He di<i not go to the hospital for his wound 
and was present at the battle of Black River, 
although not able to tight. Misfortunes do 
not come singly. On May 23 he was twice 
wounded, with gunshots, one in the lower jaw 
and the other in the siioulder; was taken to 
the field hospital, and on .June 4 was sent to 
Memphis, where a portion of the lower jaw 
was amputated, and was sent home on a fur- 
lough in September. A surge(.)n at Memphis 
told him he could never do service again; but 
after reaching home a surgeon from Camp 
Randall ordered him to the front. He was 
not permitted to remain long, the surgeons 
in active work soon procuring his discharge, 
and he was sent home. After the war he at- 
tended a commercial college at Madison; then 
was clerk in a store at Edgertou one year; 
later tried farming unsuccessfully, not having 
the physical strength, so he returned to 
clerking, at Oregon. An attempt at broom- 
making was a failure, his poor health and 
disabled arm preventing; after which he went 
South, and obtained a jjosition as second 
clerk of a steamer, but being unable to per- 
form the duties of that position, on account of 
physical inability, he was compelled to resign 
and return home, when he was commissioned 
Postmaster, a position he has held continu- 
ously from 1869, except about nine months 
in the latter part of the administration of 
Cleveland. 

Our subject was twice married: first to 
Eva iiedford, in 1866, she being the daughter 



306 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



of William and Elna E. Bedford, and was 
born December 25, 1S4G, dying at Oregon, 
Wisconsin, October 28, 1867; was childless. 
His second wife was Mrs. Lucy H. Gilbert, 
daughter of Mordecai and Lucy P. Sayles, the 
ceremony occurring in 1868. Mrs. Lucy H. 
Netherwood was born January 29, 1841; the 
name of her first husband was Thomas Gil- 
bert. To her and Mr. Netherwood have 
been born six children, namely: Harry, born 
October 18. 1870. a bookkeeper in the Madi- 
son Democrat office; Eva, assistant in the 
post office; Lucy, Pearl, Bertha and Perry. 
Mrs. Netherwood has by her tirst marriage 
one child, Ada, the wife of A. V . Marvin, 
cashier of the bank of Middleborough, Ken- 
tuckv. The political faith of our subject is 
strontjly Republican, and he has been promi- 
nent in public affairs upward of twenty-tive 
years; was Town Treasurer four terms; has 
been President of the village, except about 
six months, ever since its organization, and 
Supervisor of the village on the County Board. 
He is connected with the following orders: 
The Blue Lodge and the Royal Arch Masons, 
having been Master of the former for a long 
time; and the G. A. R., he being Past Com- 
mander of O. E. Rice Post. No. 121. Mr. 
Netherwood is president of the Oregon Man- 
ufacturing Compau}-; is also owner of the 
chief business block of Oregon, which he 
built. 

SUNTINGTON TIPPLE, the subject of 
this sketch, was born in the town of 
Fenner, Madison county, New York, 
February 27, 1822, and was the son of Abra- 
ham Tipple, who was born at Schoharie, New 
York, and his father, Martin Tipple, was a 
former resident of Dutchess county, New 



York. lie was of German ancestry as far as 
known. He removed from Dutchess county 
to Schoharie county and frou) there to Oneida 
county, where lie was one of the pioneers, 
and there spent the remainder of his days. 
The maiden name of the grandmother of our 
subject was Margaret Osterliaut and she was 
of Holland ancestry. She reared seven chil- 
dren: George, Cornelius, Peter, Abraham, 
John, David and Jacob. 

The father of our subject was thirteen 
years old when his parents removed to Oneida 
county, and there he was reared. After 
reaching manhood he purchased forty acres 
of timber land in the town of Verona, Oneida 
county. He was industrious and possessed 
good judgment, hence was a successful busi- 
ness man. In connection with his farming 
he operated a stone quarry and conducted a 
store and meat market. He later purchased 
five other tracts of forty acres, making in all 
six farms extending along one street. He 
resided in Verona some years and then re- 
moved to what is now Verona Center, Oneida 
county. New York, where lie purchased a 
hotel, with quite a tract of land, which he 
platted and started a village. Here he re- 
sided until his death, in 1861. 

The maiden name of the mother of our 
subject was Almira Lounsbury, who was 
born in Fenn'M- and died in Verona, before 
her husband. These parents reared six chil- 
dren: Elias. deceased; Huntington; Andrew, 
deceased; Julia A., deceased; and Elizabeth, 
the youngest. 

Our subject was reared and educated in 
his native State and things were in a very 
primitive condition then. Simple ways pre- 
vailed, and although times were not as when 
his grandfather came to the State and found 
more Indians than whites, with no railroads 
and no means of travel except by the slow 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



•307 



canal routes, still, removed from the great 
centers, life went on very quietly and with 
little cliange. He reuieiubers when wheat 
was a luxury, corn and rye bread forming 
the staples of living, and nothincr in the way 
of groceries were bought for constant use. 
A few of what we now consider necessities 
were kept for severe illness or honored guests, 
but among the early life in most pioneer 
counties the sassafras bush furnished the tea 
and the maple the sugar on most tables. 

Our subject made the best of his oppor- 
tunities for obtaining an education, but he 
was reared to habits of thrift and at an early 
age began to assist on the farm and to make 
himself useful. Until 1843 he remained in 
Oneida county, then removed to Cliautauqua 
county, and in 1845 came to the Territory of 
Wisconsin. In company with Norman Sim- 
mons he started with one horse and wagon, 
intending to drive all the way, Init at Ashta- 
bula, Ohio, he drove into a shed to feed the 
horse and there the latter became fractious, 
broke the wagon, and, in consequence, they 
changed their plans. The second day tiiey 
were fortunate enough to secure a ride to 
Grand river, and there embarked on a steamer 
to Milwaukee, where our subject secured a 
ride with a farmer as far as Rock Prairie, 
where he visited a brother-in-law near by. 
In October he started out on foot to seek a 
home which would suit his ambitious ideas, 
puree and fancy, and came directly to Dane 
county. 

At that time Madison was but a hamlet, 
with only two small stores. The country was 
but sparsely settled and the land had not yet 
been purchased by the Government, and deer 
and other wild game was plentiful, roaming 
at will. He selected a tract of Government 
land in section 7, in what is now the town of 
Rutland, and on foot went to Milwaukee and 



purchased the land, paying $1.2-3 per acre. 
Being single and with limited means he 
worked for others a portion of the time to 
enable him to get his living, and the remain- 
der of the time he labored on his land. This 
did not continue, for in 1848 he erected a 
log cabin, married and Ijegan housekeeping 
in that hnmble abode. However, this state 
did not long continue either, for soon the 
land was cleared, a frame house took the place 
of the old one, and two barns were built. 
Here the family lived until 1864 and then he 
traded his farm for a home and twelve acres 
of land in the villajje of Orecjon. At this 
place he I'esided but a few months and then 
pui'chased a farm at Lake Harriet, in the 
town of Oregon. He has since bought, oc- 
cupied and sold several farms, being success- 
ful as a farmer and dealer in real estate. Our 
subject was active in all of his business in- 
terests until recently, when he settled down 
to the enjoyment of quiet comfort in the vil- 
lage of Oregon. 

In 1848 our subject married Hannah B. 
Kurtz, who was born in Northampton county, 
Pennsylvania, a daughter of Joseph Kurtz. 
Mr. and Mrs. Tipple have seven children, as 
follows: KomanusC, Horatio, Helen, Aman- 
da, Hattie H., PMna and Marian. Mrs. Tip- 
ple is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 
He has been a Repul)lican since the forma- 
tion of the party and attended the second 
constitutional convention, which convened in 
1848, at which he, with another gentleman, 
had charire of the mail distributed to the 
distincruished members at that time. 



tEWIS L. AUAMS, one of the brave old 
pioneers of this part of the State of 
Wisconsin and now a resident of Fitch- 
burg, was born in Charles township, Chester 



308 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



county, Peniisylvaiiiu. July 27, 1823. His 
father, Jolin Adams, as far as known, was 
born in the same place, but the grandfather 
was a Virginian, who had removed to the 
State of Pennsylvania and bought a tract of 
land in Chester county at an early day, and 
spent his last days there. 

The father of our subject learned the trade 
of stonemason and followed that trade in the 
Keystone State until 1825, when he removed 
to Ontario county, New York, bought a tract 
of improved land there and engaged in farm- 
ing until his death. The maiden name of his 
mother was Eliza L. iJavis and she was born 
in Chester county and her father, the grand- 
father of our subject, was named Llewellyn 
Davis, a farmer and a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war and died in Chester county. The 
mother of our subject survived her husband 
some years and died at the home of a son in 
Livingston county, New York, and had been 
the mother of eight children, as follows: 
James D., John S., Lewis L., Mordecai, 
Jesse F., Ezekiel IL, Eliza, Letitia and 
Mary W. 

Our subject was two years of age when his 
parents removed to Ontario county. New 
York, and he attended the district school and 
assisted on the farm, residing with his mother 
until 1846. In the spring of that year he 
started oi.t for himself, beginning work on a 
farm and receiving $13 per month, the highest 
price paid in those days. In 1847 be came 
to the Territory of Wisconsin by way of rail- 
road to JiufFalo and by steamer, the Baltic, to 
Milwaukee and then by stage to Madison. 
At that time Madison was a small place and 
the surrounding country was very little 
settled, the most of the land belonging to the 
Government. The following year he built a 
log house and when married there commenced 
housekeeping. There were no railroads and 



Milwaukee was 100 miles away and this was 
the principal market. He paid S150 for his 
land on which he now lives, and 650 for a 
pair of oxen and then had §30 left. Agricul- 
tural implements were needed, but that want 
did not interfere with the labors of our sub- 
ject. He went to work and made himself a 
harrow with wooden teeth and it did the 
work required. Truly he left no stone 
unturned to earn and to add to his store. 
His labor was given by the day or month as 
he seemed to be able to make the most and 
all the time he kept improving his land, 
splitting the rails and fencing forty acres of 
the land the first winter. Now he has 240 
acres and it is one of the nicest places in the 
country, with its neat buildings and good 
orchard and ornamental trees, all planted by 
the industry of its owner. In politics he is 
a Republican casting his first vote for Henry 
Clay. He has been Town Supervisor three 
terms. 

Our subject was married June 29, 1848, to 
Miss Mary Salisbury, who was born inCanan- 
daigua, Ontario county. New York, August 
18, 1880, a daughter of Russel and Susan 
(Uunnel) Salisbury. She died April 12, 1885. 
Mr. Adams has had a family of nine children : 
Mary L., Lewis L., Russel D., Elon A*., Win- 
nifred, Cora E., E. May, Arthur A. and 
Charlie F. Arthur died at the age of twelve 
years. 

Our subject now lives in the greatest com- 
fort after his busy life. He is one of the 
best representative pioneers of this section 
and possesses, as he deserves, the esteem of 
the community in which he has had his home 
for 80 many years. 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



309 



Igc^DWAKD C. SPRECHER, a member 
%. uf the County iJoard of Supervisors 
represeiitiiii^ the town of Burke, was 
born in the Grand Duchy of Baden, Ger- 
many, November 3, 1840. His father, John 

F. Spreeher, was born in same locality, son of 
Reinhard and Fredericka Spreeher. The grand- 
parents of our subject were natives of the same 

Duchy and spent their entire lives there. The 
fathei' learned the trades of brewer and cooper 
and followed those trades in Baden until 
1845, when lie came to America, accompanied 
by his wife and six children. They sailed 
from Havre in the summer on the sailinsr 
vessel, Utica, and landed in New York after a 
voyage of sixty-four days. The father bought a 
small farm in Eden, Erie county, New York, 
where he resided until 1852, when he made 
his way to AVisconsin and purchased a tract 
of partly improved land, in the town of Sun 
Prairie, and there engaged in farming until 
his death, Februai-y 16, 1859. The maiden 
name of the mother of our subject was 
Christiana Deichler, and she passed her last 
days in Sun Prairie. She bore^ her husband 
six children, namely: Fredericka, John, 
Christiana, Edward C., Charles and Will- 
iam. Charles served in the late war in 
Company A, Twenty-third liegiment of 
Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. He was 
killed at the l)attle of Sabine Cross Roads, 
Louisiana, aged twenty-two years. 

Our subject was five years of age when 
he came to the United States with his parents, 
so knows but little of any other country than 
his adopted one. He attended the public 
scliools in Eden, New York, and later in Sun 
Prairie. As soon as old enough Edward 
Spreeher began to assist his father on the 
farm, remained at home until 1861, when he 
enlisted in September of that year in Company 

G, Eleventh Wiscorisin Vcdunteer Infantry, 



remaining in this regiment for three years; 
was most of the time on detached duty as 
wagon master, remaining in this position until 
the fall of 1864, when he was honorably dis- 
charged on account of the expiration of Ins 
term. lie i-eturned home and resumed farm- 
ing and the following year purchased the 
land, where he now resides, on section 23 of 
ISurke township. On this land he has erected 
a nice set of farm buildino;s and has enriched 
the land until he how lias a farm of 174 
acres of good land. 

In 1866 he married Elizabeth Fessler, 
born in Baden, Germany, Ootol)er, 1842. 
Her father, George Jacob Fessler, was born 
in Baden, there reared, married and remained 
until 1853, when the same year he came to 
America, landing in New York city after a 
voyage of thirty-nine days. From New York 
city they came direct to Sun Prairie, where 
Mr. Fessler purchased land and he" and his 
remained the rest of their lives. The maiden 
name of the mother of onr subject was 
Barbara Spreeher. Mr. and Mrs. Spreeher 
have six children, namely: Matilda, Edward 
G., Carl, Otto, Frank and Jessie. The family 
attend the Baptist Church and Mr. Spreeher 
is independent in politics, but votes the 
Republican ticket in National and State elec- 
tions. He is treasurer of the C^ottage Grove 
Fire Insurance Company and a member of 
the Hamilton Post, G. A. R., No. 208. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. Specker are highly respected 
throughout their entire community for their 
many charming traits of character and are 
worthy of the good fortune they now enjoy. 



jLE H. FARNESS, a farmer of section 
23, Dane county, was born at Farness, 
Norway, November 28, 1826, a son of 
Herman Farness. The latter was a farmer 



310 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



of Norway, and came to Wisconsin at the 
age of seventy-five years. Our subject came 
to America before bis majority, immediately 
after his marriage, on the Lofoton, a Norwe- 
gian bark. May 22, 1847, and landed in New 
York city after a voyage of nine weeks and 
two days. They immediately took steamer 
up the Hudson river to Albany, by Erie canal 
to Buffalo, by steamer to Milwaukee, and then 
came by ox' teams to Dane county. There 
were then no roads, and the cattle had no 
feed but the pasturage of the prairie. Mr. 
Farness came to America in company with 
about l-tO emigrants, and their passage 
price to New York was §22, at which place 
they made a contract to ^lihvaukee for S14 a 
person, and having their own provision, they 
reached this county at an expense of about 
$50. These gentlemen were all stalwart 
young men, and were ready to meet any 
emergency and face any danger, as they 
demonstrated on two occasions. The first 
was in Albany, wiien the vesselraen were 
throwing their chests and trunks and in- 
juring them. They asked them to be care- 
ful, but they heeded not, and these young 
giants seized the men and threw them where 
the}' had thrown the trunks. Again, in 
Buffalo they were going to transfer them 
from the caiial-l>oat to a stern-wheel steamer, 
and their contract in New York city called 
for a side-wheel steamer. They could not 
converse with the men, but as they under- 
took to hoist their goods to this boat, they 
took off the hooks. The men, seeing that 
they were determined, sent for an inter- 
preter, and their goods were put on board 
the good side- wheel steamer. 

After arriving in Wisconsin, Mr. Farness 
purchased 110 acres of Government land in 
this neighborhood, for which he paid 8110. 
The farm ciuitained a small, rough log house. 



covered with shakes, but he soon hewed the 
logs on the inside, erected an addition a few 
years later, and they lived there for twenty- 
one years. In 1868 they moved into their 
present large frame dwelling. At one time 
he owned (320 acres of land, but he now has 
only 310 acres, where he raises about fifty 
head of cattle, about twenty head of good 
sheep, from fifty to eighty hogs, and from 
eight to ten horses, mostly of the heavy draft 
stock, but also a few good drivers. 

Mr. Farness was married in Norway, to 
Gertrude Esse, and they had six children. 
Mrs. Farness, who was born April 13, 1827, 
died January 2, 1859. The youngest daugh- 
ter, a babe of eight months, was buried with 
her in the same cofiin. She had buried one 
child previous, and at her death left three 
sous and one daughter. Herman, a furni- 
ture dealer of Madison, has a wife, three 
daughters and six sons; Lars, a farmer of 
Minnesota, is married and has six children; 
Randey, wife of Sven Gilbertson, a farmer 
near Appleton, Minnesota, has three children; 
and Ole, deceased, was a graduate of the 
Rush Medical College, of Chicago, and also 
of a school in Minneapolis. He was a well- 
known and successful practitioner at Rice 
Lake, Wisconsin, and his death occurred 
from exposure, at Prairie Farm, this State, 
at the age of thirty-six years, and at his 
death left a wife and two daughters. 

In 1860 Mr. Farness married Miss Anna 
Nelson, a native of Norway, and a daughter 
of Nels and Gertrude (Nelson) Knutson. 
She came to America with her parents in 
1852, at the age of fifteen years. Mr. and 
Mrs Farness have lost two infant sons, and 
one daughter, Sarah, at the age of five years. 
They have seven living children, namely: 
Gertrude, wife of Bower Bowerson, a promi- 
I nent farmer, residing in Primrose, Dane 



BANE COUNTY, WISCONklN. 



oil 



countv; Xels, a farmer of Minnesota, is 
married and has one son; Thomas, a graduate 
of the high school of Madison, is now em- 
ployed as salesman in a dry goods store in 
that city; IJetsy, wife of Iver Bovum, a 
merchant of Fillmore eounty. Minnesota, and 
they have one daughter; Joseph, aged seven- 
teen years; Simon, fifteen years; and Benja- 
min, twelve years. Mr. Farness is still 
enjoying good health, although he has done 
a vast amount of hard labor during the past 
tifty years, and the grand increase of the S-iOO 
with which he landed in New York has been 
produced only by hard work, lie is a firm i 
adherent to Republican doctrines, a consistent 
member of the Norwegian Lutheran Church, 
and an estimable and respected citizen. 

(HARLES F. ABBOTT.— It is a pleasant 
thing to meet in life's journey a good 
son of a wortliy sire; to see the virtues 
of the father reproduced in the offspring, as 
the case in the Abbott family. The father, 
Abijah Abbott, was am(.)ng the early settlers 
of Madison, and his death, which occurred 
March 23, 1886, was mourned by a large cir- 
cle of acquaintances and friends. Mr. Ab- 
bott, Sr., was born in Cornwall, Vermont, 
coming of an old New England family whose 
ancestry hailed from the Albion shores. His 
parents lived and died in V'ermont, but tiieir 
son, Abijaii, started out early in life as a 
merchant at Middlebury, later changing his 
business to that of marble arid granite dealer 
at Sudbury, Vermont, where lie remained 
until 1855, when he shipped his stock to 
Madison and established the business in 
which his son is now so successfully engaged, 
located on West Main street. He continued 
to manage his business until within a few 



years of his death. During his entire life in 
Madison he was known as a worthy citizen 
and a stanch member of the Republican 
party. The Congregational Church received 
his hearty support, as he attendeii the services 
of that religious l)odv. His wife, Eveline P. 
(^ Field) Al)l)ott. was also a native of Cornwall, 
Vermont, a member of the okl Field lamily 
that luis been identitied with the history of 
the country for so many years. Cyrus W. 
Field being a descendant of the same stuck. 
This good woman and true wife passed away 
from this life. January 28. 1886, in the 
membership of the Congregational Church. 

Our subject is the only remaining member 
of the family, and was born in this city, Au- 
gust 16, 1858, and on the same day the first 
cable message was sent to C^ueen Victoria by- 
President Huchanan. He was roared and 
educated in his native city, growing to man- 
hood with his two sisters, all now deceased. 
One of them, Ilattie, liied in Vermont in 
childhood, before the birth of our subject, 
while Helen M. and Martha A. died in Madi- 
son. Upon the death of his father, Mr. Ab 
bolt assumed charge of the extensive business, 
which retains the old name of Abbott it Son, 
and is now the oldest marble, granite and 
tombstone lu)use in the city, employing from 
six to eight men ail the time. 

Our subject was married in tiiis city, to 
Miss E. Estelle Ford, born, reared and edu- 
cated in this city, attending the ])ublic schools 
anti the State University. Her father, CJharles 
F. Ford, operateil a m.ichine shop in the city 
of Madison for many years, being a fine 
machinist, and tlu' family has resideil in 
Dane county for a long pi^riod (if time, beitig 
among the first settlers. The mother of 
Mrs. Abbott, Patience (Safford) Ford, was a 
native of New York State, as was iier hus- 
band. They came, while still young, to 



312 



BIOGRAPHICAL US VIEW OF 



Wisconsin, where tliey were married. They 
are yet living, and are worthy, prosperous 
people. Mr. and Mrs. Abbott have had 
three children, namely: George, deceased; 
Ellis P. and Eveline P. Mr. Abbott and his 
estimable wife are both members of the Con- 
eresational Church. Like his father before 
hini, Mr. Abbott is a stancb Republican. 
Socially, he is connected with the A. F. ct 
A. M., and is Vice-Chancellor of the K. of P. 
order. Owing to his menial, pleasant man- 
ners and strict integrity, Mr. Abbott has 
made a large circle of friends for himself, by 
whom he is hijjhlv resrarded. He is one of 
tlie rising young business men of the city, 
and promises to become one of her solid 
men iu the near future. 



UllLANDEii M. PRITCHARD, who 
during his life was one of the promi- 
nent residents of Fitchburg township, 
Wisconsin, is the subject of the present 
sketch. 

Our subject was born October 5, 1816, in 
Otsego county. Xew York, and was the son 
of Harvey Pritchard, who was born in New 
England, of early English ancestry. He 
followed the trade of foundryman in Canan- 
daigua. and Perry, Wyoming county, and re- 
mained there until 1S43, when he came to 
Wisconsin. He made the entire journey 
overland by teams, and bought a tract of 
Government land in the town of Dunn, 
where he improved a farm and resided there 
for some time, then moved to Green county, 
and died at the home of his youngest son, 
near Argyle, in that county, at the age of 
seventy-eight years. 

The maiden name of his wife was Lydia 
Kelsey, born in New England, and died on 



the home farm in the town of Dunn. She 
reared nine sons: Daniel, James, Reuben, 
Levi, Mark, Philander, Lorenzo, Rufus and 
Burton. Our subject was the si.vth of the 
family, and he grew up and was associated 
with his father in business, residing iu New 
York until 1843. In May, of that year, 
accompanied by his wife and two children 
came to the Territory of Wisconsin via team 
to Buffalo, then by lake and river to Racine, 
and then by team to Dane county. He had 
been here the year before, and selected a tract 
of Government land in section 33, in what is 
now the town of Fitchburg. There was a 
vacant log building near by iuto which the 
family moved. It ha^l no door, no floor nor 
chimney, but they hung carpet in the door- 
way. ' 

At this time there was but one house be- 
tween here and Madison, and much of the 
land was owned by the Government. Deer 
and prairie chickens were plentiful, and these 
were their chief diet as far as meat was con- 
cerned. For two or three years there was no 
railroad, and the grain had to be hauled to 
Milwaukee. He soon built a log cabin on 
his own land which the family occupied 
several years, when he built a brick house, 
and resided here until his death, February 14, 
1886. He was suct-essfnl as a farmer, and 
at the time of his death he owned 200 acres 
of land well improved. 

The marriage of our subject took place 
July 10, 1837. to Miss Lydia Guild, and four 
children were born of this union, tliree of 
whom are yet living: Helen, D. Hahnemann 
and Lydia. Helen married Edward Pal- 
mer, and resides in Verona, and has two chil- 
j dren, Levi and Delos. D. H., married Dru- 
I silla Tiramens, and lives in Toledo, Ohio, and 
i has two children, Adella and Fred. Cleora, 
I married B. McManus, but died November 



DANE COUNTT, WISCONSIN. 



313 



15, 1891. Lydia lives with her mother on 
tiie home farm where thev have a pleasant 
place filled with the comforts of life. 

Mrs. Fritchard was born in Otsego county, 
New York, March 12. IS 16. Her father, 
Felix Guild, was born in Middletown, Con- 
necticut, and was a sou of Samuel and Aba- 
gail (Doolitttle) Guild, aiicl a descendant in 
the sixth 'generation from John Guild. (See 
sketch of the Guild family in that of Charles 
Burleigh, of Portland, Maine.) Felix Guild 
was married in Connecticut, and went from 
there to Otsego county, and from there to 
Cattaraugus county, New York, where he 
was a pioneer settler. He purchased land of 
tlie Holland Purchase Company, improved a 
farm and resided there until his death, Janu- 
ary 7, 1839. The maiden name of his wife, 
the mother of Mrs. Fritchard, was Lydia 
Day. She was born in Connecticut, in 1708, 
and died at the town of Ferry, Wyoming 
county. New York, Septemlier, 1839. 

Among the interesting facts connected with 
the life of our lamented subject, we may 
mention the following: He was a natural 
musician, and became very proficient in the 
use of the (darionet. When he crossed the 
Rock river at Janesville, July 3, 1843, he 
paid the last twenty-five cent piece he had 
for toll. He had friends at Janesville, with 
whom he stopped. On July 4 he played in 
the band at the celebration in that city, and 
at an entertainment in the evening, and the 
following day went north to fill engagements 
he had made that day and evening, and in 
three days he returned home witli S45 in cash. 
He and three brothers formed the well-known 
Fritchard band that furnished music for the 
entertainments Ijetween the lake and Missis- 
sippi river. The money earned in this way 
was of the greatest help in their straightened 
circumstances. His mother had ol)jected to 



her sons joining the band, fearing tliat tliey 
might be led into intemperance by the asso- 
ciations, but they all pledged her that they 
Would never taste strong drink, and they 
were all total abstainers. He and wife were 
both liberal in their relitrious belief, and at- 
tended the Universalist Church wlien oppor- 
tunity ofi'ered. 

When the parents of Mrs. Fritchard set- 
tled in Cattaraugus county, there were no 
railroads, and consequently no markets, and 
the ])eople lived principally off the proilucts 
of the land. Her mother used to spin and 
weave, and the family were thus clothed. 
During life the subject of this sketch ad- 
hered to the principles of the Democratic 
party. He was a man well known in the 
community, and every where respected. 



ggSCAR SCHLOTTHAUEK, the County 
Clerk of Dane county, has l)een a resi- 

■^ dent of Madison, AVisconsin, all his 
life, having been born hereabout tliirty-three 
years ago and was educated in the private and 
public schools of the city. Later in life he 
became a railroad postal clerk, running from 
Chicago to Winona, Minnesota. After his 
father's death he assumed the management 
of his business until he was elected County 
Clerk. 

The father of our sulrject was a native of 
Hesse-Cassel, Germany, and was named 
George. He came to the United States in 
1850, when he was about twenty-six years of 
age. He spent two years in New York city, 
when he removed to New Orleans, where he 
resided about four years; then he married 
and came to Madison and remained here un- 
til his death, which occurred in 1880. His 
wife, who is yet living, was Miss Gertrude 



314 



BIOGHAPHWAL liEVIEW OF 



Bacbem, born in the Rhine province, Prussia, 
and came to the United States in 1855. One 
year later she married and removed to Madi- 
son, where she has since made her home, and 
where she and her husband were well-known 
German residents. Our subject is the second 
of three sons born to these parents, of whom 
one, August, the eldest, died in 1S76. The 
other son, Julius, is manager of the Lake 
City House iu Madison. 

Our subject is a strong and active Demo- 
crat, and has always e.xerted himself for the 
canse of his party and for the good of Madi- 
son. As a reward for his industry he was 
elected County Clerk in 1890, and re-elected 
in 1892, and has filled the position in a very 
satisfactory manner to all parties. 

Mr. Scblotthauer is very social in his 
nature and is a charter member of the Lake 
City Gun Club, and is very fond of hunting 
and fishing. He has never married, but as 
he is yet a young man bis friends hope to be 
introduced to a Mrs. Scblotthauer before 
many years have gone by. 



4^-^eN 




iRS. ELIZA BA(:o^", the widow of 
the late Ira P. Bacon, of Waunakee, 
Wisconsin, is the lady of whom this 
sketch is written. She is the daughter of 
Job J. and Eliza (Johnson) Ikin, both natives 
of London, England, where Mrs. Bacon was 
born. There she married George Flatmaii, 
in 1863, and two years later they came to 
America, directing their way to Vienna, 
Wisconsin, where they settled upon a farm 
with an aunt and uncle from Enghiiid, re- 
maining there a few years until Waunakee 
was first started, and in the fall of 1874 they 
removed to that village, which was then very 
email. They bought a lot and built a house 



upon it, intending to pass many happy years 
there. However, March 29, 1875, he was 
accidentally drowned in a spring flood of the 
mill-pond belonging to Mr. Paekham. Mr. 
Flatman was a young man, only thirty-tive 
years of age, and his sudden death was one of 
the sad things of life. Three children were 
left to the bereaved mother: William J., 
whose home is with his mother; George H.. 
a resident of Waunakee, married, and has 
one daughter; and Ernest, who died at the 
age of four years, of diphtheria, in 1877. 

In December, 1877, Mrs. Flatman married 
Judge Bacon. He was a native of New 
York, born atCanandaigua, a son of William 
and (Smith) Bacon. He first mar- 
ried, in New York, Miss Ellen Nettaway, of 
the same place, and soon after they removed 
to Kalamazoo, Michigan. He was a farmer 
boy, reared to farm life by his parents, who 
were in comfortable circumstances, and was 
one of seven children, of whom but one now 
survives. His parents died in middle life. 
Five children were born of his first marriage, 
with whom this notice is not concerned. 

Judge Bacon came to Baraboo, Wisconsin, 
at an early day, engaging in conducting a 
stage line from Baraboo to Milwaukee, there 
being no Madison at that time. Wild ani- 
mals were still numerous on his route and 
there were few white people; and Mrs. Bacon 
remembers the Judge telling how he once 
ran a bear down into a grove near her home 
in the village. He removed to this place in 
1864: and bought a farm. He was an active 
business man, engaged in building and con- 
tracting, using his means and energies to 
build up the town, being one of its founders. 
At his death he owned 300acres near the vil- 
lage, and al.«o lands in other townships and in 
Dakota. For twenty years he had been a Jus- 
tice of the Peace and had a wide reputation as 



DAlfE COUNTy, WISCONSIN. 



315 



a jurist, business coining to him froin distant 
points, parties feeling an assurance of having 
justice done them. A terror of evildoers, he 
meted out the penalty of the law without fear 
or favor. 

The death of Judge Bacon took [ilace at 
his home February 26, 1888, at the age of 
sixty-six years. He had not been a professor 
of any particular religious creed, but was a 
moral man, public-spirited, and liberal to 
all religious enterprises, helping along all 
schemes tending toward the welfare of hu- 
manity. He gave the land for the Roman 
Catholic Seminary and donated liberally to 
the erection of the church. His death was 
mourned by many beside his own family, of 
the latter leaving his widow and one daugh- 
ter, Agnes Victoria, a l)right and intelligent 
maiden, gifted in music, who will receive 
every educational advantage. 

Judge liacon had no advantages beyond 
the common school, but his ability and ac- 
curacy in all legal business was remarkable. 
The legal fraternity in Madison were always 
ready to endorse his every act. He had a 
fair financial start in life from his father, but 
had many vicissitude^; but at tiie time of 
his death was possessed of a fair fortune, 
which has been amical)ly settled among the 
heirs. In politics he was a stanch Republi- 
can, ever advocating what he lielieved to be 
right. 

Mrs. Bacon had the beloveil remaitis placed 
ten)porarily in tlie front yard of the residence, 
but a tine monument in the Vienna cemetery 
is to cover them, and there she desires to be 
laid by his side. She is a lady of much re- 
finement and culture, one of the social fac- 
tors of this little cit\'. 



':^L)S(:)X B. JACKSON, general agent of 
\Wa '•''^ Jackson Refrigerator Company ot 
^^^ Chicago, resides on section 11, in Ore- 
gon township, and his residence dates from 
1867. lie was born in Wyoming county, 
New York, September 20, 1843. His grand- 
father, Ebenezer Jackson, who had been a 
soldier in the war of 1812, born June 15, 
1786, became one of the early settlers of 
Sheldon, Wyoming county. New York, and 
married Betsey Pringle, of Otsego, New 
York, January 22, 1808. He owned a farm 
at Sti'ykersville and also kejit a store; also 
built a hotel at Sheldon Center, which he 
managed for a time, but subsequently re- 
moved to Albion, Pennsylvania, where he 
lived until he died, August 7, 1857, leaving 
these children: Lucy N., Cytitliia U., John 
Lyman, Charles Pringle, Sophia Jane, Kath- 
leen and Julius D. 

The father of our snbject, John Lyman 
Jackson, was born in Riclitield, New York, 
February 23, 1817, and removed with his 
parents to Wyoming county, where he en- 
gaged in farming, and May 13, 1840, he mar- 
ried Phcebe Eliza Turner, who was born in 
Naples, New York, January 16, 1816. After 
nnirriage he settled on a farm in Slieldon 
township, remaining until 1852, when he 
went West, where he engaged in |)eddling 
and also in teaching school, both in Wiscon- 
sin and Illinois. He selected a tract of 
land in Forest t()wnship, Richland county, 
Wisconsin, which he purchased and there 
erected a log cabin, and in 1854 he removed 
his family to Wisconsin, making the journey 
via the lakes from J'ulialo to Milwaukee, 
thence by rail to Madison, and at this place 
Mr. .lackson met his family with teams; and 
as they settled down in their new home they 
became one of the five pioneer families of 
Richland county inhabiting F'orest township. 



316 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



Mr. .rackson represented Riclilaiul county in 
the Assembly of 1860. 

In the spring of 18t)4 he removed to Dane 
county and first settled in Sun Prairie, where 
he purchased a farm, but in 1867 he removed 
to Oregon town.^liip and settled on section 11, 
where he purchased 120 acres of land and 
passed his hist days, dying February 20, 
1891. The mother of our subject died No- 
vember 15, 18'JO. Slie had been a member 
of the Presbyterian (Jhurcli. Mr. Jackson 
had been a member of the Masonic fraternity. 
Tl}ey had a family of two children: Helen 
Sophia, born in Strykersville, New York, 
May 14, 18-11, who married Dr. Charles N. 
Dunn, of Centralia, Illinois; both she and 
her iiusband are graduates of Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago, and both are en- 
gaged in practice in Centralia. 

Our subject, Edson 11, was but a boy 
when the family came to Wisconsin, celebrat- 
ing his eleventh birthday by assisting the 
family in removing into the new home. He 
was reared on the farm and attended only a 
part of two terms in school after coming 
West and this instruction was received at 
I3araboo. He continued to reside with his 
parents as long as they lived and now owns 
tiie old place, consisting of 120 acres. Upon 
September 3, 1864, our subject enlisted in 
the Union army and was mustered into 
service with Company 1>, Forty-second Wis- 
consin Infantry, an<l served until he was 
mustered out in July, 1865. The regiment 
wafe engaged in doing provost duty. 

In 1880 his uncle, Charles P. Jackson, in- 
vented a refrigerator and eng6ged in its man- 
ufacture, and in 1881 our suliject went into 
the ijusiness with his uncle as the ijeneral 
agent and so continues. The company builds 
all sizes, from those in iise in the family to 
those used in tlie largest packing houses and 



breweries. Our subject for some years was 
general agent for the whole United States, but 
gives the most of his time now to the State 
of Wisconsin. In politics he is a Democrat 
and is a member of the Oregon Lodge, No. 
51, A. F. & A. M. 

DOLl'U MENGEDOTH. a farmer of 
Dane county, was burn in (iermany, 
in I\>bruary, 1813, the si.xth of ten 
children born to Herman Frederick and Fred- 
erica Henrietta (Becker) Mengedoth. The 
father died at the age of seventy-nine years, 
and the mother at fifty years. Their eldest 
son, llenrv, lived to be an old man in Han- 
over, Germany. 

Adolph, the only one of the family now 
living, came to America and to Wisconsin in 
June, 1848, having been eight weeks from 
Hanover to New York city. In the old 
country he worked at the carpenter's trade 
and farming, but after coming to Wisconsin 
was lir.st employed at the milldam on the 
lake, receiving $12 per month. He then 
worked in a brick yard for tiie following four 
years. August 6, 1851, he married Meta 
Margaret Falkert, who came to America in 
1847, with her parents and one brother. 
The father died in Milwaukee, and the 
mother and her two children then can\e on 
to this place, where they purchased forty 
acres of land, ])aying $3 per acre. The 
mother died in I8s0, at tiie age of ninety 
years. The son, Edo Falkert, is now a 
farmer of Nebraska. After marriage Mr. 
and Mrs. Mengedoth began life on forty 
acres of land, which he purchased one year 
before. He erected a log house, 16 x 80 
feet, to which he brought his bride one year 
later. In 1887 they erected the comfortable 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



317 



frame house, in vvliirli the wife died in the 
winter of 1S88, aged sixty years. They were 
the parents of six cliildren, viz.: Fred, died 
May 22, 1878, aged twenty- tliree years; 
Mary, died April 7, 1880, aged twenty-four 
years; Wilhelin. May 30, 1882; August, 
January 10, 1887, aged twenty-one years; 
Henry, September 18, 1889; aged twenty 
years; and Ilattie, a young lady, resides with 
her father. Mr. and Mrs. Mengedoth were 
both members of the (Teriuan Lutheran 
Church. Our subject has now practically 
retired from hard labor. 



.(^■y. 



M-?i 



flMOTflY ]!R()WN.— In the death of 
fx. Timothy Brown, which, though it oc- 
^J curred more than a dozen years ago, is 
still fresh in the memories of the citizens of 
Madison, the entii-e community suffered a 
loss, which, perhap.s.has not yet been I'epaired. 
Mr. Brown was well known as one of the 
most successful, as well as one of the most 
wealthy men in central Wisconsin. He died 
at his beautiful home. No. 116 East Gilman 
street, IN'ovember 15, 1879. His death, like 
those of many others that had preceded it in 
this city, was very sudden. He had per- 
formed the regulai- routine duties of his daily 
business up to within a few days of his death, 
which was caused by apoplexy, and which 
could not l)e averted by all that human aid 
could do, and after lingering in an uncdii- 
scious state for forty-eight hours, the vital 
spark took its flight. His death was a sad 
shock, not only to his immediate family, but 
also to the pntire community with which he 
had been so long identitied, and by which he 
was so well known and so highly respected. 
He was always a near friend to all, and his 
death could not but cause general sadness in 
the capital city. 

22 



The prominent pciints in this biographical 
memoir have been extracted from a sketch 
written at the time of his death, by the late 
General David Atwood: Mr. Brown was liorn 
at Elbridge, C)nondaga county. New York, 
July 24, 1823. His father, M. Brown, Esrj., 
was a native of Hadley, Saratoga county. 
New York, and was the son of Timothy and 
Betsey (Monroe) Brown, both natives of 
Massachusetts, and both of Quaker ancestry. 
They removed from Massachusetts to Hadley, 
New York, at an early day, and were closely 
identified with the latter place most of their 
lives. They were prominent pioneer settlers, 
and lived at Hadley thi'ough the period of 
tlie Revolutionary war. Mr. Brown was a 
soldier in that war. He was by occupation a 
tiller of the soil, and died when full of years, 
highly respected by the entire community in 
which he lived. Both he and his wife died 
in the Presbyterian faith. Mrs. Brown was 
the daughter of Es(juire and Mary Monroe. 
M. Brown, Esquire, was born at Hadley, New 
York, in 1799, gi-ew to manhood an indus- 
trious farmer boy, and settled in Elbridge, 
Onondaga county. New York, when that 
county was new, and at once assumed a 
prominent position in the newly forming 
community. He frequently represented his 
town in tli§ County Board, and also his dis- 
trict in the Legislature. He was a practical 
agriculturist and died at an advanced age, 
highly respected by all who knew him. He 
was married in Onondaga county. New York, 
to Miss Lydia Parkman, who was also born 
and chiefly reared in Hadley. She was the 
daughter of Frederick and Hannah Parkman, 
of New lingland ancestry, and prominent 
people in Elbridge, where they spent their last 
years, also dying at an advanced age. They 
were prominent members of the Presliyterian 
Church. Their daughter, Ijvdia, after reach- 



31 H 



BIOGRAFUWAL HE VIEW OF 



inir womanhood and iiirtnyiiio; Mr. Brown, | 
was a i^ood wife and riiotlier, and a devoted 
Olirisfian, and tluis it appears that the ances- 
try of Timothy lirown, on both sides of liis 
faniii}', were all highly respectable and Chris- 
tian people. Timothy Brown, when a lad, 
worked on his father's farm and received an 
academic education. At the age of seventeen, 
he began life for himself. He had from early 
cliildhood manifested extraordinary business 
qualitications, was always ready to trade and 
always had somethinoj to sell. 

While yet in his 'teens he took a position 
in a country store as clerk, at Jordan, near 
Syracuse, which was owned by George A. 
Mason, who had married his eldest sister. In 
this position young Brown remained some 
two or three years, receiving but small pay, 
but saving his earnings with great care. He 
then acce])ted a position as bookkeeper in the 
Bank of Salina. llis strict attention to busi- 
ness soon won him promotion, and he became 
first, teller, and then cashier of that strong 
banking institution. P)y his frugality he ac- 
cumulated some means while in this bank, 
and in 1855, having received inducements 
from his life-long friend. N. B. Van Slyke, 
Esq., that promised a better return for his 
labor, he resigned his position as cashier of 
the Bank of Salina, and removed to Madison, 
Wisconsin, where he continued to reside un- 
til his death. Here he became cashier of tlu< 
(lid Dane County Bank, and a large stock- 
holiler in the institution. He remained in 
that position until 1864, when the aflairs of 
the bank were wound up, chiefly through his 
own ettbrts, though not without opposition, 
and the First National Haidc was organized 
upon its remains. Of this First National 
Bank Mr. Brown became cashier and one of 
its largest stockholders. He afterward sold a 
portion of his stock, resigned his position as 



cashier, and was for a few years vice-presi- 
dent of the institution, which was then, and 
is to-day one of the largest banking houses 
in the West. 

In his later years Mr. Brown devoted much 
of his time to his large outside investments 
in realty, of which he held large blocks in 
Madison, and at the time of his death he was 
one of the wealthiest citizens of the State 
capital. His business experience, wise coun- 
sel and broad ideas, were of great importance 
and value to the management of the bank, 
which had grown up under his fostering cai-e. 
In 187U Mr. Brown became the owner of a 
large proportion of the stock of the Gas 
Company, and from that time until his death 
he had almost exclusive control of the insti- 
tution. He took a deep interest in its man- 
agement, and built it up to be one of the 
most prominent enterprises in tlie city. For 
about twenty years he was a ilirector in the 
Madison Fire Insurance Company, lie was 
a member of the executive committee all the 
time, and its treasurer for many years. He 
was also connected with many other business 
enterprises in ^ladison, among them the 
Madison Manufacturing (^ompany, and was 
of material .'service in pron)Oting their pros- 
perity. Wherever extensive business ex- 
perience, sound judgment, and clear thought 
were necessary, Mr. Brown was always found 
efhcient and valuable. 
i He was of retiring habits, and was entirely 
free from ambition for political preferment. 
He always declined being a candidate for 
official position. The life of Mr. Brown was 
purely a business one, and he was remarkably 
rjuick and accurate in all the details of his 
work. Everything was kept in a clear and 
methodical manner, nothing being left to 
chance. Being of such careful and system- 
atic habits, Mr. Brown acquired a large for- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



31!) 



tune, which he left at liis dentli in the sliape 
of i)usiness bhjcks, dwellinij houses, stocks, 
bonds, etc., all of which is being carefully 
managed and made profitable by his widow 
and two sons, the latter of whom possesss 
much of the business ability, skill and tact 
of their deceased father. 

Socially, Mr. Brown was a remarkably 
pleasant gentleman. He was not what is 
generallv understood as a society man, as he 
rather shrank from crowded parlors and as- 
seinl:)lies, but in the midst of a small circle of 
intimate friends he was extremely agreeable. 
He was ever kind to all in distress or who 
needed assistance, and there are many in- 
stances in the city of Madison where his 
wealth has been the means of quietly making 
happy those in need. These services were al- 
ways performed without show or ostentation. 
In his charitable work he literally obeyed the 
Scripture injunction "to let not the left hand 
know what the right hand doeth." He was 
opposed to everything that looked like dis- 
play in doing good. He was a Republican 
in politics, and while not a member of any 
church, usually attended the Congregational 
Church in Madison. 



f HESTER SUTHERLAND, who, dur- 
ing a long and useful life resided in 
Dane county as a pioneer, is the subject 
of our sketch. 

Mr. Sutherland was born in Batavia, Gene- 
see county, New York, January 22, 1817. 
His father, Joshua, was, it is thought, born 
in Duchess county. New York, and from the 
best information at hand, emigrated to Can- 
ada with his brother Isaac in ISOl, and one 
year later removed to Genesee county. New 
York, where they were among the first set- 



tlers. He bought timbered land and cleared 
a farm and spent the last <if his days in that 
county. 

The maiden name of the wife of the above 
good man was Sarah Wolcott. who was born 
in Vermont. She survived her husband for 
some time and came West to spend her last 
years with her children in Dane county. 
She died at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Travis. The maternal grandfather of our 
subject was Erastiis Wolcott, who was born 
January 1, 1767, and he spent his last days 
in Michigan. The maiden name of his wife 
was Sally Dunham, who was born March 10, 
1767, and died in Michigan. 

(-)ui' suliject was reared on the farm and 
attended the common schools. He learned 
the trade of carpenter, and in 1841 he emi- 
grated to the Territory of Wisconsin. He 
then visited his farm of 160 acres which he 
had previously bought, but spent the winter 
in Milwaukee, then returned to Madison and 
worked at his trade until 18-15. lie then 
settled on his farm, where he enaacred in 
farming, and here resided until his death on 
June 9, 1889. When he first came here tiie 
country was very sparsely settled, and but n 
few miles from flie capital city land was for 
sale at ^1.25 per acre. Deer were yet plenti- 
ful, and thus the settlers were well supplied 
with meat. There were no railroads and the 
farmers liad to haul their grain to Milwau- 
kee. 

September 21, 1845, he married Miss 
Sarah A. Rood, who was born in Jericho, 
Chittenden county, Vermont, March 7, 1825. 
Her father, Orlin luiod, was boi-n in the same 
town, and his father, Thomas D. Rood, the 
eldest son of Asriali and Lydia (Drakley) 
Rood, was born in Lanesborouo-h, Massa- 
chusetts, December 15, 1767. He married 
Sarah, daughter of James Bradley, v\lio died 



320 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



January 28, 1838, aged seventy-four years. 
In October, 1838, he removed to Chicago, 
lived there until 1842, when he came to 
Wisconsin and resided with his son Orlin at 
Hazel Green and Monroe. 

Asriah Rood was born in Stafford, Con- 
necticut, in 1724. He removed to Wood- 
bury, Connecticut, about 1744. In 1750 lie 
was married to liuth Prime, who died in 
1765. He was married again, to Lydia Drak- 
ley, in 1766. In 1775 he emigrated into the 
the woods of Vermont with a large family of 
small children, locating at Jericho, on Onion 
river and the following year was driven out 
l)y Indians and returned to Woodbury, Con- 
necticut, where he remained for one year, 
thence removing to Lanesborough, Massa- 
chusetts. He remained here till March, 
1783, when he started again for the Onion 
river country. He proceeded to Rutland, 
Vermont, by o.x teams, where he built a raft. 
and drifted down Otter creek, to Middles- 
burg, Vermont, where there was then no 
house. He got his family into a log house 
at West Haven, where he left his wife and 
two daughters, and with his sons and the ox 
teams witiiout wagon proceeded through the 
woods by marked trees to Jericho, where his 
wife and daughters soon joined him. They 
built a cabin, cleared land and went to farm- 
ing. In 1791 a Congregational Church was 
formed. Asriah Rood was elected its only 
Deacon, which office he lield till his death, 
February 28, 1795, when his son, Tiios. D. 
was elected to succeed him, with Reuben 
Lee as assistant. Lydia, wife of Asriah 
Rood, died May 1. 1798. 

The father of Asriaii Rood was a resident 
of Statibrd, Connecticut; was a soldier in the 
French and Indian war, and died at the latter 
place, at the age of eighty-seven. 

The father of Mrs. Snthcrland was reared 



in Jericho and there married and resided un- 
til 1836, when he emigrated West and stopped 
awhile in .Michigan, and then moved to Illi- 
nois, where he took a contract on the canal 
then in course of construction, e.\tendincr 
from Chicago to Peru. During the year 
1837 his wife and four children joined him 
in Chicago. They came by way of teams to 
lake Chaniplain and the Chamjtlain canal to 
Troy and then via Erie canal to Putfalo and 
then by the lakes to Chicago. The family 
spent the winter in what is now the city of 
Chicago, and in the spring moved to Joliet. 
He continued at work on this canal for about 
four years, when the project failed and he 
lost very heavily. He then came to Madi- 
son. While his family lived here he was in 
the pineries engaged in the lumber business. 

Finally the family of our subject joined 
him and they lived there a few years, and then 
removed to Ohio and settled at Cambridtje 
where his wife had inherited a large estate. 
From there he went to Williamsburg, Calla- 
way county, Missouri, and died at the home 
of his youngest son there. The maiden name 
of his first wife, the mother of Mrs. Suther- 
land, was Abigail Geer, who died in the 
town of Jericho, Vermont. Three of iier 
children were reared: Sarah, Anson, and 
Galen. The father reared one son, Robert 
D., by his second marriage. 

Mrs. Sutherland still occupies the home 
farm. She has six living children: Henry 
J., Quincy ()., George G., Albert W., Frank 
M., and Anna E. 

Mr. Sutherland was a successful farmer, at 
one time owning 825 acres of land all in one 
body. Politically he was a Republican and 
filled various offices of trust. He was one of 
tiie three County Commissioners when 
Columbia and Sauk counties were combined 
with Dane. Me also served as Town Super- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



331 



intendent of Schools, as Collector and as Jus- 
tice of Peace. lie was an intelligent man 
and labored hard and spent freely of his 
means to educate his cliildren. All of them 
attended the "Wisconsin University and two 
of them graduated, and all hold his memory 
in reverence. 



^. 



^^•N 



^ 



au^EORGE F. BKOWN,the snl.ject of the 
present sketch, was born in Deerfield, 
Kockingham county, New llampsliire, 
November 20. 1822, and his father, Benja- 
min Brown, and his grandfather, Eni/ch 
Brown, were liorn in the same State, the latter 
at Poplin, November 4, 1753. The great- 
grandfather of our subject was Enoch iJrown 
and was born in the same town. August 8, 
1725; his father, Benjamin Brown, was born 
in Southhampton, New Hampshire, in De- 
ceinijer, 1685; his father, Thomas, in Sea- 
brook, in 1661, his father, John, havincr 
moved to America from Norfolk county, 
England. He was one of the tifty-one first 
settlers of old Hampton, in 1638, and died 
there in 1686; his son, Thomas, died January 
29, 1748; Benjamin died February 9. 17G6: 
Enoch died May 15, 1796; his son, Enoch, in 
1838. This was the grandfather of our sub- 
ject, and he removed to Deerfield and bought 
a farm and resided there until his decease. 

The maiden name of the wife of Enoch, the 
grandmother of our subject, was Abigail 
Stuart, and she was born in the same State, 
of Scotch ancestry. She died on the hotne 
farm May 16, 1840. The father of our sub- 
ject was reared and educated in his native 
town and has always followed farming, hav- 
ing inherited tlie old home farm, where he 
spent his whole life and died July 25, 1866. 
The maiden name of the motlier of our sub- 



ject was Nancy Evans, born in Allentown, 
^ferrimae county. New Hampshire, Novem- 
ber 15, 1785, and died on the home farm 
January 28, 1854, having reared three chil- 
dren; Florinda, George F., and Benjamin S. 
Our subject was reared and educated in his 
native town until he was ready for academical 
honors and then was sent to Pembroke Acad- 
emy. He resided with his parents until 1842 
and thefi went to Boston, Massachusetts, and 
engaged in thegrocery busines.s. In P^ebruary, 
1850, he formed a partnership with two others 
to go to California and engage in business 
there. They purchased a stock of general 
merciumdise, also lumber, had a store build- 
ing framed and ready to put up, shipped all 
aboard a sailing vessel and went by way of 
Gape Horn, arriving in September. They did 
not find a lot that would suit them and con- 
sequently sold their building, which had cost 
them about $400, for $2,600, and then rented 
another building. This building was built 
between two others and consisted of posts 
driven in the ground and boarded up in front 
and back, with sailcloth for a roof. They 
disposed of most of their stock at a ]irivate 
sale and in December auetioTied off the bal- 
ance, and at once started for home. At Pan- 
ama two of them hired three horses, one each 
to ride, the other to carry their baggage, and 
they made their way on horseback to the Cha- 
gres river and there hired a man with a dug- 
out to take them to Chagi-es, on the eastern 
coast, and from there they took steamship 
for New York. There our subject engaged 
in the produce business until 1855, and in 
1856 he came West, visiting Madison, Osh- 
kosh. Fond du Lac, Dubuque, Cedar Falls, 
Waterloo, Iowa, and thence to Illinois, and 
from there he returned to Boston. Our sub- 
ject in 1857 traded property in Waltham, 
Massachusetts, for the fai-m he now owns and 



323 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



occupies and located here the same year. lie 
has placed the land under cultivation, erected 
good buildings and otherwise improved the 
place. 

In 1852 Mr. Brown was united in marriage 
with Miss Meribah Greene Weare, who was 
born in Deertield, Mew Hampshire, her fa- 
ther Meshech Weare, was born in Hampton 
Falls, New Hampshire, March 21, 1757. Her 
great-grandfather, Hon. Meshech Weare, was 
boru June IG, 1713, and was the tirst Gover- 
nor of New Hainoshire. He died January 
14, 1786. This gentleman was married twice, 
his second wife being Mehitabel Wainwright, 
who was boru July 12, 1719, and died No- 
vember 20, 1781. The grandfather of Mrs. 
Brown was a graduate of Harvard College, 
and for nearly thirty years a Clerk in the State 
Legislature, and about the same length of 
time was Town Clerk of Deerfield; he died 
in 1827. The maiden name of his wife was 
Polly Locke, who spent her entire life in New 
Hampshire. The father of Mrs. Brown was 
reared and educated in his native State, and 
for some years taught school. After the death 
of his wife he went to Vermont, bought a 
farm, lived there for several years, and died 
at the home of his son, Meshech Gardner 
Weare. The maiden name of the mother of 
our subject's wife was Meribah Greene, born 
in Deertield, New Hampshire, and died Feb- 
ruary 14, 1822. 

Mrs. Brown was an infant when her mother 
died, and she then lived witii her paternal 
grandparents until their death, and then lived 
with an aunt until her marriage. Mr. and 
Mrs. Brown have two .sons, George Edward, 
and Preston Weare. Mrs. Brown anil tier 
son, Preston, are members of the Congrega- 
tional Church, which is One of the best 
churches in Madison. Mr. I>rown was for- 



mally a Whig, but has been a Kepublican 
since the formation of that party. 

AMUEL T. WORTHING, a successful 
farmer of Dane county, was born in 
New Hampshire, in 1822, a son of 
Moses Worthing, a native of Grafton, that 
State, and a farmer by occupation. His 
father, Samuel G. Worthing, was one of the 
early pioneers of New Hampshire, and had a 
severe struggle in clearing and making a 
home in that rough and sterile portion of the 
State. The privations and hardships endured 
by this grand man and his family would seem 
incredible to the present generation. His 
wife, the grandmother of our subject, was 
formerly a Miss Ingalls, and they had five 
sons and three daughters, who lived to become 
heads of families, Moses, the father of our 
subject, being the eldest of the children. 
The parents died on their large farm at an 
advanced age. Three of the sons chose fnrin- 
ing as their vocation through life, and the 
father cave each a large farm. Two became 
itinerant Methodist ministers. Kev. Jona- 
than Worthincr died in Illinois, and Ezekiel, 
died on his farm in this State. Moses 
Worthing was married in New Hampshire, 
to Anna Sanborn, a native of Uristol, that 
State. They resided on a farm there many 
years, and where their twelve children were 
born, eleven of whom grew to years of matur- 
ity and married. The family emigrated to 
Ohio in 1833, going by team to Buffalo, and 
by water to Ashtabula, but, on account of a 
severe storm, they were obliged to land at 
Fairport. They purchased 250 acres of land, 
which had a small clearing, and where the 
father died at the age of eighty-three years, 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



323 



and the mother tliree years later, aged eighty- 
three years. 

Samuel T. Worthiiii;, the voimgest son of 
his parents' eleven living children, remained 
at home until twenty-seven years, when he 
drove from Ashtabula county, Ohio, to Dane 
county, Wisconsin. His cash capital then 
consisted of a few hundred dollars, with 
which he purchased eighty acres of land two 
miles from his f)resent home. One year later 
he bought IGO acres in Roxbury township, 
going in debt for the same to the amount of 
$1,700, but which he soon paid, and later 
purchased eighty acres more, making him a 
farm of 2-10 acres. After a residence there 
of twelve years Mr. Worthing sold (lut, 
and in 1866, with two good teams and 
wagons, took up the line of march for the 
West, settling on 400 acres of land in Nod- 
away county, Missouri, for which he paid 
$4,000. On account of sickness in the fam- 
ily he remained there only six years, again 
sold out, and with his teams returned to Dane 
township, Dane county, Wisconsin, with less 
money, but more experience than when ho 
left, hi company with his two sons he now 
owns 260 acres of land in one body. At one 
time Mr. Worthing owned 1,280 acres of 
land in Texas, where he intended to keep 
stock. In his political views he was a Demo 
crat before tlie war, but since that struggle 
has been identified with the Republican party. 
Both he and his wife are earnest workers in 
the Methodist Church. 

Our subject was married at the age of 
twenty-four years, to Miss Belinda Sleeper, 
a native of Bristol, New Hampshire. They 
have had live children, as follows: Orilla, 
wife of Orson Martin, a farmer of Chase 
county, Nebraska, and they have four sons 
and one daughter; Ella, wife of William Fol- 
som, of Lodi, and they have one son and 



three daughters: Etta, wife of Giles Martin, 
a farmer of Westport township, Dane county, 
one son and two daughters; John F., a farmer 
on the old homestead, married Matilda Haw- 
ker; and (Miarles Edwin, who resides with his 
parents, and owns one-half of the farm. 
Kraidv went to Nebraska at one time, but 
afterward sold out and returned to his par- 
ents. Edwin irt now twenty-tive years of 
ao-e. 



4^ 



^ 



gLLJAH D. SHOLTS, one of the early 
pioneers of this county, was born in 
Barrington, Yates county, New York, 
August 10, 1821. The father, John, was a 
native of Germany as far as is known, who 
came to America and followed the callintr of 
teacher in Barrington, until he removed to 
Erie county, Pennsylvania, about 1833, where 
he resided on the banks of lake Erie, near 
Girard, wiiere he still followed his calling 
for about twelve years, and then went to 
Texas, bought land, and was one of the early 
settlers of that State. Later, while returning 
home for his family he died among the In- 
dians. The maiden name of his wife was 
Hannah Hanan, native of Rhode Island. She 
survived her husband some years and died at 
the home of her son, our subject, in Oregon. 
She had reai'ed ten children. 

Our subject received his education in the 
schools of New York and Pennsylvania and 
at the age of eighteen commenced farming 
on a tract of Moravian land, in Erie county, 
and lived there until 184(5, when he came to 
the Territory of Wisconsin, accompanied by 
his wife and her brother. The journey was 
made overland, with horses and wagon and 
consumed seventeen days. At that time 
Madison was a small village, and there were 



324 



BIOGRAPHICAL SEVIEW OF 



quite as many log as frame houses. The 
surrouiidiiig country was but little improved 
and the land belonged principally to the 
Government, selling for §1.25 an acre. Mr. 
Sholts remained one winter at Milton Junc- 
tion and in the spring of 1847 came to Dane 
county and bought forty acres of land that is 
now included in his present farm. On this 
land he built a small log house, which served 
as a shelter for the family. At different 
times he added to his farm until at one time 
he was the owner of 220 acres of land in the 
towns of Oregon and Rutland. There were 
no railroads, and he had to market his pro- 
duce at Milwaukee. The trip took one week 
and on the return journey he used to bring 
merchandise and salt for the merchants of 
Madison, and occasionally brought out a 
family of emigrants. 

Mr. Sholts married April 29, 1846, Miss 
Julia A. Searles, born in Lake county, 
Ohio. Her father, Philip, was born, as far 
as known in Canada, where he married Ann 
Minchler, a native of the same place. From 
Canada the J'oung couple came to Ohio, and 
were among the pioneers of Lake county, 
where they bought land, built a log-house in 
the wilderness and in that house Mrs. Sholts 
was born. Mr. and Mrs. Searles spent their 
last days in Lake county. Mr. and Mrs. 
Sholts have three children, namely: Hannah 
E., who married Amos Minger, and has one 
child, Minnie; William, who married Frankie 
Fisher, and has three children, Willie, Jessie 
and Ivy; the third child, Charles married 
Emma Davis, and they have one child, Ilallie 
Z. Mr. Sholts has been a member of the 
United Brethren Church forty-nine years, 
and he is a strong temperance man, and in 
politics Mr. Sholts is a strong Republican. 

Many changes have taken place since Mr. 
Sholts arrived in Wisconsin. Then wild 



game of all kinds roamed over the prairie and 
the Indians came to the doors begging for 
food. Although Mr. Sholts was a very poor 
man when he came to the State he has worked 
i his w'ay up until he is now of the most highly 
re.-pected citizens of Oregon, where he and 
ills wife are now enjoying the evening of their 
lives. 



^• #J "i" '^ '^ 



A N 1 EL I3ECIITEL, an extensive farmer 
of Rlooming Grove to wn.-hip, was born ni 
Laurel township, Lycoming county, Penn- 
sylvania, August yi, 1845. Ills father, John, 
was born near Reading, Purks county Penn- 
sylvania, and the grandfather, Peter, was born 
in the same county, althougli of Cjerinan 
ancestry. The Bechtels were among the first 
settlers of the State of Pennsylvania. He 
was a farmer by occupation and spent his 
last years in Buffalo Valley. The father of 
our subject was reared to agricultural pur- 
suits, but when a yong man commenced the 
business of freighting on the canal, carryintr 
both grain and lumber, later engaging in the 
lumber business, at one time operating two 
sawmills and a gristmill. In 1850 ho traded 
a irristmill for a tract of land, in the town 
of Pleasant Springs, Dane county, and in the 
fall of that year moved here with his family. 
They came via rail to New York, thence by 
canal and lakes to Milwaukee, thence to their 
future home by team. On his arrival Mr. 
Hechtel found that he had been swindled, 
that he had traded his mill for a piece of 
marsh instead of farm land. Therefore he 
bought a tract of forty acres, on which there 
was a log house, in which the family spent 
the winter. In the following spring he 
purchased the farm where the subject and 
his mother now reside. Here he biiilt a brick 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



325 



house and otherwise improved the place, 
residing there until his death, February 5, 
1876. The maiden name of the mother of 
our subject was Catherine Eyer, born in Dry 
Valley, Union county, Pennsylvania, May 6, 
1818. The great grandfather of our subject 
John Eyer, was born in Dry Valley, where 
his father was a farmer and spent his last 
days. The grandfather removed from Dry 
Valley to Lycoming county, settled near 
Henstown, wiiere he rented a farm and 
resided until his death. Tlie maideti name of 
his wife was Elizabeth Wise. She was a native 
of Pennsylvania, where she spent her entire 
life. The grandfather was a member of the 
Baptist Church, his wife of the Presbyterian, 
the father a Presbyterian and the mother a 
Lutheran. The father was a Detnocrat in 
politics. 

Our subject was five years old when he 
came to Wisconsin with his parents. He 
attended school quite steadily in his youtliful 
days, acquiring a gooil business education. 
He always resided with his parents, and 
since his father's death has managed the 
home farm, which he has greatly improved. 
He has purchased other land anil is now very 
well situated. He has always been identified 
with the Democratic party, having tilled 
various offices of trust. For three years ho 
has served as Town Clerk, and for fourteen 
years represented his township on the county 
Board af Supervisors. He was elected Sheriff" 
of Dane county in November, 1882, which 
ofKce he filled the succeeding two years. 

:-¥^.^ILLIAM A. FrrZGIBBON, is a 

\/\k fai-mer located upon section 20, 

l^=^Ki Westport township, and was horn on 

Staten Island, New York in 1850. His tVither 



was James Fitzgibbon, who was born about 
1810, in Ireland, near Limerick, county Cork. 
The grandfather of our subject was James 
Fitzgibbon also. He was a wealthy landower 
in Ireland, where he died at about the age of 
sixty years. He was thrice married and reared 
but three children, one son and two daughters. 

The son was reared well at home, having a 
good chance for learning, but at the age of 
fourteen he lost his fatiier and he had met 
witii losses and reverses. The son started out 
in life at the age of sixteen years, coming to 
America with a few hundred dollars saved 
from the wreck of his father's fortunes. He 
came to this country on a sailing craft, 
consuming six weeks in the journey from 
Liverpool to New York. He had many 
eperiences and traveled for a house which 
dealt in paints and felts, through the South 
in winter and the North in summer. 

At al)0ut the age of twenty-five years he 
married Miss Elizabeth Wilson, in New 
York. She was born in north Ireland aud 
was the daughter of Willian and Elizabeth 
(Clark) Wilson, of Donegal, and she was 
of Scotch ancestry. They came West to 
Wisconsin in 1851, with two children and 
when our subject was a babe. They caine by 
water to Milwaukee and by team to Madisou, 
and very sooti to Westport, where they 
obtained a half quarter section, eighty acres of 
Government latxl, and upon this he built a 
rough loe house 20x26, and an addition 
for a kitchen. They had a brick chimney 
and a large fireplace. 

Subsequently Mr. Fitzgibljon a<ided to this, 
and at the time of his death he had 400 acres 
well improved with a comfort able frame 
house, the same one in which his son now 
resides. He died December 8, 1885, in his 
seventy- second year. His wife survived him 
four years and died in January. 1889, near 



336 



BIOORAPHIOAL REVIEW OP 



her seventieth birth-daj'. They left all of their 
family of children still living, as follows: 
Edward E. is at Phoenix, Arizona; William 
A., of this State; James M. is a farmer on a 
part of the old farm; Elizabeth J. is a teacher 
and a social leader; Ella L. is the wife of 
George W. Taff, at Castle wood, Dakota, 
where he is real- estate broker; Catherine A. 
resides in St. Paul, Minnesota, where she has 
been a teacher and now is a milliner; John 
"W. resides in Woodland, Colorado; Mary T. 
is the wife of Williatn Cullen at Merimac, 
Wisconsin, and Joseph II. is a resident of 
Chicago. 

Mr. Fitzgibbon was reared on the farm, 
but had good edncational advantages at the 
district school and attended for two years at 
the University. He was for five years in 
Government employ on the river improve- 
ment. For fifteen winters he tautrht school 
and was in Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota, some 
three years all together and gathered up much 
experience of life in these places. 

October 23, 1888, he was married to Miss 
Nora Bowles, a daughter of John and Bridget 
(Kinney) Bowles, of Canada, and now are 
farmers of this county. Mr. and Mrs. Fitzgib- 
bon began domestic life on a part of the old 
homestead. They have 240 acres, all of which 
they bought of the heirs of the homestead. 
He has been Supervisor of the township, and 
since 1887 he has been Chairman. They have 
buried one son, named William, and now 
have one, James. 

Mr. Fitzgibbon is a straight-out Democrat 
and is a member of the Roman Catholic 
Cliurch and a temperate man. He carries on 
a mixed husbandry, growing mostly corn and 
oats, and keeps about lifty head of horses and 
cattle, and raises about 100 head of head of 
hogs per year. He has a fine range for his 
stock and a good orchard, and has been one 



of the leading farmers of the county, well- 
known and esteemed, and most especially at 
the capital of the State. 



,||OBEKT B. LIVESEY, a retired mason 
and plaster contractor of the city of 
Madison, has been a resident of this 
city for forty-three years. His excellent 
work is shown in most of the fine buildings 
of this city, where for so long lie has had an 
honorable l)usiness career. (Jur subject was 
born in Laucastershire, England, March 1, 
1827, a brother of the well-known contractor 
and builder, James Livesey of this city, also. 
He was not more than fourteen years of age 
when he first came to the United States and 
aftiM- living with the family, both in New 
York and later in Kentucky, he reached Mad- 
ison when about twenty-four years of age. 
He was at that time a practical workman, 
having learned his trade with Kimball &, 
Kingsley, of Rome. Oneida county, New 
Vork, remaining with them for a term of 
three years, and later remained one year 
lonrrer with them. 

Our subject has built many of the finest 
buildings in this beautiful city, among them 
being the Second Ward school house and the 
(lorn)itories of the State University. He was 
the superintendent of the building of the fa- 
mous Walker castle of this city and of the 
old Courteney castle seven miles east of the 
city. Ilis thorough work has been mucii no- 
ticed and has made him a most reliable man 
in his line. Among the old settlers he has 
been held in the highest esteem, as he has al- 
ways done much for the development of Mad- 
ison, being liberal with his means and always 
advocating all educational measures. 

Our subject was married in Utica, New 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



327 



York, to Miss Ann Wliomby, wlio was bom 
near Manchester, England, and came to the 
United States when very young with her 
parents. They settled in Utica, where the 
father, David Whoniby, was for years the 
superintendent of the Chadwick Cotton Fac- 
tory, remaining in charge there until his 
death, when about forty-five years of age. 
His wife came with her daughter to Madison, 
where she died. Her maiden name had been 
Ann Whomby. Both parents were members 
of the Methodist Episcopal Ciiurch, and were 
most excellent people, well i-emenil>ered yet 
for their many kinrl deeds. Mrs. Livesey 
had one brother, Thomas, who was a private 
in the Twenty-third Wisconsin Volunteer In- 
fantry, under Colonel Gutfy, and lost his life 
at the battle of Buzzard Bay, in Louisiana, 
when but twenty' years of age. His remains 
were brought to Madison by Mr. Livesey for 
interment. Mrs. Livesey was carefully 
reared and became one of the best and kind- 
est of neighbors, and was most tenderly 
loved by her family, but death called her 
from them, November 4, 1885, when fifty- 
four years of age. She had devoted her life 
to her children and was a firm believer in the 
faith of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
She had been the mother of ten children, as 
follows: Cislj J., who died in infancy; Sam- 
uel, a successful brickmason located at Wona- 
woc, Wisconsin, for a time, but now is en- 
gaged in putting in the boiler foundations 
for Pierce & Co., of Chicago, Illinois; he 
married Miss Nora White; Leonard J., is a 
plasterer and lives in Madison, marrying 
Miss Carrie Clemens, whose father was a 
member of the Eighth Wisconsin Volunteer 
Infantry, and after serving four years died on 
his way home; Robert Briggs, married, with 
wife and one child; Anna, married Leonard 
Pashley, of Marshall Field & Co., where he is 



one of the foremen in the big Chicago tirm; 
Lizzie, is the wife of Frank Gleason and now 
lives in Chicago, where he is the head engi- 
neer for the Pinkerton block; Ida is the wife 
of Earnest Schuloii', now train dispatcher of 
the Wisconsin Central railroad of the St. 
Paul line; John lives at home; Ilattie is at 
home and keeps house for her father, and 
Prentice is also at home. All of the chil- 
dren have been educated in the excellent city 
schools, and all of them are capable of taking 
care of themselves. 

Mr. Livesey is a prominet member of the 
I. O. (). F., having been a member foryeai-s, 
and is Past Grand and Past Patriarch of the 
Encampment, having been in all of the otEces 
of the Supreme Lodge and Encampment. 
During the war he entered the army at first 
as a mechanic, but later saw nine months of 
active service and assisted in driving (generals 
Hood, later Wheeler, and still later Forrest, 
back after their attempts to press North, and 
during four months he was Captain of his 
company, having built two six-gun batteries 
and having; ciuirge of §1,000,000 worth of 
commissary supplies and 100 railroad en- 
gines. He was made Captain of the com- 
pany, which was sent out by Governor John- 
son, of Tennessee. 

Mr. Livesey lives in peaceful comfort, af- 
ter a busy and useful life and enjoys the es- 
teem of all the citizens of this city, to wiiom 
his name is very familiar, being connected 
with 80 many of the pivmiinent buildings. 



J^UGENE EIGHMY, now living, retired 
°cBL ill a beautiful home in the city of 
bpi Madison, is our subject. He was born 
in Catskill, New York, in 1831, and came to 
the township of Oakiield, in Genesee county, 



3S8 



BIOGRAPUIOAL HE VIEW OF 



when a mere child with his parents. lie 
was educated at Cary Seminary. In 1855 he 
emigrated to Dane county, Wisconsin. He 
is the son of Jacob and Permelia (Dennis) 
Eichniv. His father was born in New 
Yorlv and by trade was a harnessmaker and 
saddler, but when he located in Genesee 
county he engaged a part of his time in agri- 
culture. He was an industrious and worthy 
citizen, a Whig in politics and a member of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and died 
when some seventy years of age. He was 
married in the eastern part of the Empire 
State to Miss Permelia Dennis. She was 
born in New York of good parentage. Slie 
died a few years before her husband. She 
had been a good and worthy woman, a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal Ohurch, a 
kind neighbor and friend. 

Our subject is the third in a family of 
eight children, seven of whom are yet liv- 
ing; three are yet in Genesee county, New 
York, and four are living in Dane county, 
Wisconsin, and all are married and prosper- 
ous. Our subject became of age after com- 
ing to Wisconsin, but later returned to his 
native State to marry. Mr. Eigluny first 
came to the State of Wisconsin and located 
in Madison in 1855, but in the spring of 
1856 he removed to Macfarland, Dunn 
township, where he engaged in the grain 
and lumber trade; he also improved large 
tracts of land near Macfarland. In 1872 he 
started a general merchandise store, carry- 
inc it on with success until 1890, when he 
retired from business and located in the city 
of Madison. He still owns some valuable 
property in the town of Dunn and vicinity 
of Macfarland. He was a social business 
man and has many friends there. In 1801 
and 1862 he was Treasurer of the town of 
Dunn, and has held other offices at various 



times. F'or eight years was Postmaster of 
Macfarland, resigning the position when he 
came to Madison. Here he built a tine resi- 
dence on one of the best streets of the city, 
and is located at 241 Lang-don street, where 
he enjoys the comforts of modern life. 

Our subject married Miss Sarah M. 
Johnson, who was born and reared in 
Batavia, Genesee county. New York. Her 
parents were Stephen and Rebecca (Palmer) 
Johnson; her father was born in Connecticut 
and her mother in New York and died when 
about seventy years of age. They were 
highly esteemed people and were known as 
pioneers of Genesee county. Mrs. Eighmy 
was one of a family of tliree sisters; was 
educated at Cary Seminary, and is a lady of 
intellect and fine education and culture. 
Two children have been born to our subject 
and wife. One, Nellie May, died at the 
age of twenty-two years. She had been 
thoroughly educated at Madison and was a 
sweet and charming young lady, whose death 
caused a pall to fall on relatives and friends. 
The living daughter is Eugenia Belle, edu- 
cated in this city, a bright and accomplished 
young lady. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eighmy are attendants of 
the Presbyterian Church. 

In politics our subject is one of the stanch 
Republicans, who take an active interest in 
public affairs without desiring any official 
recognition. Such men make up the bone 
and sinew of the party. Our subject is yet 
in the prime of life, genial and pleasant. 



-»i- 



•^S*^ 



G. KROGH, a hardware merchant of 
Mount Iloreb, isa son of Casper Krogh, 
** a native of Christiania, Norway. The 
latter was an expert mechanic, having been 



DANE COUNTY, WISGON'iTN. 



;«9 



engaged in intricate work from making a sur- 
geon's needle to a sword. His skill induced 
some of his friends to assist him with sufK- 
cient funds to commence business for himself 
and with their aid located in Drammen, cm- 
ploying six workmen. His reputation soon 
brought work long distances, and during five 
years there he received several ditiicult but 
valuable jobs from England. Wishing still 
to better his condition, at tiie age of thirty- 
one Years, in 1843, he came by sailing vessel 
to America, spending thirteen weeks on the 
voyage, and during that time they suffered 
greatly for the want of fresh water. He landed 
in New York. Having been well educated 
in both German and English, he acted as in- 
terpreter on his way to Milwaukee. He re- 
mained in that city a short time, then worked 
at his trade in Waterford, Racine county, 
Wisconsin, five years, at which time he con- 
tracted the ague. After his recovery Mr. 
Krogh bouglit the sawmill at Cloburn's Mills, 
JefEerson county, for which he went in delit 
about $2,500. He conducted this mill suc- 
cessfully twelve years, then erected a grist- 
mill and purchased a farm of 200 acres. He 
remained on that place until his death, which 
occurred in 1883. He was married in Norway 
to Katrina Nelson, whose father came three 
years later to America, where the latter after- 
ward died. To this union was born eleven 
childi'en, namely: Katrina Andrea, now Mrs. 
Anton Nelson, of Kimbrae, Nobles county, 
Minnesota; Barnard J., of (Jambridge, Wis- 
consin; Feterene, deceased in infancy; Peter 
G., our subject; Albert H., who died in Cam- 
bridge; Cornelius, of Hancock county, Iowa; 
Charlotte, of Blair, Nebraska; Carl ()., of 
Newman's Grove, that State; Herman, de- 
ceased in infancy; Caspara .T., of Minnesota; 
and Henrietta, now Mrs. Simon Christiansen 



of Bode, Humboldt county, Iowa. The motlier 
died in 1887. 

Peter G. Krogh, the subject of this sketcii, 
was born in Drammen, Norway, March 6, 
1843, and came to America witii his parents 
when eleven weeks old. During his early life 
he worked with his father and attended the 
common schools, supplemented by three 
terms at the high school at Waterloo. At 
the age of twenty-one years he entered the 
army, joining Company II, Forty-second 
Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, having been 
the third of his family to enlist. He was 
first ordered to Indiana, tlien to Missouri, 
thence to Kentucky, engaged principally in 
guard duty. He took part in various guer- 
rilla warfare, i)ut participated in no noted 
battles, and during the latter part of the war 
suffered greatly from sickness. After return- 
ing home Mr. Krogh opened a plow shop at 
Kroghville, which place was named in honor 
of his father, and continued that business suc- 
cessfully for sixteen years. In that year he 
came to Mount Horeb and engaged in the 
hardware business, and also seiwed as Post- 
master until Cleveland's administration. In 
1889 he was unanimously elected as Chairman 
of the Board of Supervisors of the township 
of Blue Mounds, was re-elected in ISOt), and 
the following year refused to Ije a candidate 
for the office on account of not wishing to 
neglect his business. Socially he is a mem- 
ber of the G. A. li., and for tlie past five 
years has served as Post Commander of Rev. 
Di.xon Post. 

Mr. Krogh was married in the Western 
Church, at Koshkonong, Wisconsin, in 1871, 
to Christine Anderson, a native of Pleasant 
Spring township, Dane county. Her father, 
a native of Sweden, is now deceased, and the 
mother, a native of Norway, resides on the 
old homestead in Pleasant Spring township. 



330 



BlUUUAl'JllUAL HE VIEW OF 



Onr subject and wife liave one child, Clar- 
ence Alfred, aged seventeen years, who is now 
attending school at Black Earth. Mr. Krogh 
is a pleasant gentleman, and a respected citi- 
zen. 

fULIUS JOHNSON, proprietorof a meat 
market in Stougliton, Dane connty, was 
born in Crogry, Norway, December 2, 
1S40, a son of John anil Ellen Johnson, na- 
tives also of that country. In 1844 the par- 
ents came to America, locating in Albion, 
Dane connty, Wisconsin, where the father 
purchased a farm of sixty acres from the Gov- 
erntnent, paying $1.25 per acre. They were 
the parents of six children, our subject being 
the third child, and four are now livinif. One 
son, J. B. Johnson, was born in Dane county, 
Wisconsin, where he still resides. The fa- 
ther died in 1847, and the mother in 1887. 
Julius Johnson, the subject of this sketch, 
received only a limited education, and was 
engaged at farm work until twenty-eight 
years of age. He then engaged in buying 
stock, in which he lost all he had, and also 
§500 more. At the age of thirty years he 
opened a meat market in this city, in com- 
pany with a Mr. Emmerson, but since 1872 
lie has conducted the business alone. With 
the exception of one year, Mr. Johnson luis 
continued this business for twenty years. In 
181)1 he began buying live-stock and tobacco, 
liavins bought several thousand dollars worth 
of the latter article, of which he is now tend- 
ing a small field. Politically lie atiiliates with 
the Republican party, and has served as Al- 
derman and Constable of Stoughton. 

Mr. Johnson was married in December, 
1868, to Sophia Anderson, who was born in 
Norway, December 30, 1850, a daughter of 
Andrew Anderson, a farmer by occupation. 



Both he and his wife are now deceased. Mr. 
and Mrs. Johnson have had si.x children, viz.: 
Luvina and Alvina, twins, the former twenty- 
three j'ears of age, and the latter deceased at 
the age of ten months; Lettie, twenty-one 
years old; Willis, seventeen; Ellen, live; and 
Julius Harrison, four. 



^ 



1*^ILLIAM A. CLELAND, the subject 
•\/\T\ "f tl'is brief notice, is the son of 
i"~„^ William Cleland, who was the sixth 
child of his parents, and was born in Scot- 
land, December 30, 1805. In April, 1843, 
he left his native home. He had received a 
jrood education there, but decided that in 
America there was more chance for advance- 
ment; hence he set sail, and after a voyage of 
twenty-one days he reached this country. 
He bought eighty acres of land in Rock coun- 
ty, Wisconsin. This was all wild, but he built 
a shanty njion it, and began its improvement. 
Here he remained for four years, making im- 
provements, breaking the land and building. 
In 1847 he moved to the town of York, and 
that spring he bought a Government claim 
of 120 acres, twelve of which were broken, 
and there was a log cabin upon the place, 
which had a sod roof, built by the squatter. 
Into this shelter the father of our subject 
moved, and lived there for a number of years, 
and then built another log house, or block 
house, which still stands. 

This land is located upon section 'J, York 
township. After twelve years of residence in 
the block house, Mr. Cleland built the house 
now occupied by his son. The marriage of 
William Cleland took place in Scotland in 
1842 to Miss Barbara Cochran, wlu) was a 
native of Scotland, and seven cliildn'ii have 
been added to the family: Barbara F., de- 



DANK VOUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



331 



ceased; John C, a resident of Fremont, Ne- 
braska; Mary, deceased; Janet C, at lionie; 
William A.; James, deceased; and Francis, 
deceased. The mother died May 27, 1883, 
but the father is still spared and lives with 
his son, William A. 

William A. was the tifth child, and was 
born on the farm June 7, 1851, and received 
his education in the common schools, where 
he passed his time to good advantage, and 
has always remained with his father. The 
latter owns the farm of 280 acres, well im- 
proved, and William manages it with great 
success. At present he is Chairman of the 
Board of Supervisors, has been a member of 
this board for many years, and is now serving 
a second term. Politically, he is a Republi- 
can, although the town is Democratic. John 
C. is in the stock business in Nebraska, and 
is secretary of the Hoard of Trade there. 

Onr subject married Miss Fanny Cleve- 
land, whose people were from Ohio. l]eisa 
young man of promise. He has added to his 
farm a herd of Hereford cattle, and has some 
fine specimens of the breed. The place is 
among the most attractive in the neighbor- 
liood, having a park in front of the house, 
with a diveririntr circle full of beautiful trees. 



-^tte 



^^|RS. LYDIA L. EOYCE, widow of 
llfy/m Morgan L. lioyce, was burn in Liv- 
^^^' ingston county. New York, a daugh- 
ter of John C and Louisa (Latnotit) Wilkins, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, and the 
latter of Schoharie county. New York. In 
1850 the parents came from Livingston 
county, New York, to Wisconsin. Mrs. 
i^oyce was then a young lady of si.xteen 
years. With their four daughters they set- 
tled on forty acres of land, one mile west of 



Dane station. Five years later they sold 
their little home, and came to what was then 
called 100-Mile Grove, where they purchased 
forty acres; afterward lived with their son- 
in-law near by: ami next moved to Lodi, 
where they are still living, the fatlier aged 
eighty-two years, and the mother, seventy-two 
years. They reared the following children: 
Mrs. Boyce, subject of this sketch ; Ger- 
trude, wife of Daniel McDonald, a retired 
farmer of Arlington townsliip; Cacendi'a, 
wife of Henry Bissell, of Morrisonville, 
Wisconsin; and Augusta, wife ol' Daniel 
Stanley, of Lodi. 

Mrs. Lydia Boyce received a common dis- 
trict school education. She was married 
to Morgan Boyce, in her nineteenth year. lie 
was the aext youngest of twelve or thirteen 
children, a son of Aliram Boyce, and a 
brother of Asa A. Boyce. (A sketch of the 
latter will be found in this work.) Mr. 
Boyce was a faithful servant of his township, 



having served as Justice of tiie Pe; 



ice many 



years, both before and after his nuirriaoe, 
and was a Democrat in his political views. 
His death occui-red January 7, ISSl, at the 
age of tifty-seven years. Our subject has 
resided on her farm of 280 acres since her 
marriage, but she lately disposed of a part 
of this tract, now owning only about 170 
acres. She has a fine orchard of apple and 
cherry trees, tiie most of which were planted 
by her husband. At his death she was left 
witii two sons and one daughter: Arthur W., 
born in November, 1802; Frank M., born 
in 1868, attended the Business College in 
Indiana, and is nciw residing in the South, 
where he enjoys better health; and Mary L., 
a young lady of thirteen years, who is at- 
teniling school, and also pursuing the study 
of music. Arthur has remained on the 
home farm, of whicli he now owns a part. 



332 



BIOORAPHJCAL REVIEW OF 



He was married in January, 1890, to Rose 
Patton, who was born in Columbia county, 
Wisconsin, a daughter of John and Juliette 
(Converse) Patton, the former a native of 
Scotland, and the latter of Wisconsin. Mr. 
and Mrs. Arthur Boyce have one little 
daughter, a year old, and the only grandchild 
of our subject. 



(HPJSTIAN R. STEIN, a leading Ger- 
man citizen of Madison, has been a res- 
ident of the city since 1854. He was 
born in the province of Baden, Germany, March 
8, 1829, and reared in the practical German 
way. When nineteen years of age he set 
sail for the United States from Havre de 
Grace, on the sailing vessel, St. Dennis, ar- 
riving in New York city after a voyage of 
thirty-two days. After spending some time 
in Rochester, New York, he came on to Mil- 
waukee. In 1852 he started out all alone 
for California, going via the Nicaragua 
route, landing in San Francisco, from where 
he proceeded to Ilangtown; thence back to 
Sacramento again, and finally to Weaver- 
ville. Trinity county, where he engaged in 
mining on East AVeaver creek, being very 
successsful, having the best mine on the 
entire creek. After about eighteen months, 
with his belts well tilled with glittering dust, 
he set his face toward home, but when he 
reached San Francisco he was attacked by 
highwaymen who were leading him to a sup- 
posed hotel. Taking in the surroundings he 
saw that he was being led into a trap, so 
made good use of a pair of strong arms, 
knocked down several of his assailants, made 
his way into the street, where he was sur- 
rounded again. lie had [)art of his money 
in a belt around his body, which they did not 



discover, and only five dollars in his pocket- 
book, and agreed to let them have that if they 
let him go, which they did. He made his 
way back to New York, thence to Milwaukee, 
reaching there in the fall of |1853. The fol- 
lowing spring he came to Madison. 

Mr. Stein is the first and only one of his 
family to come to America, his emigration 
being caused by the revolution of 1848, in 
which he was a volunteer. His father, God- 
fried Stein, was a well-to-do baker, who died 
in his native land, at about the age of three 
score and ten. His wife, Conigund (Weis) 
Stein, died about ten years before her hus- 
band, aged sixty years. They were both 
members of the Catholic Church. One 
brother of our subject, Conrad, is yet living 
in Germany, being the successor to his father's 
business. Another l)rother, Valentine, died 
about two years ago. He was a prominent 
lawyer in his native town. Four sisters, 
Teckla, Theresa, (ilara and Barbara, are all 
married arid have families in (iermany. Since 
Mr. Stein came to this country he has made 
five trips back to his native land to visit his 
old home. 

After coming to Aladison in the spring of 
1854, Mr. Stein l)e<ran tlie manufacture of 
soaj), but after several years he estab- 
lished a grocery store on East Washing- 
ington avenue, continuing to operate tiie 
same for about twenty years. At the same 
time he was engagetl in the lumber business 
under the firm name of Moore & Stein. 
After a few years Mr. Stein bought his part- 
ner's interest, continuing it on his own ac- 
count for about ten years, when he associated 
Mr. A. II. Kayser and William Woiskopf, 
his sons-in-law, with him, under the firm 
name of C. R. Stein ct Co. They carry all 
kinds of soft ami hard luml)er lor general 
house-furnishing supplies, and have one of 



UANE OOITNTT, WTSCONSTN. 



33! 



the large8t trades in the city. In adilition 
they have a yard in Paoli, Wisconsin. Dur- 
ing his residence here Mr. Stein has, heen 
one of the live, energetic Germans of the 
city, and a leader of the people of his 
nationality in the place. He takes an active 
interest in local matters that have for their 
object the betterment of the community. He 
is also the proprietor of a large elevator man- 
ufactory located at Milwaukee, under the 
nianagetnent of his son-in-law, P. H. Brod- 
esser, known as the Brodesser Manufacturing 
Company. This establishment employs from 
fifty to sixty men all tiie time. When our 
subject came to Madison he had lost nearly 
everything, and is now one of her wealthiest 
citizens. 

Mr. Stein has served one term as Aider- 
man in the (-ommon Council of the city; is 
a memljer of the Madison Business Club, 
the Freemasons and Knights of Pythias, and 
organized the order of Druids in Madison, 
known as Madison Grove, No. 4, in 1857; 
he was also a member of the old tire com- 
pany, when hand engines were used. 

Our subject was married in Milwaukee, 
about 1853, to Miss Frankie Baumann, who 
was born, reared and educated in Baden, 
Germany, coming to the United States in 
1853. She died at her home in Madison, 
in 1889, November 24, aged fifty-eight. 
During her lifetime she proved herself a true 
woman in every sense of the word. Xhe 
Catholic Church had in her a faithful mem- 
ber. To the several children liorn to her 
husband and herself she has proved herself 
a kind and indulgent mother. Their names 
were as follows: Teckla, widow of Fritz Ren- 
ter, who died eleven years ago in this city, 
successful business man; Iledwig, wifeof A. 
H. Kayserof the C. li. Stein Company, in the 
wholesale lumber business, and secretary of 

23 



the Madison Lumber Company ; liertlia, wife 
of William Weiskopf of the C. U. Stein 
Lumber C'ompany, in the retail lumber trade: 
Ottilia, wifeof P. IL Brodesser, manager and 
secretai-y of the Brodesser Manufacturing 
Company; Ida, wife of Emil Meyer, a 
wholesale liquor dealei- on East Chicago 
avenue, Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Stein enjoys 
the respect and esteem of all who know him, 
and his family of daughters are a credit to 
him. 

tAFAYETTE STOWE, one of the early 
settlers and most successful farmers of 
Dane county, was born in Chazy, Cliur 
ton county. New York, April 24, 1824. His 
father, Stephen Stowe, was born at Point 
Rush, New York, and liis father, cfi-aiidfather 
of subject, Abijah Stowe, was a farmer by 
occupation, who removed from New York to 
Ohio and spent his last years in that State. 
The father of our subject was reared to agri- 
cultural life and remained a resident of Clin- 
ton county, until 1850, when he came to Wis- 
consin and bought a farm in Windsor, Dane 
county, where he remained a number of 
years, and theri removed to Sun Prairie, and 
lived retired until his death. The maiden 
nan;e of his wife was Annie DeLong, who 
was born in Clinton county, New York, and 
her father, Francis DeLong, was formerly a 
resident of North Carolina, born of French 
parents or ancestry. He was a farmer and 
spent his last years in New York. The 
maiden name of his wife, grandmother of 
subject, was Polly Doody, who was, as far as 
known, a native of New York, where she 
spent her entii-e life. The mother of our 
subject died on the home farm in Windsor. 
As the parents of our subject wei'e in lim- 
ited circumstances he was obliged to com- 



334 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



iiiem-e life for liiinself very early, beginninj; 
when fourteen or fifteen years of age to work 
out by tlie (biy or niontli. At that time the 
iron mines of the country were worked very 
little, although labor was very cheap, men's 
wages ranging from forty to fifty cents per 
day. EncrJand supplied the country with 
nearly all its iron and that commodity was 
very expensive. Mr. Stowe relates that the 
irons for a wagon cost §(35 and this state of 
things existed under free trade. 

Mr. Stowe continued working by the day 
and month in Xew York, until 1847, when 
he concluded to emigrate westward, as it was 
very difficult to become rich on the meager 
wajres he was receiving. His first emigration 
was to Ohio, going via the St. Lawrence 
river, Lake Ontario, Welland canal and lake 
Erie to Cleveland. lie found employment 
on a farm near that city and remained in 
that vicinity until 1850, wlien he came to 
Wisconsin, via lake Erie to Detroit, thence 
via rail to Buffalo, on the lake, via Chicago 
to Milwaukee. He there loaded his goods 
on a wagon and drove to Dane county, ar- 
riving December 14, 1850. After he had 
been here about two weeks he bought a tract 
of land in the town of Bristol, at §2.50 an 
acre. The improvements on this place con- 
sisted of a small frame house, without lath 
or plaster, an<i twenty acres of broken land. 
Mr. Stowe marketed at Milwaukee, drawing 
his goods in an ox team. The journey con- 
sumed a week and he took his provisions 
along and slept under the wagon. He im- 
proved his land and occupied it until 1866, 
wlien he removed to Sun Prairie and engaged 
in the sale of agricultural implements and 
lumber, continuing for three years, when he 
removed to a farm, wiiich he purchased on 
section 14, of Burke townsliip. Here he re- 
resided until 1885 and then removed to the 



farm he now occupies on section 23, of the 
same township. Tiiis farm contains 190 
acres, well iin|)roved, with good buildings. 
In addition he is the owner of some 600 
acres in all. 

Mr. Stowe was first married, in 1844, to 
Diana Scott, born in Mooer's, Clinton county, 
New York, daughter of James and Amy 
Scott. She died June 5, 1855, and in No- 
vember 1858, Mr. Stowe married Ellen 
Abernathy, born in New Haven, Vermont, 
daughter of John and Permelia Abernatiiy. 
Four children were born of the first marriage, 
namely: Joel, Angeline, Jennie, and LaFay- 
ette, Jr. Two daughters have been born of 
the second marriage, namely: Minnie \i.\ 
and Permelia A., who died at the age i.>f ten 
days. 

Mr. Stowe is a self-made man, wlio started 
early in life with nothing and is now one of 
the wealthiest men in the county. He has 
been a Republican since the formation of the 
party, and is a worthy, good citizen. 



jLE K. T E I S 15 E II G, of Dane county, 
county, Wisconsin, was born in Telie- 
marken, Norway, December 8, 1840, a 
son of Knudt and Aase Teisberg, natives also 
of the same country, where tiieir ancestors 
have Hired for many generations. In 1843 
the parents located in Waukesha county, 
Wisconsin, having been three weeks in mak- 
ing the trip from New York to Milwaukee. 
In 1844 they began agricultural pursuits in 
Cottage Grove township, but two years later 
came to Pleasant Springs. The father died 
in 186G, and the motlier now resides in Min- 
nesota. 

Ole K. Teisberg, the third often children, 
received a district sciiool education, his first 



DANK COUNTY, ]yiSGONSlN. 



335 



teacher being Mary Stibson. He remained 
with his parents until twenty-six years of 
age, and then bought his fatlier's farm of 
130 acres on section 15, to which, in 1891, 
he added eighty acres more. He has made 
all the improvements on his place, and now 
raises large crops of tobacco and live-stock. 
Mr. Teisberg was engaged in the wagon 
business in Iowa and northern Minnesota 
about four years, m company with Gunder 
Edwards. He is a Prohibitionist in his 
political views; has served as Supervisor of 
Pleasant Springs township six terms, as 
Township Treasurer two terms, and also as 
District Clerk and Treasurer. He has served 
as Church Warden of the Lutheran Church 
about seventeen years. 

Mr. Teisberg was married January 1, 
18()8, to Anna S. Scolen, a native of Pleas- 
ant Springs township, Dane county, Wiscon- 
sin, and a sister of Jerome Scolen. To this 
union has been born seven children, viz.: 
Carl ()., died at the age of six months; Annie 
Louisa, Julia Severena, Caroline, a graduate 
of the Stoughton Academy; Samuel Henry, 
and Ella Maria. 



-^^^i^^-i^t^ 



jUSSELL A. SHELDON.— The life of 
M^ a farmer is an independent one. That 
he can exist without the aid of outside 
help was demonstrated thousands of times by 
tile hardy pioneers who lived year in and 
year out upon the produce of their own land, 
and it is certainly true in this day that the 
agriculturist gives more to mankind than he 
receives. Wei-e it not for our farmers the 
great land of ]ilenty would be turned into a 
howling wilderness in a very short time. A 
good specimen of this class of men is the 
gentleman whose name heads this sketch. 



Mr. Sheldon was born in Pittstield, Otsego 
county. New York, March 20, 1822. His 
great-i^randfather was a native of England, 
who, with two brothers, William and John, 
came to the new woidd in early colonial 
times and settled on Rhode Island. The great- 
grandfather ot our subject was Isaac Sheldon, 
and his son Isaac was the grandfather of Mr. 
Sheldon of this notice. The grandfather was 
a native of Rhode Island, but removed from 
that State to New York, settling in Saratoga 
county. After some time spent there he re- 
moved from Saratoga to Otsego county and 
finally settled in Sherburne, Chenango county. 
New York, where he finally died. The fa- 
ther of our subject, Gardner Sheldon, was 
born in Rhode Island, but removed from that 
State to New York when eighteen years of 
age. After his marriage he settled in Pitts- 
field, Otsego county, where he remained un- 
til 1833, then removed to the town of Perry, 
Wyoming county, purchased land and en- 
gaged in the improvement of the same for 
many years. At the time of his death he 
was living retired in the town of Bethany, 
Genesee county. The maiden name of the 
mother of our subject was Nancy Gorum. 
born in Ballston Springs, New York, daugh- 
ter of George and Sarah (White) (_Toruni. 
The latter died at her daughter's home in 
Middlebury, Wyoming county. New York, 
in 1885, at the age of eighty-five years. 

Our subject was eleven years of age when 
his parents removed to the western part of 
the State of New York antl he went to live 
with his nncle, Augustus Sheldon, in Otsego 
county. He made the best of the oppnrtu- 
nities offered him to attend school, in the 
meantime assisting on the farm, remaining 
with his uncle until he was sixteen years of 
age. At that time he went to Oneida county, 
^vhere he found employment on a farm at 



836 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF 



fSll.oO a iiioiitli. In 1840 he joined his par- 
ents in Wyoming county, making the trip 
by the niostconvenient and expeditions route, 
taking the stage to Madison, New York, 
wliere he boarded a canal-boat tor Rociiester, 
thence by stage to Moscow, and from tiiere 
on foot to Ferry. It was his intention to 
go farther west, but he remained there for 
some time, working by the month, until 
1846, and on shares until 1851, when, hav- 
ino- obtained sufKcient money he came to 
Wisconsin, via the railroad to Biiifalo, thence 
bv lake to Detroit, where he again took 
the railroad to New Buffalo, from which 
point he sailed on the lake to Milwaukee. 
He intended to walk from Afilwaukee to 
Madison, but found that his health would 
not permit of the exertion, therefore started 
by railroad to Waukesha, then the western 
tern)inu8. He then went by team to Sum- 
mit and started to walk from that point, but 
soon overtook a team and secured a ride to 
Watertown, from which place he walked to 
Milford, and from there secured a ride via 
Cottage Grove to Madison. Here he joined 
his brother, Daniel G. Here his aunt took 
care of him and his health rapidly improved. 
So much better did he become that he was 
able to look around for land on which to com- 
mence farming for himself. Very soon lie 
purchased eighty acres of land on section 32, 
paying $6.50 per acre. There was a log 
house on the land and forty acres were fenced. 
A little of the laud was broken. After about 
three weeks he returned to New York, but 
in the fall of the same year returned with 
his wife and moved into the log house, be- 
giiming at once his career as an independent 
fanner. In time he purchased eighty acres 
adjoining his first ])urchase and soon built a 
frame house and a granary, living on this 
property until 1885, wlicn he sold it and 



purchased his present home of five acres. On 
this little farm he has a good set of buildings, 
pleasantly located, about two and one-half 
miles from the State House. 

At La Grange, New York, in 1846, he 
married Mary A. Doane, l)orn in Washing- 
ton county, New York, November 18, 1824. 
Her father, Hiram Doane, was born in the 
same State, and his father, John Doane, was, 
as far as known, a native of the same State 
also. He spent his last years in Washing- 
ton county. He married a lady of Scotch 
birth. The father of Mrs. Sheldon learned 
the trade of tanner and shoemaker. In 1836 
he removed to Livingston county, where he 
lived two years before he removed to La 
Grange, Wyoming county. There he estab- 
lished a tannery and shoe shop, continuing 
the business there until his death. The 
maiden name of the mother of the wife of 
our subject was Melinda Dyer, born in Shafts- 
bury, Vermont, daughter of Benjamin and 
Mary (Clark) Dyer. She died in La Grange, 
New York. Mr. and Mrs. Sheldon have had 
five children: Edward E., Stuart D., Charles 
F., Walter W. and Hattie B. Edward mar- 
ried Clara Bell and live.s in Baltimore, Mary- 
land; Stuart married Mattie Eley and lives 
in La Crosse, and has one child, Minnie E. ; 
Charles F. married Mary Richardson and 
lives in Texas, having three children: Roy, 
Jessie and Maude; Walter married Alice 
P'iddler and lives in I'araboo, Wisconsin, 
having one child, Edna M. Mr. and ilrs. 
: Sheldon are members of the Bajitist Church, 
in which they are very prominent. In pol- 
itics lie is a stanch Republican, upholding 
party principles upon any and all occasions. 



^>i:i>^ii^r^ 



DANE COUNTY, WLSCONtilN. 



;j:;7 



IBENEZER JACKSON. 



The Jack- 



son family were among the early set- 
tlers in the American colonies, coming 
hither in 1700, two brothers of the name 
starting from Irelaml. It is not known in 
the family annals where they landed, but it 
is certain that one was employed on the Provi- 
dence plantation, and it is supposed that he 
was employed by the ship's company to 
work to pay the passaore of himself and 
brother from the old country to America. 
They separated and one was never heard 
from. The other was the father of Michael 
Jackson and became the progenitor of the 
Jackson family in this country. 

Michael Jackson was born March 28, 1735, 
■gnd married, June 4, 1755, Susannah Wil- 
cox, who was born April 15, 1732. They re- 
sided at Pownal, Bennington county, Ver- 
mont, and Michael Jackson served as an Or- 
derly under General Lyman at Fort Ticon- 
deroga in 1756. After the close of the war 
he retained his orderly book, and subsequently 
used it for a family record book. lie had 
the following children : Lyman, Esther, Jesse, 
Abigail, Ebenezer, Kesiah and Mindwell. 
Of these, Lyman was born February 29, 175ti, 
and married, January 3, 1782, Deidama Dun- 
ham, who was born P^ebruary 25, 1765, and 
the following children were born of this mar- 
riage: Kosana, Jesse Dunham, Ebenezer 
(our subject), Michael, Lyman, John J., Oba- 
diah, Abner, David B., Royal G., Norman L,, 
Susannah S. and Lucy D. Nearly all of the 
children were born at Pownal, but in 1801 
or '02 the family removed to Oooperstown, 
New York. Of the above family we are in 
this biograpliy concerned with the third 
child, Ebenezer. 

Our subject was born June 15, 1786, and 
January 22, 1808, he married Betsey Pringle, 
who was liorn in Riclifield, Otsego county. 



New York, January 26, 1788. They reared 
a family of seven children: Lucy N., Cynthia 
D., John Lyman, Charles Pringle, Sophia 
Jane, Kathleen and Julius D. Ebenezer 
died August 7, 1857, at the age of seventy- 
one years, and his wife May 13, 1842, aged 
fifty -four. 

Edson B. Jackson, whose sketch is given 
elsewhere, is a grandson of Ebenezer Jackson, 
of the above memoir. 

|m|DOLPIl BIRRENKOTT. a prominent 
|W| farmer of Dane county, Wisconsin, was 
'^^' born in this county, June 7, 1855, a 
son of Michael and Clara (Kalshauer) Birren- 
kott, natives of Kerpen, Prussia. The father 
was born September 7, 1830, a son of Adolph 
and Maroraret Birrenkott, also natives of that 
country. They came to Amei-ica about 1852. 
Michael, the father of our subject, came to 
this country with his parents^ and lie and his 
father first bought 120 acres of land in Dane 
county and erected a log house, 14x18 feet, 
later erected an addition, and remained 
there until the father's death. Mr. Birren- 
kott was a Democrat in his political views, 
served as Assessor and Supervisor of his 
township several years, and religiously was 
a meml)er of the Catholic (Church. The 
mother of our subject was born July 13, 1830, 
a daughter of John and Theressa Kalshauer, 

CI 

who came to this country about the same 
time as the Birrenkott family, and located in 
the same locality. Mr. Birrenkott died in 
this county January 12, 1874, and his wife 
February 26, 1884. 

Adolph, one of eleven children, eight now 
living, remained at home with his mother 
after his father's death until his marriage. 
He then settled on the old homestead in Dane 



338 



BIOORAPHWAL REVIEW OF 



county, later bought out the seven heirs, and 
now owns 346 acres of tine land, all of which 
is under a good state of cultivation. Mr. 
Birrenkott was married November 24, 1885, 
to Miss Anna Conrad, who was born in Lan- 
caster county, Pennsylvania, March 21, 1866, 
a daughter of John J. and Kate (Kherhen- 
voeder) Conrad, natives of Germany. They 
came to America in 1851, settling in Lan- 
caster county, Pennsylvania, but in 1868 pur- 
chased eighty acres in this township. The 
mother died April 25, 1885, and the father 
still resides in his uld home in Mount Joy, 
Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. IJirrenkott have 
three children: Margaret K., born May 1, 
1887; John M., May 21, 1888; and Maria 
K., February 6, 1892. Our subject served 
as Supervisor of the Township Board two 
years, and is Cliainnan at the present time, 
1892; was a member of the School Board 
many years. Religiously, both he and his 
wife are members of the Catholic Church. 

fOHN L. BECK. Our subject is one of 
the leading merchants of the city of 
Madison, being a member of the tirm of 
Krehl & Beck, hardware dealers and tin 
workers and jobbers. The firm is located at 
Nos. 121 and 123 East Washington avenue, 
the business having been established in Janu- 
ary, 1891, and although still in its infancy the 
enterprise has proven very successful. Mr. 
Beck was born in Wurtemburg, Germany, 
April 22, 1829, son of John and Felicias 
(Kreld) Beck, natives of Germany, of good 
old stock. The parents lived and died in 
their native city of Wurtemburg, the father 
dying at the age of tifty-nine, the mother at 
the age of seventy-three years. They were 
good, hardworking people all their lives, and 



earnest members of the German Lutheran 
Church. The father held a position all his 
life under Government, and was a faithful 
official. There were five daughters and one 
son, our subject, in the family born to these 
parents. 

Our subject grew to manhood in his native 
land, receiving his education in the good 
schools of Wurtenberg, and learning the trade 
of a baker, which he followed until 1854, 
when, March 1, he took passage on a sailer 
from Antwerp, landing in Xew York city 
after a voyage of eight weeks, lie came 
thence to Chicago, where he was married to 
Miss Mary Rauscher, a native of Germany, 
having been born in Wurtenberg, and came 
to America on the same vessel as Mr. Beck. 
In September of the same year Mr. Beck and 
his young bride came to Madison, where Mr. 
Beck obtained a position in a hardware store. 
So faithful was he in the discharge of his 
duties that he was retained by the firm for a 
a period of thirty-six years, when he went 
into business for himself with his present 
partner, ills handsome residence is situated 
at No. 421 West Main street. He and his 
wife are leading members of the German 
Lutheran Church, as are all their children. 
Mr. Beck is an independent Democrat in poli- 
tics and takes an active interest in local af- 
fairs. Mr. and Mrs. Beck are the parents of 
eleven children, nine of whom are daughters, 
three of whom are deceased, namely: Henry 
Louis and Alvina. Those living are: Mary, 
wife of Rev. F. Prey, a Lutheran minister, of 
Warner, South, Dakota; Eliza, wife of Jolin 
H uegel, a shoe merchant of Madison ; Louisa, 
wife of Julias Pfister, now living in Madison; 
Sophia, widow of Young Lawrence, who was 
an engineer on Chicago & Western railroad, 
now resides with her father; Fredericka, wife 
of Dr. William Mueller, a physician of Mad- 



DANE COUNTY, WISCONSIN. 



339 



ison; Emma A. find Anna, at home, lioth 
photographic artists; and (Jlara, at home, a 
music teacher. All the children are accom- 
plished youncr ladies and a j^reat credit to 
their parents. 



ITIARLES RICHARD VAN IllSE, 

-jt- Rh. D., Professor of Geology at the 
University of Wisconsin, non-resident 
Professor of Pre-Cambrian Geolojjjy at the 
University of Chicago, and Geologist in 
charge of the Lake Superior Division of the 
United States Geological Survey, was born 
in Fulton township. Rock county, Wiscon- 
sin, May 29, 1857. 

His parents are William Henry and Mary 
Goodrich Van Hise, the former born and 
reared near Trenton, New Jersey, and the 
latter near Bangor, Maine. They were mar- 
ried in Rock county, Wisconsin. They had 
a family of seven children, four daughters 
and three sons. Mr. Van Hise was a farmer 
in early life, Init later became a merchant. 
He and his wife are now residents of 
Georgia. 

The subject of our sketch spent the first 
eight years of his life-on the farm. When 
he was eight years old the family moved to 
East Milton. He attended school at the lat- 
ter place two years, at Milton Junction three 
years, and at Evansville spent three years in 
the high school and one year in the Evans- 
ville Seminary, preparing himself forcoUege. 
He entered the University of Wisconsin in 
the fall of 1874, and graduated in the metal- 
lurgical engineering course in 1879. In the 
meantime he had remained out of college 
one year to engage in teaching. 

From the University of Wisconsin he re- 
ceived the follo\^ing degrees: B. Met. E. 



in 1879; B. S. in 1880; M. S. in 1882 and 
Ph. D. in 1892. He was an instructor in 
the University of Wisconsin from 1879 to 
1883; Assistant Professor of Metallurgy, 
ibid., 1883-1886; Professor of Metallurgy, 
ibid., 188G-1888; Professor of Mineralogy 
and Petrography, ibid., 1888-1890; Pro- 
fessor of Archtean and Applied Geology, 
ibid., 1890-1892. He was an Assistant, 
Wisconsin Geological Survey, 1881-1882; 
Assistant U. S. Geologist, Lake Superior 
Division U. S. Geological Survey, 1883-1888. 
He has been Chief of Lake Superior Division 
U. S. Geological Survey since 1888; Pro- 
fessor of Geology, University of Wisconsin, 
since 1892; and N on- Resident Professor of 
Pre-Cambrian Geology, University of Chi-" 
cago, since 1892. 

He is a Fellow of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, and of 
the Geological Society of America; a mem- 
ber of the Philosophical Society of Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, and of the 
National Geogra]Jiic Society. He has fre- 
quently read papers before these societies. 
His chief work has been an investigation of 
the Pre-Cainl)rian rocks of America, and 
particularly the iron-bearing series of the 
Lake Superior region. The laws of occur- 
rence of the iron ores have been somewhat 
fully elucidated. His researches have re- 
sulted in the publication of tiie following 
articles: 

Crystalline Rocks of the Wisconsin Val- 
ley (with R. D. Irving): Geology of Wis- 
consin, vol. iv., 1882, pp. 623-71-4. 

On Secondary Enlargements of Feldspar 
Fragments in certain Keweenawan Sand- 
stones: American Journal of Science (8), 
vol. xxvii., 1884, pp. 399-403. 

On Secondary Enlargement of Mineral 
Fragments in Certain Rocks (with R. D. 



340 



BIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OP 



Irving): Bnlletiti United States Geological 
Survey No. 8, 1884, p. 56. 

Enlargements of Hornblende Fragments: 
American Journal of Science (3), vol. xxx., 

1885, pp. 231-235. 

Upon the Origin of the Mica-schists and 
Black Mica-slates of the Penokee-Gogebic 
Iron-Bearing Series: Ibid., vol. xxxi., 

1886, pp. 453-460. 

Note on tiie Enlargement of Hornblendes 
and Augites in Fragmental and Eruptive 
Rocks: ibid., vol. xxxiii., 1887, pp. 385-388. 

The Crystalline Schists of the Lake Su- 
perior District (with U. D. Irving and T. C. 
Chamberlain): Etudes sur les Schistes 
Crystalline, International Geological Con- 
gress, fourth session, London, 1888, pp. 92- 
106. 

The Iron Ores of the Penokee-Gogebic 
Series of Michigan and Wisconsin: Ameri- 
can Journal of Science (3), vol. xxxvii., 
1889, pp. 32-48. 

The Pre-Cambrian Rocks of the Black 
Ilills: Bulletin of the Geological Society 
of America, vol. i., 1890, pp. 203-244. 

The Penokee Iron-bearing Series of Mich- 
igan and Wisconsin (with R. D. Irving): 
Abstract of Monograph xix.; Tenth Annual 
Report of the Director of the United States 
Geological Survey, 1888-1889, pp. 341-508 
(1890). 

An Attempt to Harmonize Some Appar- 
ently Conflicting Views of Lake Superior 
Stratigraphy: American Journal of Science 
(3), vol. xli., 1891, pp. 117-137. 

The Iron Ores of the Marquette District 
of Michigan: American Journal of Science, 
third series, vol. xliii., 1892, pj). 116-132. 

Observations upon the Structural Rela- 
tions of the Upper Hnronian, Lower Uuron- 
ian and Basement Complex on the JNorth 
Shore of Lake Huron (with Raphael Pum- 



peliy): American Journal of Science, third 
series, vol. xliii., 1892, pp. 224-232. 

Iron Ores of the Lake Superior Region; 
Trans. Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts 
and Letters, vol. viii., 1892, pp. 219-227. 

Correlation Papers, Archaean and Algon- 
kian: Bulletin 86, United States Geological 
Survey. Twelve plates. 550 p. 

The Penokee Iron Bearing Series of Mich- 
igan and Wisconsin (with R. D. Irving): 
Monograph xix.. United States Geological 
Survey; quarto, 37 plates, 13 Figs. (In 
press). 

Professor Van Ilisewas married at Evans- 
ville, Wisconsin, December 22, 1881, to 
Alice Ring, a native of Wisconsin and a 
daughter of John and Janet (Bushnell) Ring. 
Mrs. Van Ilise com])leted her education at 
Oberlin College, Ohio, and is a lady of much 
culture and refinement. They have two chil- 
dren: Mary Janet, born July 26, 1887; and 
Hilda Alice, born June 8, 1891. 

— -"g ' ^ ' ^S 



RICK E. LADTi, County Treasurer of 
Dane county, was born in Sogn Ber- 
genstift, Norway, September 30, 1832, 
a son of Erick J. and Carry (Ludwig) Ladd, 
natives also of that counti-y. The family are 
noted for their longevity, the maternal grand- 
mother of our subject having lived to the age 
of ninety-nine years. The mother died at 
Stoughton in 1887, aged ninety-four years. 
The father, a farmer by occupation, came to 
the United States in 1852. 

Erick E. Ladd, the fifth of eleven children, 
seven sons and four daughters, was educated 
in the common schools of his native State, 
and came to America at the age of twenty 
year.-^. In 1852 he went to Janesville, where 
he was employed in hauling wood, receiving 



DANE COONTT, WISCONSIN. 



341 



25 cents per cord, ami furnished his own 
oxen; then worked in Caledonia, Wisconsin, 
twenty-two months; and next was success- 
fully engaged in lumbering. In 1S56 Mr. 
Ladd bought bis farm of 140 acres, where he 
has made many improvements, and he now 
makes a specialty of the raising of tobacco 
and live-stock. While living on his farm 
he was severely injui'ed by a runaway team, 
from which he was disabled eight weeks. 
Politically, our subject affiliates with the 
Democratic party, and in 1890 was elected 
County Ti-easurer of Dane county by a major- 
ity of 1,100 votes. He was re-elected in 
1802, with 706 majority, the largest in the 
county. Religiously, he is a member of the 
Lutheran Church of Stoughton. 

JMr. Ladd was united in mari-iage, Febru- 
ary 2, 1S56, with Bertie Nelson, a native of 
Bergen, Norway, who came to America at 
the age of tweuty-tive years. They have had 
siA children, namely: Bertha Maria, wife 
of Hans Iverson; Carrie, n